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JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization; Denuclearization of Iraq

Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2022-020, 82 Pages, 2022/09


As part of the "Research on Factor Analysis and Technical Processes for Achieving Denuclearization" started in 2018, comprehensive survey of nuclear development and denuclearization of Iraq was conducted, together with analysis of the characteristics and lessons learned from the denuclearization. Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapon related activities were initially focused on plutonium production, but it then switched its focus on producing highly enriched uranium, and built various facilities, including electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) and centrifuge uranium enrichment facilities. Denuclearization of Iraq began with the defeat in the 1991 Gulf War, which forced Iraq to accept United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 (1991) that year. The Resolution set out a framework for destruction, removal, or rendering harmless of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs. Within the framework, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the support and cooperation of the newly established United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM), had verified Iraq's past nuclear activities and denuclearization. Characteristics of Iraq's denuclearization include that 1) Iraq had no choice but to accept denuclearization, 2) IAEA was empowered to implement detectable inspection measures and methods, which later came to fruition as the IAEA Safeguards Agreement Additional Protocol (AP), 3) economic sanctions for the purpose of promoting denuclearization of Iraq were not very successful, and 4) denuclearization of Iraq and subsequent Iraq war, together with collapse of the Hussein regime, has affected the denuclearization of Libya, North Korea and Iraq. Furthermore, the lessons learned from the denuclearization are 1) the need for universalization of AP, and necessities for 2) economic sanctions that are suitable for the original purposes without being abused, 3) the need for diplomatic efforts including denuclearization frameworks and measures with a clear roadmap

Journal Articles

IAEA's recent activities on nuclear safety and nuclear security in transport of radioactive and nuclear materials

Tamai, Hiroshi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 64(8), p.465 - 467, 2022/08

Though nuclear safety and nuclear security share the same goal of protecting the public and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, their response actions may have differences, especially during transport, where protection could be vulnerable. The interface between them is a major issue. In December 2021, with the aim of complementarily strengthening nuclear safety and nuclear security in the transportation of radioactive materials IAEA published a related technical report and held an international conference. The outline of the technical report and the international conference is introduced.

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearisation; Investigation on Libya's case

Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2021-073, 19 Pages, 2022/03


As a part of "Research on Factor Analysis and Technical Process for Achieving Denuclearisation", investigation on Libya's cases of nuclear development and denuclearisation, and analysis of its characteristics have been conducted. Libya had been suspected that dictator Qadaffi had an interest in the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) since early 1970s after his revolution. US and UK intelligence were focusing on Libya's situation; however, actual status was not revealed for a long time. In 1980s, Libya faced to economic exhaustion due to sanctions from the international community against Libya's supporting terrorism. Libya decided to abandon WMD development and its denuclearisation in early 2000s. Several factors to prompt Libya's decisions can be highlighted; economic sanctions; witnessing regime collapse of President Hussein due to Iraq War who aimed at WMD; revealing secret procurement of centrifuge equipment through the inspection of German-flagged ships by US. Libya's denuclearisation was rapidly implemented to prevent Libya from reverting to nuclear development through well-coordinated roles among main players, quick decisions by Libyan side, and warning effect of Iraqi case. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) played a central role in the verification of all related facilities and activities in Libya. Through safeguards activities beyond those permitted by Additional Protocol (AP), IAEA evaluated the whole Libya's nuclear programme. The denuclearisation was successfully completed by removal of nuclear materials and related equipment from Libya. It was also revealed that Libya's technological capabilities had not well developed to utilize procured materials and equipment. Libya's case is regarded in the international community as a good practice of denuclearisation. On the other hand, Qadaffi administration was overthrown by the democratisation movement that occurred after denuclearisation. It might be understood as a miserable end

Journal Articles

Nuclear safety and nuclear security interface

Tamai, Hiroshi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(9), p.677 - 678, 2021/09

The International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, has issued a technical report on national approaches to the interface between nuclear safety and nuclear security, which is essential for strengthening through mutual complementation. The report aims to provide Member States with insights on good practices, each of which is important in coordinating the interface. Those are states' experiences in (i) legal and regulatory framework, (ii) nuclear installations, (iii) radioactive sources and associated facilities and activities, (iv) management systems and nuclear safety and nuclear security culture, (v) emergency preparedness and response, and common issues in cross-cutting field.

Journal Articles


Fukui, Yasuhito

Biographical Dictionary of Secretaries-General of International Organizations (Internet), 5 Pages, 2020/09

Mr. Yukiya Amano, former director general of IAEA died in July 2019. In order to register in the dictionary of the heads of the international organisations, the author wrote his biography starting from his childhood, university days, the days of the director general of IAEA.

