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Journal Articles

Evaluation of crack growth rates and microstructures near the crack tip of neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels in simulated BWR environment

Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki; Seto, Hitoshi*; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Nishiyama, Yutaka

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, Vol.2, p.1039 - 1054, 2018/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100

In order to understand irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth behavior, crack growth rate (CGR) tests have been performed in simulated Boiling Water Reactor water conditions at $$sim$$288$$^{circ}$$C on neutron-irradiated 316L stainless steels (SSs) at $$sim$$12-14 dpa. After the tests, the microstructures near the crack tip of the specimens are examined with scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM). In comparison with a previous study at $$<$$$$sim$$2 dpa, this result shows a less benefit of low electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) conditions on CGR. A crack tip immersed over 1000 hours was filled with oxides, while almost no oxide film was observed near the crack front in the low-ECP conditions. In addition, a high density of deformation twins and dislocations were found near the fracture surface of the crack front. It is considered that both localized deformation and oxidation are possible dominant factors for the SCC growth in highly irradiated SSs.

Journal Articles

Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking

Pokor, C.*; Herbelin, A.*; Couvant, T.*; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

NEA/NSC/R(2016)5 (Internet), p.317 - 360, 2017/05

In aged BWR plants, certain locations in the mid-plane of the core shroud experience fluence levels at which the materials become susceptible to irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). BWRVIP (Boiling Water Reactor Vessel Internals Program) has developed crack growth disposition methodologies for evaluating intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the internal components of BWRs and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety organization (JNES) has been conducting a project related to IASCC crack growth rate data as a part of safety research and development study for the aging management and maintenance of the nuclear power plants. Although many investigators proposed prediction models for SCC and IASCC growth rates for austenitic stainless steels and Ni alloys, even more improvements of models are necessary as compared with the detailed experimental results, because these models are still preliminary models.

Journal Articles

Report on the stay in Norway as a secondee of OECD Halden Reactor Project

Hata, Kuniki

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (103), P. 65, 2017/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Bayesian nonparametric analysis of crack growth rates in irradiated austenitic stainless steels in simulated BWR environments

Chimi, Yasuhiro; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Kasahara, Shigeki*; Iwata, Keiko; Nishiyama, Yutaka

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 307, p.411 - 417, 2016/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To investigate influential parameters for irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth behavior, we attempt to analyze statistically existing data on the crack growth rate (CGR) in irradiated austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in boiling water reactor (BWR) environments using the Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) method. From the probability distribution of CGR and some input parameters, such as yield stress of irradiated material ($$sigma$$$$_{rm YS-irr}$$), stress intensity factor (${it K}$), electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), and fast neutron fluence, the mean CGR is estimated and compared with the measured CGR. The analytical results show good reproducibility of the measured CGR. The results also indicate the possible neutron fluence effects on CGR in high CGR region (i.e., high neutron fluence condition) by radiation-induced segregation (RIS), localized deformation, and/or other mechanisms than radiation hardening.

Journal Articles

Correlation between locally deformed structure and oxide film properties in austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Kasahara, Shigeki; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Nishiyama, Yutaka

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 475, p.71 - 80, 2016/07

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:55.34(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To elucidate the mechanism of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in high-temperature water for neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels (SSs), the locally deformed structures, the oxide films formed on the deformed areas, and their correlation were investigated. Tensile specimens made of irradiated 316L SSs were strained 0.1%-2% at room temperature or at 563 K, and the surface structures and crystal misorientation among grains were evaluated. The strained specimens were immersed in high-temperature water, and the microstructures of the oxide films on the locally deformed areas were observed. The appearance of visible step structures on the specimens' surface depended on the neutron dose and the applied strain. The surface oxides were observed to be prone to increase in thickness around grain boundaries (GBs) with increasing neutron dose and increasing local strain at the GBs. No penetrative oxidation was observed along GBs or along surface steps.

Journal Articles

Present status of in-pile IASCC growth tests at JMTR

Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ugachi, Hirokazu; Nakano, Junichi*; Matsui, Yoshinori; Kawamata, Kazuo; Tsukada, Takashi; Nagata, Nobuaki*; Dozaki, Koji*; Takiguchi, Hideki*

HPR-364, Vol.1 (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2005/10

Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the critical concerns when stainless steel components have been in service in light water reactors (LWRs) for a long period. In the research field of IASCC, mainly PIEs for irradiated materials have been carried out, because there are many difficulties on SCC tests under neutron irradiation. Hence as a part of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on a development of the test technique to obtain information concerning effects of applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. In this paper, we describe the developed several techniques, especially control of loading on specimens, monitoring technique of crack propagation and so on, and the present status of in-pile IASCC growth tests using pre-irradiated materials at JMTR.

JAEA Reports

JAERI-JNC joint research report; A Study on degradation of structural materials used under the irradiation environment in nuclear reactors

Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Nagae, Yuji*; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Takaya, Shigeru*; Hoshiya, Taiji*; Tsukada, Takashi; Aoto, Kazumi*; Ishii, Toshimitsu; Omi, Masao; et al.

JAERI-Research 2005-023, 132 Pages, 2005/09

JAERI-Research-2005-023.pdf:33.03MB

JAERI and JNC have started a JAERI-JNC joint research program in fiscal year 2003, which has been aimed for efficient progress and synergistic effect on the research activities in both Institutes. This study has been chosen one of the joint research themes because it has been our common objective in the field of structural materials of FBR and LWR components. The purpose of the study is to clarify damage mechanism of structural materials used under irradiation, and then to develop the methods for damage evaluation and detection in earlier stage of progressing process of damage. In fiscal year 2004 and 2005, micro-corrosion measurement, electrochemical corrosion test and leakage magnetic flux density measurement apparatuses were developed and equipped in two hot facilities and irradiated and unirradiated crept specimens, irradiated high purity model austenitic stainless alloys were also prepared and applied to this study. These apparatuses and specimens were used for damage evaluation, and these feasibilities for nuclear power plant materials were studied.

