Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 52(2), p.385 - 401, 2019/02
Excavation of deep underground openings induces permeable fractures around the opening due to stress redistribution. Such a zone is called excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In a high-level radioactive waste disposal project, the EDZ might provide pathways for the migration of radionuclides around the facility. Thus, this study focused on the development of a method for estimating the highest potential hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ around a gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan. Borehole televiewer surveys, rock core observations, and hydraulic tests were undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ around the gallery. The observed extent of the EDZ shows good agreement with the EDZ estimated from hydro-mechanical coupling analysis. The measured hydraulic conductivities of the EDZ are within the range of those based on the Mean Stress Index (MSI), which is defined as the ratio of the effective mean stress derived from numerical analyses to the tensile strength of intact rock. Given that the rock mass is relatively homogeneous and artificial damage (e.g., blasting-induced damage) can be neglected, as in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, the MSI model is likely to be applicable in estimating the highest potential hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Ishii, Eiichi; Nakayama, Masashi; Kimura, Shun
Proceedings of 13th SEGJ International Symposium (USB Flash Drive), 5 Pages, 2018/11
The construction of underground facilities induces fractures in the rock mass around the underground voids due to the resultant stress redistribution. This has particular implications for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal projects, where fracture development creates an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) that increases the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock mass and can provide a pathway for the migration of radionuclides from the storage facilities. It is therefore important to understand the long-term evolution of the EDZ and perform a comprehensive HLW disposal risk assessment. An in situ engineered barrier system experiment was conducted in the 350 m gallery at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan, to observe the near-field coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) process in situ and validate coupled THMC models. Here we investigate the evolution of the EDZ around the gallery and model a test pit that was excavated below the floor of the gallery using a series of seismic tomography surveys. There was a significant decrease in the seismic velocity field around the test pit due to its excavation, which became slightly more pronounced over time after the excavation. These seismic results, coupled with hydraulic tests and pore pressure measurements around the pit, indicate that fracture development and the decrease in saturation around the test pit resulted in a decrease in the seismic velocity field after the excavation of the test pit. Furthermore, the increase in saturation around the test pit is a key reason for the increase in the seismic velocity field after the heater test.
Sugita, Yutaka; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kubota, Kenji*; Nakata, Eiji*; Oyama, Takahiro*
JAEA-Research 2018-002, 72 Pages, 2018/06
In a excavation of shafts and galleries in the deep underground for disposing radioactive waste, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is developed around the galleries and shafts owing to the stress redistribution. Since the characteristic changes of the rock mass in the EDZ affects the radionuclides migration behavior, it is important to understand the long-term behavior of the EDZ. Thus, we performed the in situ experiment to investigate the long-term behavior of EDZ as part of the collaborative research between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in the 140m gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this research, we investigated the extent, mechanism of the change of hydro-mechanical characteristic, and long-term behavior of the EDZ on the basis of the comprehensive estimation of the results of the observation of the drift wall and the various investigations using boreholes such as geological investigation, the seismic and resistivity tomography, hydraulic test, water content monitoring, borehole loading test, convergence measurement, and so on. In addition, we clarified applicability and future tasks of the testing method used in this research for the investigation of the long-term behavior of the EDZ.
Kato, Masaji*; Nara, Yoshitaka*; Okazaki, Yuki*; Kono, Masanori*; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Tsutomu*; Takahashi, Manabu*
Zairyo, 67(3), p.318 - 323, 2018/03
To ensure the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes, it is important to determine the permeability of clays. The transient pulse test is suitable to apply to the low permeability materials, because it takes relatively short term to determine the permeability. Usually we increase the upstream pore pressure in the measurement with the transient pulse test. However, it is impossible to determine the permeability of clay in this procedure because of the increase of pore pressure. Therefore, the transient pulse test has never been applied to the determination of permeability of clays. In this study, we tried to apply the transient pulse test to a clay obtained in Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory to determine the permeability with decreasing the downstream pore pressure. It was clarified that the transient pulse test with decreasing downstream pore pressure is appropriate from the measurements of granite and sandstone. It was shown that the permeability of a clay was determined by the transient pulse test with decreasing the downstream pore pressure, which agreed with the permeability determined from the falling head test. The measurement time of the transient pulse test is much shorter than that of the falling head test. It is concluded that the transient pulse test is appropriate for the determination of the permeability of clays.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kubota, Kenji*; Nakata, Eiji*; Suenaga, Hiroshi*; Nohara, Shintaro*
