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論文

Calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates in nine forests in eastern Japan from $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity measurements

Malins, A.; 今村 直広*; 新里 忠史; 高橋 純子*; Kim, M.; 佐久間 一幸; 篠宮 佳樹*; 三浦 覚*; 町田 昌彦

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 226, p.106456_1 - 106456_12, 2021/01

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:38.15(Environmental Sciences)

Understanding the relationship between the distribution of radioactive $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs in forests and ambient dose equivalent rates ($textit{.{H}}$*(10)) in the air is important for researching forests in eastern Japan affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. This study used a large number of measurements from forest samples, including $$^{134}$$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs radioactivity concentrations, densities and moisture contents, to perform Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations for $textit{.{H}}$*(10) between 2011 and 2017. Calculated $textit{.{H}}$*(10) at 0.1 and 1 m above the ground had mean residual errors of 19% and 16%, respectively, from measurements taken with handheld NaI(Tl) scintillator survey meters. Setting aside the contributions from natural background radiation, $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs in the organic layer and the top 5 cm of forest soil generally made the largest contributions to calculated $textit{.{H}}$*(10). The contributions from $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs in the forest canopy were calculated to be largest in the first two years following the accident. Uncertainties were evaluated in the simulation results due to the measurement uncertainties in the model inputs by assuming Gaussian measurement errors. The mean uncertainty (relative standard deviation) of the simulated $textit{.{H}}$*(10) at 1 m height was 11%. The main contributors to the total uncertainty in the simulation results were the accuracies to which the $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs radioactivities of the organic layer and top 5 cm of soil, and the vertical distribution of $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs within the 5 cm soil layers, were known. Radioactive cesium located in the top 5 cm of soil was the main contributor to $textit{.{H}}$*(10) at 1 m by 2016 or 2017 in the calculation results for all sites.

論文

Characterizing vertical migration of $$^{137}$$Cs in organic layer and mineral soil in Japanese forests; Four-year observation and model analysis

武藤 琴美; 安藤 麻里子; 松永 武*; 小嵐 淳

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106040_1 - 106040_10, 2019/11

 被引用回数:12 パーセンタイル:50.82(Environmental Sciences)

福島第一原子力発電所事故により森林に沈着した放射性Csによる長期的な放射線のリスクを評価するためには、森林の表層土壌における放射性Csの挙動を明らかにすることが重要である。本研究では、事故後4.4年間で5回、福島県内の植生の異なる森林5地点において放射性Csの鉛直分布の調査を行い、モデル計算の結果との比較を行った。また、欧州の森林における文献値と比較を行い、日本の森林における有機物層と表層土壌における放射性Csの移行特性を考察した。調査の結果、有機物層から鉱物土壌への$$^{137}$$Cs移行は欧州よりも早く、日本の森林では$$^{137}$$Csの移動度や生物利用性が急速に抑制されることが示唆された。鉱物土壌中の$$^{137}$$Cs拡散係数は0.042-0.55cm$$^2$$y$$^{-1}$$と推定され、日本と欧州で同程度であった。これらのパラメータを用いた予測計算では事故から10年後では$$^{137}$$Csは主に表層鉱物土壌に分布していることが示され、森林に沈着した放射性Csは表層土壌に長期的に保持されることが示唆された。

口頭

PHITS models for ambient dose equivalent rates in Fukushima's Radiocesium contaminated forests

Malins, A.; 今村 直広*; 新里 忠史; Kim, M.; 佐久間 一幸; 篠宮 佳樹*; 三浦 覚*; 町田 昌彦

no journal, , 

PHITS Monte Carlo models were used to assess factors affecting ambient dose equivalent rates (H*(10)) in forests in Fukushima Prefecture. Three models were developed with different levels of detail to understand how the distribution of radioactive cesium within forests, shielding by trees and soil composition affect H*(10). The models were parametrized using measurements from deciduous and coniferous forests in Fukushima Prefecture.

口頭

Using PHITS to calculate ambient dose equivalent rates in radiocesium contaminated forests

Malins, A.; 今村 直広*; 新里 忠史; Kim, M.; 佐久間 一幸; 篠宮 佳樹*; 三浦 覚*; 町田 昌彦

no journal, , 

About 72${%}$ of the $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs fallout in Fukushima Prefecture from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) deposited on forests. Future choices for the management of contaminated forests depend on estimates of radiation doses to workers and residents under different management scenarios. This talk describes research conducted with PHITS to understand the factors necessary for creating appropriate models for calculating ambient dose equivalent rates ($textit{.{H}}$*(10)) in forests from inventories of $textsuperscript{134}$s and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs. The models herein were based measurements from FFPRI and JAEA surveys of forest sites in Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures. These surveys provided measurements of densities, dimensions, moisture contents and $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs inventories of crowns, trunks, organic layers and soil in the forests. Three geometry models were created for forests, varying from a simple model representing trees and the atmosphere as homogeneous layers of matter, to models with representations of individual tree trunks and crowns. A new PHITS function allows counter values to be set separately for source particles upon generation from each multi-source, meaning the contributions from radiation originating in different source regions to $textit{.{H}}$*(10) could be calculated easily. The counter function also allowed calculation of the contributions of scattered and unscattered photons to $textit{.{H}}$*(10) separately. Good correlation was obtained between simulated and measured $textit{.{H}}$*(10) values across nine sites for the 2011-17 period (Fig. 1). Despite the different levels of geometric detail, the results from all three geometry models were all within a few percent of each other. The elemental compositions chosen for materials had a negligible effect on the calculations.

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