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Journal Articles

Derivation of ideal power distribution to minimize the maximum kernel migration rate for nuclear design of pin-in-block type HTGR

Okita, Shoichiro; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.9 - 16, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Suppressing the kernel migration rates, which depend on both the fuel temperature and the fuel temperature gradient, under normal operation condition is quite important from the viewpoint of the fuel integrity for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors. The presence of the ideal axial power distribution to minimize the maximum kernel migration rate allows us to improve efficiency of design work. Therefore, we propose a new method based on Lagrange multiplier method in consideration of thermohydraulic design in order to obtain the ideal axial power distribution to minimize the maximum kernel migration rate. For one of the existing conceptual designs performed by JAEA, the maximum kernel migration rate for the power distribution to minimize the maximum kernel migration rate proposed in this study is lower by approximately 10% than that for the power distribution as a conventional design target to minimize the maximum fuel temperature.

Journal Articles

Nuclear and thermal feasibility of lithium-loaded high temperature gas-cooled reactor for tritium production for fusion reactors

Goto, Minoru; Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Matsuura, Hideaki*; Nakaya, Hiroyuki*; Katayama, Kazunari*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 136(Part A), p.357 - 361, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:17.98(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is proposed as a tritium production device, which has the potential to produce a large amount of tritium using $$^{6}$$Li(n,$$alpha$$)T reaction. In the HTGR design, generally, boron is loaded into the core as a burnable poison to suppress excess reactivity. In this study, lithium is loaded into the HTGR core instead of boron and is used as a burnable poison aiming to produce thermal energy and tritium simultaneously. The nuclear characteristics and the fuel temperature were calculated to confirm the feasibility of the lithium-loaded HTGR. It was shown that the calculation results satisfied the design requirements and hence the feasibility was confirmed for the lithium-loaded HTGR, which produce thermal energy and tritium.

Journal Articles

Study on Pu-burner high temperature gas-cooled reactor in Japan; Design study of fuel and reactor core

Goto, Minoru; Aihara, Jun; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Ueta, Shohei; Fukaya, Yuji; Okamoto, Koji*

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2018/10

JAEA has conducted design studies of a Pu-burner HTGR. The Pu-burner HTGR incinerates Pu by fission, and hence a high burn-up is required for the efficient incineration. In the fuel design, a thin ZrC layer, which acts as an oxygen getter and suppresses the internal pressure, was coated on the fuel kernel to prevent the CFP failure at the high burn-up. A stress analysis of the SiC layer, which acts as a pressure vessel for the CFP, was performed for with consideration of the depression effect due to the ZrC layer. As a result, the CFP failure fraction at high burn-up of 500 GWd/t satisfied the target value. In the reactor core design, an axial fuel shuffling was employed to attain the high burn-up, and the nuclear burn-up calculations with the whole core model and the fuel temperature calculations were performed. As a result, the nuclear characteristics, which are the shutdown margin and the temperature coefficient of reactivity, and the fuel temperature satisfied their target values.

JAEA Reports

Excellent feature of Japanese HTGR technologies

Nishihara, Tetsuo; Yan, X.; Tachibana, Yukio; Shibata, Taiju; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kubo, Shinji; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2018-004, 182 Pages, 2018/07

JAEA-Technology-2018-004.pdf:18.14MB

Research and development on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan started since late 1960s. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in cooperation with Japanese industries has researched and developed system design, fuel, graphite, metallic material, reactor engineering, high temperature components, high temperature irradiation and post irradiation test of fuel and graphite, high temperature heat application and so on. Construction of the first Japanese HTGR, High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), started in 1990. HTTR achieved first criticality in 1998. After that, various test operations have been carried out to establish the Japanese HTGR technologies and to verify the inherent safety features of HTGR. This report presents several system design of HTGR, the world-highest-level Japanese HTGR technologies, JAEA's knowledge obtained from construction, operation and management of HTTR and heat application technologies for HTGR.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation items to attain safety requirements in fuel and core designs for commercial HTGRs

Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Fukaya, Yuji; Tokuhara, Kazumi; Ohashi, Hirofumi

JAEA-Technology 2017-022, 32 Pages, 2017/09

JAEA-Technology-2017-022.pdf:3.59MB

As for the design of commercial HTGRs, the fuel design, core design, reactor coolant system design, secondary helium system design, decay heat removal system design and confinement system design are very important and quite different from those of LWRs. To contribute the establishment of the safety standards for commercial HTGRs, the evaluation items to attain safety requirements in fuel and core designs were studied. In this study, the excellence features of HTGRs based on passive safety or inherent safety were fully reflected. Additionally, concerning the core design, the stability to spatial power oscillation in reactor core of HTGR was studied. The evaluation items as the result of the study are applicable to the safety design of commercial HTGRs in the future.

