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Journal Articles

Study on the relation between the crystal structure and thermal stability of FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$

Akiyama, Daisuke*; Kusaka, Ryoji; Kumagai, Yuta; Nakada, Masami; Watanabe, Masayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki*; Kirishima, Akira*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 568, p.153847_1 - 153847_10, 2022/09

FeUO$$_{4}$$, CrUO$$_{4}$$, and Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ are monouranates containing pentavalent U. Even though these compounds have similar crystal structures, their formation conditions and thermal stability are significantly different. To determine the factors causing the difference in thermal stability between FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$, their crystal structures were evaluated in detail. A Raman band was observed at 700 cm$$^{-1}$$ in all the samples. This Raman band was derived from the stretching vibration of the O-U-O axis band, indicating that Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ was composed of a uranyl-like structure in its lattice regardless of its "x"' value. M$"o$ssbauer measurements indicated that the Fe in FeUO$$_{4}$$ and Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ were trivalent. Furthermore, Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ lost its symmetry around Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ with increasing electron densities around Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$, as the abundance of Cr increased. These results suggested no significant structural differences between FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$. Thermogravimetric measurements for UO$$_{2}$$, FeUO$$_{4}$$, and CrUO$$_{4}$$ showed that the temperature at which FeUO$$_{4}$$ decomposed under an oxidizing condition (approximately 800 $$^{circ}$$C) was significantly lower than the temperature at which the decomposition of CrUO$$_{4}$$ started (approximately 1250 $$^{circ}$$C). Based on these results, we concluded that the decomposition of FeUO$$_{4}$$ was triggered by an ``in-crystal'' redox reaction, i.e., Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ $${+}$$ U$$^{mathrm{V}}$$ $$rightarrow$$ Fe$$^{mathrm{II}}$$ $${+}$$ U$$^{mathrm{VI}}$$, which would not occur in the CrUO$$_{4}$$ lattice because Cr$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ could never be reduced under the investigated condition. Finally, the existence of Cr$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ in FexCr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ effectively suppressed the decomposition of the Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ crystal, even at a very low Cr content.

Journal Articles

Measurement of nuclide production cross sections for proton-induced reactions on $$^{rm nat}$$Ni and $$^{rm nat}$$Zr at 0.4, 1.3, 2.2, and 3.0 GeV

Takeshita, Hayato*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki*; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Maekawa, Fujio

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 527, p.17 - 27, 2022/09

To improve accuracy of nuclear design of accelerator driven nuclear transmutation systems and so on, nuclide production cross sections on Ni and Zr were measured for GeV energy protons. The measured results were compared with PHITS calculations, JENDL/HE-2007 and so on.

Journal Articles

BWR lower head penetration failure test focusing on eutectic melting

Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Takumi; Madokoro, Hiroshi; Nagae, Yuji

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 173, p.109129_1 - 109129_15, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Structure, stability, and actinide leaching of simulated nuclear fuel debris synthesized from UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and stainless-steel

Kirishima, Akira*; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Kumagai, Yuta; Kusaka, Ryoji; Nakada, Masami; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Sato, Nobuaki*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 567, p.153842_1 - 153842_15, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:0

To understand the chemical structure and stability of nuclear fuel debris consisting of UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and Stainless Steel (SUS) generated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan in 2011, simulated debris of the UO$$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr system and other fundamental component systems were synthesized and characterized. The simulated debris were synthesized by heat treatment for 1 to 12 h at 1600$$^{circ}$$C, in inert (Ar) or oxidative (Ar + 2% O$$_{2}$$) atmospheres. $$^{237}$$Np and $$^{241}$$Am tracers were doped for the leaching tests of these elements and U from the simulated debris. The characterization of the simulated debris was conducted by XRD, SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, and M$"o$ssbauer spectroscopy, which provided the major uranium phase of the UO $$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr debris was the solid solution of U$$^{mathrm{IV}}$$O$$_{2}$$ (s.s.) with Zr(IV) and Fe(II) regardless of the treatment atmosphere. The long-term immersion test of the simulated debris in pure water and that in seawater revealed the macro scale crystal structure of the simulated debris was chemically very stable in the wet condition for a year or more. Furthermore, the leaching test results showed that the actinide leaching ratios of U, Np, Am from the UO$$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr debris were very limited and less than 0.08 % for all the experiments in this study.