Journal Articles

Introduction to nuclear security, 2; Efforts to strengthen nuclear security

Suda, Kazunori; Kimura, Takashi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 62(6), p.334 - 338, 2020/06

Amid growing concerns about potential nuclear terrorism, discussions have been conducted internationally to strengthen the nuclear security. In this series, we will explain the efforts of the international community to strengthen the nuclear security and the reflection of the treaty for the nuclear security and the IAEA nuclear security recommendations in the domestic laws.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearisation, 3; Denuclearisation at Libya: Process and success factors

Tamai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-40-Kai Nenji Taikai Puroshidhingusushu, p.89 - 92, 2019/11

Libya's denuclearisation, named "the Libya model", is regarded as one of good practices in cooperation of the international community and measures that have a sense of speed with the countries and institutions involved. Success factors of the denuclearisation are the Libya's relatively low technological progress despite the procurement of extensive nuclear materials and components due to the delay of detecting the nuclear programme, prompt implementation with the close collaboration of countries concerned, and Libya's cooperation facing to the economic sanctions and the regime collapse by the Iraq war. Precious lessons will be learned towards the prevention and the denuclearisation in other countries.

Journal Articles

Report on the IAEA Technical Meeting "Nuclear Data Processing"

Tada, Kenichi

Kaku Deta Nyusu (Internet), (122), p.9 - 21, 2019/02

This paper reports the overview of the technical meeting of nuclear data processing in IAEA to Japanese researchers. In this technical meeting, the current status of nuclear data processing codes and verification of them are described.

Journal Articles

Japan-IAEA nuclear energy management school

Kono, Yuko

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 61(2), P. 150, 2019/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

IAEA low enriched uranium bank; Towards the realization of international management initiatives

Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 60(1), p.25 - 29, 2018/01

IAEA Low Enriched Uranium Bank, which is one of international management initiatives of nuclear materials operated by IAEA, will be realized soon. During increasing concern on proliferation risk of sensitive nuclear technologies as well as in this century the potential acquisition by terrorists, the IAEA bank will offer the fuel assurance aiming at decreasing incentive for acquiring those sensitive technologies. Throughout the argument on the criteria for the fuel supply, the bank site and its requirement have been established and will be in operation next year. The background, significance, and development of this initiative are described.

Journal Articles

Prospective features for integration of nuclear forensics capability in national framework

Tamai, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

Proceedings of INMM 58th Annual Meeting (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/07

Nuclear forensics is a technical measure to analyse and collate samples of illegally used nuclear materials, etc., to clarify their origins, routes, etc. and contribute to criminal identifications. Close collaboration with police and judicial organizations is essential. The national response framework is being built up with international cooperation. Discussions on promoting technical capability and regional cooperation are presented.

Journal Articles

Prospects and challenges of the post-nuclear security summit phase

Tamai, Hiroshi

Hiroshima Repoto 2017-Nen Ban; Kakugunshuku, Kakufukakusan, Kakusekyuritei O Meguru 2016-Nen No Doko, p.163 - 165, 2017/03

The series of Nuclear Security Summit, initiated by President Barack Obama, was held biennially, four times since 2010, and played an important role in promoting international efforts to enhance nuclear security. Despite Russia's refusal to participate in the fourth meeting, these summit-level meetings have gained both international and domestic attention, which have led to remarkable improvements in the field of nuclear security of each participating country. Therefore, there is an urgent need to take continuous measures to keep this momentum alive even after the final Nuclear Security Summit concluded in 2016. The challenges in strengthening nuclear security, prospects in the post-Nuclear Security Summit phase, as well as efforts and measures that Japan should pursue are investigated.

Journal Articles

Aiming for leading parsons development in Nuclear Field; Japan-IAEA Joint Nuclear Energy Management School

Yamaguchi, Mika

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 58(12), P. 759, 2016/12

The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, the University of Tokyo, and the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, JAIF International Cooperation Center and Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center had held the "Japan-IAEA Joint Nuclear Energy Management school 2016" to develop future leaders who plan and manage nuclear energy utilization in cooperation with IAEA from July 11 to 27, 2016 in Japan. Through the school, we contributed to the internationalization of Japanese young nuclear professionals, development of nuclear human resource of other countries including nuclear newcomers, and enhanced cooperative relationship between IAEA and Japan.