JAEA Reports

Development of fuel temperature calculation code "FTCC" for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

Inaba, Yoshitomo; Isaka, Kazuyoshi; Shibata, Taiju

JAEA-Data/Code 2017-002, 74 Pages, 2017/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2017-002.pdf:2.36MB

In order to ensure the thermal integrity of fuel in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), it is necessary that the maximum fuel temperature in normal operation is to be lower than a thermal design target. In the core thermal-hydraulic design of block-type HTGRs, the maximum fuel temperature should be evaluated considering data such as core geometry and specifications, power density and neutron fluence distributions, and core coolant flow distribution. The fuel temperature calculation code used in the design stage of the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presupposes to run on UNIX systems, and its operation and execution procedure are complicated and are not user-friendly. Therefore, a new fuel temperature calculation code, named FTCC, which has a user-friendly system such as a simple and easy operation and execution procedure, was developed. This report describes the calculation objects and models, the basic equations, the strong points (improvement points from the HTTR design code), the code structure, the using method of FTCC, and the result of a validation calculation with FTCC. The calculation result obtained by FTCC provides good agreement with that of the HTTR design code, and then FTCC will be used as one of the design codes for high temperature gas-cooled reactors. In addition, the effect of hot spot factors and fuel cooling forms on reducing the maximum fuel temperature is investigated with FTCC. As a result, it was found that the effect of center hole cooling for hollow fuel compacts and gapless cooling with monolithic type fuel rods on reducing the temperature is very high.

Journal Articles

Development of fuel temperature calculation code for HTGRs

Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nishihara, Tetsuo

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 101, p.383 - 389, 2017/03

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:65.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to ensure the thermal integrity of fuel in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), it is necessary that the maximum fuel temperature in normal operation is to be lower than a thermal design target. In the core thermal-hydraulic design of block-type HTGRs, the maximum fuel temperature should be evaluated considering data such as thermal power, core geometry, power density and neutron fluence distributions, and core coolant flow distribution. The fuel temperature calculation code used in the design stage of the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presupposes to run on UNIX systems, and its operation and execution procedure are complicated and are not user-friendly. Therefore, a new fuel temperature calculation code named FTCC which has a user-friendly system such as a simple and easy operation and execution procedure, was developed. This paper describes calculation objects and models, basic equations, improvement points from the HTTR design code in FTCC, and the result of a validation calculation with FTCC. The calculation result obtained by FTCC provides good agreement with that of the HTTR design code, and then FTCC will be used as one of the design codes for HTGRs. In addition, the effect of cooling forms on the maximum fuel temperature is investigated by using FTCC. As a result, it was found that the effect of center hole cooling for hollow fuel compacts and gapless cooling with monolithic type fuel rods on reducing the temperature is very high.

JAEA Reports

Development of fuel temperature calculation file for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

Inaba, Yoshitomo; Isaka, Kazuyoshi; Fukaya, Yuji; Tachibana, Yukio

JAEA-Data/Code 2014-023, 64 Pages, 2015/01

JAEA-Data-Code-2014-023.pdf:7.15MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has performed the conceptual designs of small-sized High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) systems, aiming for the deployment of the systems to overseas such as developing countries. The small-sized HTGR systems can provide power generation by steam turbine, high temperature steam for industry process and/or low temperature steam for district heating. In the core thermal and hydraulic designs of HTGRs, it is important to evaluate the maximum fuel temperature so that the thermal integrity of the fuel is ensured. In order to calculate and evaluate the fuel temperature on personal computers (PCs) in a convenient manner, the calculation file based on the Microsoft Excel were developed. In this report, the basic equations used in the calculation file, the calculation method and procedure, and the results of the validation calculation are described.