JAEA Reports

Analysis of the radioactivity concentrations in low-level radioactive waste generated from JPDR, JRR-3 and JRR-4 Facilities

Tsuchida, Daiki; Mitsukai, Akina; Aono, Ryuji; Haraga, Tomoko; Ishimori, Kenichiro; Kameo, Yutaka

JAEA-Data/Code 2022-004, 87 Pages, 2022/07


Radioactive wastes generated from nuclear research facilities in Japan Atomic Energy Agency are planning to be buried in the near surface disposal field. Therefore, it is required to establish the method to evaluate the radioactivity concentrations of radioactive wastes until by the beginning of disposal. In order to contribute to this work, we collected and analyzed samples generated from JPDR, JRR-3 and JRR-4. In this report, radioactivity concentrations of 20 radionuclides ($$^{3}$$H, $$^{14}$$C, $$^{36}$$Cl, $$^{60}$$Co, $$^{63}$$Ni, $$^{90}$$Sr, $$^{94}$$Nb, $$^{99}$$Tc, $$^{rm 108m}$$Ag, $$^{129}$$I, $$^{137}$$Cs, $$^{152}$$Eu, $$^{154}$$Eu, $$^{234}$$U, $$^{238}$$U, $$^{238}$$Pu, $$^{239+240}$$Pu, $$^{241}$$Am, $$^{244}$$Cm) were determined based on radiochemical analysis and summarized as basic data for the study of evaluation method of radioactive concentration.

Journal Articles

Measurements of thermal-neutron capture cross-section of the $$^{237}$$Np(n, $$gamma$$) reaction with TC-Pn in KUR

Nakamura, Shoji; Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Shibahara, Yuji*

KURNS Progress Report 2021, P. 93, 2022/07

In terms of nuclear transmutation studies of minor actinides in nuclear wastes, the present work selected $$^{237}$$Np among them and aimed to measure the thermal-neutron capture cross-section of $$^{237}$$Np using a well-thermalized neutron field by a neutron activation method because there have been discrepancies among reported cross-section data. A $$^{237}$$Np standard solution was used for irradiation samples. The thermal-neutron flux at an irradiation position was measured with flux monitors: $$^{45}$$Sc, $$^{59}$$Co, $$^{98}$$Mo, $$^{181}$$Ta and $$^{197}$$Au. The $$^{237}$$Np sample was irradiated together with the flux monitors for 30 minutes in the graphite thermal column equipped in the Kyoto University Research Reactor. The similar irradiation was repeated once more to confirm the reproducibility of the results. After irradiation, the $$^{237}$$Np samples were quantified using 312-keV gamma-ray emitted from $$^{233}$$Pa in radiation equilibrium with $$^{237}$$Np. The reaction rates of $$^{237}$$Np were obtained from the peak net counts of gamma-rays emitted from generated $$^{238}$$Np, and then the thermal-neutron capture cross-section of $$^{237}$$Np was found to be 173.8$$pm$$4.7 barn by averaging the results obtained by the two irradiations. The present result was in agreement with the reported data given by a time-of-flight method within a limit of uncertainty.

Journal Articles

Nuclear data as foundation of nuclear research and development

Fukahori, Tokio; Nakayama, Shinsuke; Katabuchi, Tatsuya*; Shigyo, Nobuhiro*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 64(7), p.413 - 414, 2022/07

The Investigation Advisory Committee on Nuclear Data monitors global nuclear research and development trends, and conducts collaborative nuclear data activities with domestic and foreign academic institutions in a wide range of fields. The aims are to contact, to exchange information, and to build an interdisciplinary cooperation system. Reported are the activities on the request list site, human resources development, and roadmap creation regarding nuclear data directly related to future nuclear data research activities, among the main activities in the 2019-2020 period.

Journal Articles

Study on initiating phase of core disruptive accident (Validation study of SAS4A code for the unprotected transient overpower accident)

Ishida, Shinya; Fukano, Yoshitaka

Nihon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 88(911), p.21-00304_1 - 21-00304_11, 2022/07

In previous studies, the reliability and validity of the SAS4A code was enhanced by applying Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) approach to the Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF). SAS4A code has been developed to analyze the early stage of Core Disruptive Accident (CDA), which is named Initiating Phase (IP). In this study, PIRT approach was applied to Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP), which was one of the most important and typical events in CDA as well as ULOF. The phenomena were identified by the investigation of UTOP event progression and physical phenomena relating to UTOP were ranked. 8 key phenomena were identified and the differences in ranking between UTOP and ULOF were clarified. The code validation matrix was completed and an SAS4A model, which was not validated in ULOF, was identified and validated. SAS4A code became applicable to various scenarios by using PIRT approach to UTOP and the reliability and validity of SAS4A code were significantly enhanced.