JAEA Reports

Involvement in IAEA ENVIRONET and research on overseas reference cases regarding environmental remediation of closed uranium mine

Saito, Hiroshi

JAEA-Review 2016-009, 80 Pages, 2016/07


Environmental remediation has been conducted in closed Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine, after decades of mine-related activities. During the remediation, whole procedure, priority, necessary investigations and specific methods have been examined, and issues are clarified which should be solved in the future. For that, it has been recommended that opinions are exchanged among specialists in related fields overseas, and information and their experience are referred. As part of the activities, Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center has been involved continuously in IAEA ENVIRONET, multinational network for environmental remediation. Also, bonds are tightened among participants and IAEA by exchanging opinions and sharing the issues. In parallel, literature survey has been conducted to supplement the information obtained through ENVIRONET and to clarify additionally-required information and targeted sites. The expected information are obtained from the site-visits and now being organized.

Journal Articles

Medical applications of the PHITS code, 3; User assistance program for medical physics computation

Furuta, Takuya; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Igaku Butsuri, 36(1), p.50 - 54, 2016/00

An application of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System; PHITS, for medical physics is to simulate treatment planning of radiation therapy. Treatment planning simulation is conducted by constructing patient geometry from patient CT data, calculating radiation transport of external beam, and deducing dose distribution inside patient body. However, it is not easy to extract information such as patient location and CT value distribution from patient CT data or to construct complex accelerator geometry in PHITS format. Therefore, we developed two user assistance programs, DICOM2PHITS and PSFC4PHITS. DICOM2PHITS is a program to construct the voxel PHITS simulation geometry from patient CT DICOM image data. PSFC4PHITS is a program to convert the IAEA phase-space file data to PHITS format to be used as simulation source of PHITS. We explain these two programs by showing some applications in this article.

Journal Articles

Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture; Resemblances and differences

Kawata, Norio

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nihon Shibu Dai-36-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 7 Pages, 2015/12

Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th,2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since The Great East Japan Earthquake in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture.

Journal Articles

Validation of plant dynamics analysis code using shutdown heat removal test-17 performed at the EBR-II

Ohira, Hiroaki; Doda, Norihiro; Kamide, Hideki; Iwasaki, Takashi*; Minami, Masaki*

Proceedings of 2015 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2015) (CD-ROM), p.2585 - 2592, 2015/05

IAEA's Coordinated Research Project on Benchmark Analyses of Shutdown Heat Removal Test (SHRT) performed at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) has been carried out since 2012. The benchmark specifications were provided by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the model development for thermal-hydraulics codes and/or plant dynamics codes has been conducted by participating organizations. The experimental data were also provided by the ANL after the calculations have been performed as the blind simulation. JAEA participated in this benchmark analyses, and the plant dynamics analysis code; Super-COPD was applied to the SHRT-17 simulation. The calculated inlet temperature of the high pressure plenum agreed well with the test data in all simulation time. Although the Z-pipe inlet temperature and the IHX intermediate outlet temperature had some discrepancy in the first 400 sec. caused by larger mass flow rate of the primary pump and the perfect mixing model of upper plenum, these temperatures and the flow rate agreed well with the measured data after 400 sec. Hence it was concluded the present analytical model could predict the natural circulation in good accuracy.

Journal Articles

Info session on human networking held in Japan-IAEA Joint Nuclear Energy Management School; Aiming to develop human network among nuclear young generation in the world

Nishiyama, Jun*; Ohgama, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Tatsujiro*; Watanabe, Rin*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 57(2), p.123 - 125, 2015/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparisons in East Asia region

Yamamoto, Hideaki; Yoshizawa, Michio; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Momose, Takumaro*; Tsujimura, Norio*; Kanai, Katsuta*; Cruz-Suarez, R.*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 125(1-4), p.88 - 92, 2007/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of the third intercomparison exercise of external radiation dosimetry organized under the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) in the East Asia region of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Twenty five laboratories from 16 member states participated in the exercise. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) arranged the standard irradiation of the participants' dosimeters. The results of the measurements of the irradiated dosimeters for the determination of external doses were satisfactory for all participants, demonstrating good performance in their external dosimetry.

Journal Articles

Conference summary; Progress in experiments on confinement, plasma-material interactions and innovative confinement concepts

Ninomiya, Hiromasa

Nuclear Fusion, 45(10), p.S13 - S31, 2005/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This paper summarizes the results presented at the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2004 in the sessions of confinement, plasma-wall interaction and innovative confinement concept. The highlights of the presentations are as follows. Long pulse operation with high beta and high bootstrap fraction much longer than the current diffusion time has been achieved. The discharge scenario optimization and its extrapolation towards ITER have progressed remarkably. Significant progress has been made in understanding of global confinement and transport physics.

122 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)