Journal Articles

Basic concept on structural design criteria for zirconia ceramics applying to nuclear components

Shibata, Taiju; Sumita, Junya; Baba, Shinichi; Yamaji, Masatoshi*; Ishihara, Masahiro; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Tsuji, Nobumasa*

Key Engineering Materials, 297-300, p.728 - 733, 2005/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Reactivity control system of the high temperature engineering test reactor

Tachibana, Yukio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Nakazawa, Toshio

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.89 - 101, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:50.96(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Nuclear design

Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Ando, Hiroei*; Yamashita, Kiyonobu*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.23 - 36, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:58.07(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the nuclear design of the HTTR, the reactivity balance is planned so that the design requirements are fully satisfied. Moreover, the reactivity coefficients are evaluated to confirm the safety characteristics of the reactor. The power distribution in the core was optimized by changing the uranium enrichment to maintain the fuel temperature at less than the limit (1600$$^{circ}$$C). Deviation from the optimized distribution due to the burnup of fissile materials was avoided by flattening time-dependent changes in local reactivities. Flattening was achieved by optimizing the specifications of the burnable poisons. The original nuclear design model had to be modified based on the first critical experiments. The Monte Carlo code MVP was also used to predict criticality of the initial core. The predicted excess reactivities are now in good agreement with the experimental results.

Journal Articles

Core thermal-hydraulic design

Takada, Eiji*; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Tochio, Daisuke

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.37 - 43, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:58.07(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The core thermal-hydraulic design for the HTTR is carried out to evaluate the maximum fuel temperature at normal operation and anticipated operation occurrences. To evaluate coolant flow distribution and maximum fuel temperature, we use the experimental results such as heat transfer coefficient, pressure loss coefficient obtained by mock-up test facilities. Furthermore, we evaluated hot spot factors of fuel temperatures conservatively. As the results of the core thermal-hydraulic design, an effective coolant flow through the core of 88 % of the total flow is achieved at minimum. The maximum fuel temperature appears during the high temperature test operation, and reaches 1492 $$^{circ}$$C for the maximum through the burn-up cycle, which satisfies the design limit of 1495 $$^{circ}$$C at normal operation. It is also confirmed that the maximum fuel temperature at any anticipated operation occurrences does not exceed the fuel design limit of 1600 $$^{circ}$$C in the safety analysis. On the other hand, result of re-evaluation of analysis condition and hot spot factors based on operation data of the HTTR, the maximum fuel temperature for 160 effective full power operation days is estimated to be 1463 $$^{circ}$$C. It is confirmed that the core thermal-hydraulic design gives conservative results.

Journal Articles

Research and development on HTGR fuel in the HTTR project

Sawa, Kazuhiro; Ueta, Shohei

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.163 - 172, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:47 Percentile:94.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), refractory coated fuel particles are employed as fuel to permit high outlet coolant temperature. The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) employs Tri-isotropic (Triso) coated fuel particles in the prismatic fuel assembly. Research and development on the HTTR fuel has been carried out spread over about 30 years, in fuel fabrication technologies, fuel performance, and so on. Furthermore, for upgrading of HTGR technologies, an extended burnup TRISO-coated fuel particle and an advanced type of coated fuel particle, ZrC-coated fuel particle in order to keep the integrity at higher operating temperatures has been developed. The present paper provides experiences and current status of research and development works for the HTGR fuel in the HTTR Project.

Journal Articles

Structural design of high temperature metallic components

Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.261 - 272, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:81.08(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Core dynamics analysis of control rod withdrawal test in HTTR (Contract Research)

Takada, Eiji*; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Nojiri, Naoki; Fujimoto, Nozomu

JAERI-Tech 2004-048, 60 Pages, 2004/06

JAERI-Tech-2004-048.pdf:4.18MB

The HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor), which has thermal output of 30MW, coolant inlet temperature of 395$$^{circ}$$C and coolant outlet temperature of 850$$^{circ}$$C/950$$^{circ}$$C, is a first high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan. The HTGR has a high inherent safety potential to accident condition. Safety demonstration tests using the HTTR are underway in order to demonstrate such excellent inherent safety features of the HTGR. The reactivity insertion test demonstrates that rapid increase of reactor power by withdrawing the control rod is restrained by only the negative reactivity feedback effect without operating the reactor power control system, and the temperature transient of the reactor is slow. The best estimated analyses have been conducted to simulate reactor transients during the reactivity insertion test. A one-point core dynamics approximation with one fuel channel model is applied to this analysis. It was found that the analytical model for core dynamics could simulate the reactor power behavior.