Journal Articles

Differential pressure changes of a high airflow-type HEPA filter during solvent fire in reprocessing facilities

Tashiro, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Ono, Takuya; Amano, Yuki; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Abe, Hitoshi

Nuclear Technology, 208(7), p.1205 - 1213, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A clogging behavior of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter at solvent fire accidents for reprocessing facilities has been studied. In this study, the burning rates of 30% tri-butyl phosphate (TBP)/dodecane (DD) mixed solvent and DD solvent and the differential pressure ($$Delta$$P) of a high airflow typed HEPA filter applied in the actual facilities in japan were measured. It was confirmed that the mainly burned was DD at the early stage of the mixed solvent burning and the TBP at the late stage. Furthermore, it was found that the $$Delta$$P rapidly rose at the late stage of the mixed solvent burning. The increase of the release ratio of the unburned particulate composition (TBP, its degraded solvent and inorganic phosphorus (P$$_{2}$$O$$_{5}$$)) was considered to contribute to the rapid rise. The correlating formulas with the $$Delta$$P and the mass of the loading particulates, except for the region of the rapid rise of $$Delta$$P, could be induced.

Journal Articles

Accumulation mechanisms of radiocaesium within lichen thallus tissues determined by means of ${it in situ}$ microscale localisation observation

Dohi, Terumi; Iijima, Kazuki; Machida, Masahiko; Suno, Hiroya*; Omura, Yoshihito*; Fujiwara, Kenso; Kimura, Shigeru*; Kanno, Futoshi*

PLOS ONE (Internet), 17(7), p.e0271035_1 - e0271035_21, 2022/07

JAEA Reports

Study on degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2022-005, 93 Pages, 2022/06


The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study on degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions" conducted in FY2020. In the project, radiochemists, nuclear chemists, nuclear physicists, material scientists, and environmental biologists are teamed to elucidate the mechanism of the degradation of fuel debris by combined effects of radiological, chemical, and biological functions. In fiscal year 2020, the members of the project team have conducted on the degradation of He ions irradiated simulated fuel debris, complex formation of tetravalent elements, uranium (VI) detection in microchannel, sorption of trivalent elements by iron bearing materials, and microbial degradation by model microorganisms and

JAEA Reports

An Attempt to estimate the migration pathway of slab-derived fluid using shear wave splitting analysis

Hiratsuka, Shinya; Asamori, Koichi; Saiga, Atsushi

JAEA-Research 2022-002, 38 Pages, 2022/06


Deep groundwater originates from dehydration of Pacific and Philippine Sea slab subducting beneath Japanese islands, which has characteristics of high temperature and is rich in carbonate species. In this respect, it is very important for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste to estimate reservoir and migration pathway of deep groundwater. The region where cracks are densely distributed can be regarded as the migration pathway of slab-derived fluid. It is highly probable that the region has strong anisotropy. Shear wave propagating through anisotropic media splits into two mutually orthogonally polarized waves due to shear wave polarization anisotropy. In this report, we applied shear wave splitting analysis to Hongu area of Tanabe City, Wakayama Prefecture and estimated the spatial distribution of leading shear wave polarization direction (LSPD) and arrival time difference between leading and lagging shear waves (dt). Based on comparison with helium isotope ratio of ground water and bubbling gas samples and two-dimensional resistivity structure estimated by previous study, we attempt to estimate migration pathway of slab-derived fluid in Hongu area of Tanabe City, Wakayama Prefecture. The main results are summarized as follows. When helium isotope ratio of groundwater and bubbling gas samples is high, dt value tends to be large. Shear wave propagating through high and low resistivity anomaly zone show small and large dt values, respectively. Previous study suggested that slab-derived fluid migrates from deeper part of western side of Hongu area and wells out in Yunomine and Kawayu hot springs. This is consistent with spatial distribution of dt values estimated by this study.