JAEA-Research 2017-004, 91 Pages, 2017/06
In this study, we performed seismic tomography, seismic refraction survey, resistivity tomography, and hydraulic tests to investigate the hydro-mechanical property of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in the 250 m gallery of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. As a result of seismic tomography, seismic velocity is significantly decreased within 1 m from the gallery wall. The decrease of seismic velocity is related to the density of fracture induced around the gallery wall as a result of the gallery excavation. Thus the extent of the fractures induced by gallery excavation, i.e., EDZ fractures is clarified to be within 1.0 m from the gallery wall. The enhanced hydraulic conductivity was detected within 0.5 to 1.0 m from the gallery wall on the basis of the result of hydraulic tests. This is almost consistent with the extent of the region that seismic velocity is significantly decreased. Therefore, it is estimated that EDZ fractures induced around the gallery leads to the increase of hydraulic conductivity. In addition, the desaturation zone around the gallery is not induced as a result of resistivity tomography. From these results, the hydro-mechanical property of the EDZ is clarified in detail. Also, the in situ tests and evaluation method applied in this study are appropriate to investigate the EDZ in detail.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*
Journal of MMIJ, 133(2), p.25 - 33, 2017/02
In the construction of a deep underground facility, the hydromechanical properties of the rock mass around an underground opening are changed significantly due to stress redistribution. This zone is called an excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In high-level radioactive waste disposal, EDZs can provide a shortcut for the escape of radionuclides to the surface environment. Therefore, it is important to develop a method for predicting the detailed characteristics of EDZs. For prediction of the EDZ in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory of Japan, we conducted borehole televiewer surveys, rock core analyses, and repeated hydraulic conductivity measurements. We observed that niche excavation resulted in the formation of extension fractures within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall, i.e., the extent of the EDZ is within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall. These results are largely consistent with the results of a finite element analysis implemented with the failure criteria considering failure mode. The hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ was increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared with the outer zone. The hydraulic conductivity in and around the EDZ has not changed significantly in the two years following excavation of the niche. These results show that short-term unloading due to excavation of the niche created a highly permeable EDZ.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
The objective of this research is to investigate the hydro-mechanical properties of excavation damaged zones (EDZs) along the galleries excavated in 250 m and 350 m depths. We conducted hydraulic tests, BTV observations and core analyses. As a result, in the 250 m gallery, the extent of the EDZ was 1.0 m into the gallery wall. The hydraulic conductivity was increased by 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes compared with that of intact rock. On the other hand, in the 350 m gallery, the extent of the EDZ was 0.4 m into the gallery wall; the hydraulic conductivity was increased by 5 orders of magnitudes compared with that of intact rock. We investaged the difference of the characteristics of the EDZs on the basis of competence factor and ductility index. As a result, it was estimated that an extent of an EDZ decreases with decrease of competence factor; a hydraulic conductivity in an EDZ increases with decrease of ductility index.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Fujita, Tomoo; Motoshima, Takayuki*
Dai-44-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.313 - 318, 2016/01
The objective of this research is to investigate the extent and failure mechanism of an Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) induced around the East Access Shaft in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. As a result of hydraulic tests, hydraulic conductivity within 2 m from the shaft wall was increased by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. This result is consistent with the extent of the development of fractures detected by borehole televiewer surveys. Furthermore, the dominant failure mechanism of the fractures around the shaft wall was almost tensile; also these fractures were caused by the short-term excavation-induced unloading.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Nohara, Shintaro*; Kubota, Kenji*; Tokiwa, Tetsuya*; Kondo, Keiji*; Inagaki, Daisuke*
Proceedings of 8th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-8) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2014/10
Fusion Engineering and Design, 61-62, p.209 - 216, 2002/11
To attain high fusion power density, the divertor must suffer high heat flux from the fusion plasma. It is very difficult to remove a high heat flux more than 20 MW/m using the only solid divertor plate from the viewpoint of severe mechanical state such as thermal stress and crack growth. Therefore, a concept of liquid divertor is proposed to remove high heat flux by liquid films flowing on a solid wall. This paper mainly descries a preliminary thermofluid analysis of the free surface liquid flow, made of the FliBe molten salt, using the finite element analysis code ADINA-F. The heat flux of 25100 MW/m was given on the free surface liquid of the flow. I explored a possibility of applying the secondary flow to enhance the heat transfer of the liquid flow suffering high heat flux. This analysis shows that the heat flux of 100 MW/m can be removed by inducing the secondary flow in the free surface liquid FLiBe. And this paper shows that the liquid divertor using solid-liquid multi-phase flow makes possible large heat removal by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of solid phase.
; *; ; Yamamoto, Katsumune; Oyamada, Rokuro; Saito, Minoru
JAERI-M 94-042, 0, p.305 - 312, 1994/03
no abstracts in English