JAEA Reports

Safety demonstration test (SR-2/S2C-2/SF-1) plan using the HTTR (Contract research)

Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Takada, Eiji*; Saito, Kenji; Furusawa, Takayuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo

JAERI-Tech 2004-014, 24 Pages, 2004/02

JAERI-Tech-2004-014.pdf:1.06MB

Safety demonstration tests using the HTTR are in progress to verify the inherent safety features and to improve the safety design and evaluation technologies for HTGRs, as well as to contribute to not only the commercial HTGRs but also the research and development for the VHTR one of the Generation IV reactors. This paper describes the reactivity insertion test and coolant flow reduction test by trip of gas circulator and partial flow loss of coolant planned in 2004 with detailed test method, procedure and results of pre-test analysis. From the analytical results, it was found that the negative reactivity feedback effect of the core brings the reactor power safely to a stable level without a reactor scram.

Journal Articles

Creep behavior and microstructure for two-dimensional C/C composite

Shibata, Taiju; Baba, Shinichi; Yamaji, Masatoshi*; Sumita, Junya; Ishihara, Masahiro

Nihon Kikai Gakkai M&M 2004 Zairyo Rikigaku Kanfarensu Koen Rombunshu, p.407 - 408, 2004/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Nuclear, thermal and hydraulic design for Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300)

Nakata, Tetsuo*; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Yan, X.; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 2(4), p.478 - 489, 2003/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The High temperature gas cooled reactor fuel

Sawa, Kazuhiro; Ueta, Shohei; Iyoku, Tatsuo

Proceedings of International Conference on Global Environment and Advanced Nuclear Power Plants (GENES4/ANP 2003) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2003/09

This paper provides present status of research and development for the coated fuel particle (CFPs) including the advanced ZrC-CFP. Current HTGR employs so-called TRISO-CFPs with SiC layer. In safety design of the HTGR fuels, it is important to retain fission products within CFPs so that their release to primary coolant does not exceed an acceptable level. The behavior of TRISO-CFPs has been investigated through experiments and reactor operation. These data show excellent performance of the TRISO-CFPs when they are correctly fabricated. On the other hand, the crystalline material comprising the SiC layer has a tendency to decompose at high temperature. The transition temperatures of beta-SiC (as-deposited) to alpha-SiC vary from 1600 to 2200$$^{circ}$$C. ZrC is one of the transition metal carbides which are characterized by the high melting point and the thermodynamic stability etc. The CFPs with CVD-ZrC coatings have been investigated including the fabrication processes and characterization techniques developments.

JAEA Reports

Safety demonstration test (S1C-2/S2C-1) plan using the HTTR (Contract research)

Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takada, Eiji*; Tachibana, Yukio; Saito, Kenji; Furusawa, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Tochio, Daisuke; Iyoku, Tatsuo

JAERI-Tech 2003-074, 37 Pages, 2003/08

JAERI-Tech-2003-074.pdf:1.83MB

Safety demonstration tests using HTTR are now underway in order to verify the inherent safety features and to improve the safety design and evaluation technologies for HTGRs, as well as to contribute to research and development for the VHTR, which is one of the Generation IV reactors. The first phase of the safety demonstration tests includes reactivity insertion tests by means of control-rod withdrawal and coolant flow reduction tests by tripping the gas circulators. In the second phase, accident simulation tests will be conducted. This paper describes the plan of coolant flow reduction tests by tripping of gas circulators planned in August 2003 with detailed test method, procedure and results of pre-test analysis. The analysis results of the steady state and transient behaviours of the reactor and the plant of the HTTR show that in the case of a rapid decrease of the coolant flow rate, the negative reactivity feedback effect of the core brings the reactor power safely to certain stable level without a reactor scram, and that the temperature transient of the reactor core is slow.

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