Journal Articles

Measurements of thermal conductivity for near stoichiometric (U$$_{0.7-z}$$Pu$$_{0.3}$$Am$$_{z}$$)O$$_{2}$$ (z = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15)

Yokoyama, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masashi; Tokoro, Daishiro*; Sugimoto, Masatoshi*; Morimoto, Kyoichi; Kato, Masato; Hino, Tetsushi*

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 31, p.101156_1 - 101156_7, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In current nuclear fuel cycle systems, to reduce the amount of high-level radioactive waste, minor actinides (MAs) bearing MOX fuel is one option for burning MAs using fast reactor. However, the effects of Am content in fuel on thermal conductivity are unclear because there are no experimental data on thermal conductivity of high Am bearing MOX fuel. In this study, The thermal conductivities of near stoichiometric (U$$_{0.7-z}$$Pu$$_{0.3}$$Am$$_{z}$$)O$$_{2}$$ solid solutions(z = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) have been measured between room temperature (RT) and 1473 K. The thermal conductivities decreased with increasing Am content and satisfied the classical phonon transport model ((A+BT)$$^{-1}$$) up to about 1473 K. A values increased linearly with increasing Am content because the change in ionic radius affects the conduction of the phonon due to the solid solution in U$$^{5+}$$ and Am$$^{3+}$$. B values were independent of Am content.

Journal Articles

Adjoint-weighted correlated sampling for $$k$$-eigenvalue perturbation in Monte Carlo calculation

Tuya, D.; Nagaya, Yasunobu

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 169, p.108919_1 - 108919_9, 2022/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Estimating an effect of a perturbation in a fissile system on its $$k$$-eigenvalue requires special technique called perturbation theory when the considered perturbation is small. In this study, we develop an adjoint-weighted correlated sampling (AWCS) method based on the exact perturbation theory without any approximation by combining the correlated sampling (CS) method with iterated-fission probability (IFP) based adjoint-weighting method. With the advantages of the CS method being good at providing very small uncertainty for small perturbations and the IFP-based adjoint-weighting method being suitable for continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation, the developed AWCS method based on the exact perturbation theory offers a new rigorous approach for perturbation calculations. The obtained results by the developed AWCS method for verification problems involving Godiva and simplified STACY density perturbations showed good agreement with the reference calculations.

Journal Articles

Effects of a corrosion inhibitor on the corrosion of steels under thin solution layers

Momma, Yuichiro*; Sakairi, Masatoshi*; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Otani, Kyohei

Zairyo To Kankyo, 71(5), p.133 - 137, 2022/05

The effect of the corrosion inhibitor on the corrosion of steel under a thin solution layer was investigated. As a result of forming a thin solution layer with a thickness of 1.0-0.2 mm on the specimen, adding a mixed solution of sodium molybdate and aluminum lactate as a corrosion inhibitor, and performing electrochemical measurement, the corrosion inhibitor suppresses the anodic reaction. And in the thin solution layer, it was suggested that the morphology of the protective layer structure by the corrosion inhibitor changed according to the amount of liquid as compared with the bulk immersion.

Journal Articles

Thermal-neutron capture cross-section measurements of neptunium-237 with graphite thermal column in KUR

Nakamura, Shoji; Shibahara, Yuji*; Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 11 Pages, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The present study selected $$^{237}$$Np among radioactive nuclides and aimed to measure the thermal-neutron capture cross-section for $$^{237}$$Np in a well-thermalized neutron field by an activation method. A $$^{237}$$Np standard solution was used for irradiation samples. A thermal-neutron flux at an irradiation position was measured with neutron flux monitors: $$^{45}$$Sc, $$^{59}$$Co, $$^{98}$$Mo, $$^{181}$$Ta and $$^{197}$$Au. The $$^{237}$$Np sample and flux monitors were irradiated together for 30 minutes in the graphite thermal column equipped with the Kyoto University Research Reactor. The similar irradiation was carried out twice. After the irradiations, the $$^{237}$$Np samples were quantified using 312-keV gamma ray emitted from $$^{233}$$Pa in a radiation equilibrium with $$^{237}$$Np. The reaction rates of $$^{237}$$Np were obtained from gamma-ray peak net counts given by $$^{238}$$Np, and then the thermal-neutron capture cross-section of $$^{237}$$Np was found to be 173.8$$pm$$4.4 barn by averaging the results obtained by the two irradiations. The present result was in agreement with the reported data given by a time-of-flight method within the limit of uncertainty.

Journal Articles

Contamination processes of tree components in Japanese forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident $$^{137}$$Cs fallout

Ota, Masakazu; Koarashi, Jun

Science of the Total Environment, 816, p.151587_1 - 151587_21, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

In forests affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, trees became contaminated with $$^{137}$$Cs. However, $$^{137}$$Cs transfer processes determining tree contamination (particularly for stem wood, which is a prominent commercial resource in Fukushima) remain insufficiently understood. This study proposes a model for simulating the dynamic behavior of $$^{137}$$Cs in a forest tree-litter-soil system and applied it to two contaminated forests (cedar plantation and natural oak stand) in Fukushima. The model-calculated results and inter-comparison of the results with measurements elucidated the relative impact of distinct $$^{137}$$Cs transfer processes determining tree contamination. The transfer of $$^{137}$$Cs to trees occurred mostly ($$>$$ 99%) through surface uptake of $$^{137}$$Cs directly trapped by leaves or needles and bark during the fallout. By contrast, root uptake of $$^{137}$$Cs from the soil was unsubstantial and several orders of magnitude lower than the surface uptake over a 50-year period following the accident. As a result, the internal contamination of the trees proceeded through an enduring recycling (translocation) of $$^{137}$$Cs absorbed on the tree surface at the time of the accident. A significant surface uptake of $$^{137}$$Cs at the bark was identified, contributing 100% (leafless oak tree) and 30% (foliated cedar tree; the remaining surface uptake occurred at the needles) of the total $$^{137}$$Cs uptake by trees. It was suggested that the trees growing at the study sites are currently (as of 2021) in a decontamination phase; the activity concentration of $$^{137}$$Cs in the stem wood decreases by 3% per year, mainly through radioactive decay of $$^{137}$$Cs and partly through a dilution effect from tree growth.

Journal Articles

Electrochemical behavior of carbon steels under thickness-controlled solution layer

Momma, Yuichiro*; Sakairi, Masatoshi*; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Otani, Kyohei

Zairyo To Kankyo, 71(4), p.121 - 125, 2022/04

The effect of solution layer thickness on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel was investigated using novel devices fabricated by a 3D printer. These novel devices allowed us to control the solution layer thickness precisely. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were performed under thickness-controlled solution layer, and oxygen diffusion limiting current density ($$j_{rm lim}$$) and anodic current density ($$j_{rm anode}$$) were measured. As the solution layer become thinner, $$j_{rm lim}$$ increased and $$j_{rm anode}$$ decreased. This result indicates that corrosion accelerates when the solution layer becomes thinner. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen was calculated as 3.20$$times$$10$$^{-5}$$ cm$$^{2}$$ s$$^{-1}$$ from the relationship between $$j_{rm lim}$$ and solution layer thickness, and the critical diffusion thickness was estimated to be 0.87 mm.

JAEA Reports

Neutronic analysis of beam window and LBE of an Accelerator-Driven System

Nakano, Keita; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Meigo, Shinichiro; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Takeshita, Hayato*; Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Research 2021-018, 41 Pages, 2022/03


Neutronic analysis of beam window of the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) proposed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducted using PHITS and DCHAIN-PHITS codes. We investigate gas production of hydrogen and helium isotopes in the beam window, displacement per atom of beam window material, and heat generation in the beam window. In addition, distributions of produced nuclides, heat density, and activity are derived. It was found that at the maximum 12500 appm H production, 1800 appm He production, and damage of 62.1 DPA occurred in the beam window by the ADS operation. On the other hand, the maximum heat generation in the beam window was 374 W/cm$$^3$$. In the analysis of LBE, $$^{206}$$Bi and $$^{210}$$Po were found to be the dominant nuclides in decay heat and radioactivity. Furthermore, the heat generation in the LBE by the proton beam was maximum around 5 cm downstream of the beam window, which was 945 W/cm$$^3$$.

Journal Articles

Mechanisms of action of radon therapy on cytokine levels in normal mice and rheumatoid arthritis mouse model

Kataoka, Takahiro*; Naoe, Shota*; Murakami, Kaito*; Yukimine, Ryohei*; Fujimoto, Yuki*; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*

Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 70(2), p.154 - 159, 2022/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nutrition & Dietetics)

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