Journal Articles

Stress corrosion cracking growth behavior of in-core materials

Kaji, Yoshiyuki

Proceedings of KNS-AESJ Joint Summer School 2005 for Students and Young Researchers, 2, p.221 - 228, 2005/08

For core internals, the main research items are intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of low carbon stainless steel in core shrouds and primary loop recirculation pipes in boiling water reactor (BWR), and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) which is caused by the synergistic effects of neutron and gamma-ray radiation, corrosion by high temperature water, and the residual and/or applied stresses. This paper describes the current status and typical results of fundamental study for mechanistic understanding of IGSCC and IASCC, development of IASCC evaluation technology for BWR plants based on post-irradiation IASCC test data as a part of METI's national project, in-pile IASCC tests.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of JMTR, No.18, FY2003; April 1, 2003 - March 31, 2004

Department of JMTR

JAERI-Review 2004-029, 100 Pages, 2005/01

JAERI-Review-2004-029.pdf:19.03MB

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of test techniques for in-pile SCC initiation and growth tests and the current status of in-pile testing at JMTR

Ugachi, Hirokazu; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Nakano, Junichi*; Matsui, Yoshinori; Kawamata, Kazuo; Tsukada, Takashi; Nagata, Nobuaki*; Dozaki, Koji*; Takiguchi, Hideki*

Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors (CD-ROM), p.319 - 325, 2005/00

Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the critical concerns when stainless steel components have been in service in light water reactors (LWRs) for a long period. In the research field of IASCC, mainly PIEs for irradiated materials have been carried out, because there are many difficulties on SCC tests under neutron irradiation. Hence as a part of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on a development of the test technique to obtain information concerning effects of applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. In this conference, we describe the developed several techniques, especially control of loading on specimens, monitoring technique of crack initiation, propagation and water chemistry, and the current status of in-pile SCC tests using thermally sensitized materials at JMTR.

Journal Articles

Plastic deformation behavior of type 316LN stainless steel in non-irradiated, thermallysensitized condition or in irradiated condition during SSRT

Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Jitsukawa, Shiro

Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors (CD-ROM), p.311 - 318, 2005/00

Plastic deformation behavior to influence the stress corrosion cracking was studied for the thermally-sensitized and the irradiated type 316LN stainless steel. SSRT was conducted at 573 K in oxygenated water (DO=10ppm) for specimens. Each of the specimens was thermally sensitized at 1033 K for 100 h or irradiated at 473 K to 1 dpa. Between these specimens, the plastic deformation behavior and the IGSCC were compared. For the irradiated specimens, plastic deformation behavior such as the work hardening capability and the maximum stress where IASCC initiated was similar to that of thermally-sensitized specimens in true stress-true strain relation. Moreover, the effect of strain rate on %IGSCC was the same each other. It was suggested from these results that for specimens irradiated around 1 dpa, the initiation mechanism of IASCC was similar to that of IGSCC for thermally-sensitized specimens.

JAEA Reports

JNC-JAERI united research report; A Study on degradation of structural materials under irradiation environment in nuclear reactors (Joint research)

Hoshiya, Taiji*; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Takaya, Shigeru*; Nagae, Yuji*; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Aoto, Kazumi*; Tsukada, Takashi; Abe, Yasuhiro*; Nakamura, Yasuo*; et al.

JAERI-Research 2004-016, 53 Pages, 2004/10

JAERI-Research-2004-016.pdf:22.07MB

Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) have started a JNC-JAERI united research program cooperatively in 2003, which has been aimed for efficient progress and synergistic effect on the research activities of both Institutes in order to lead the facing task of unification between JNC and JAERI. This study has been chosen one of the united research themes, and the purpose of it is to clarify damage mechanism of structural materials under irradiation, and then to develop the methods for damage evaluation and detection in earlier stage of progressing process of damage. In fiscal year 2003, magnetic flux density distribution (JNC) and micro-corrosion (JAERI) measurement apparatus were newly developed and equipped in Hot Facilities in two Institutes, respectively. These apparatus were designed and produced in consideration of radiation resistance and remote-controlled operation to equip in hot cells. We will start the study on neutron irradiation damage by employing the two apparatus as the next step.

Journal Articles

Effects of irradiation and water temperatures on IASCC susceptibility of stainless steels

Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi

Proceedings of 8th Japan-China Symposium on Materials for Advanced Energy Systems and Fission & Fusion Engineering, p.161 - 168, 2004/10

Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the environmental degradation problems of in-core structural materials for light water reactors. The effects of irradiation and water temperatures on the IASCC were studied using type 316(LN) stainless steels irradiated at 333-673 K to 1.1-16 dpa. IASCC did not occur at 513 K in oxygenated water for specimens irradiated below 573 K to 1.1-16 dpa, but IASCC occurred above 533 K in oxygenated water for all specimens. The irradiation temperature had a strong influence on IASCC susceptibility at 513 K in oxygenated water, so that the irradiation temperature dependence was compared with the temperature dependence of other radiation-induced phenomena.

Journal Articles

In-core ECP sensor designed for the IASCC experiments at JMTR

Tsukada, Takashi; Miwa, Yukio; Ugachi, Hirokazu; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio; Nagata, Nobuaki*; Dozaki, Koji*

Proceedings of International Conference on Water Chemistry of Nuclear Reactor Systems (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2004/10

IASCC initiation and propagation tests will be performed on the per-irradiated specimen in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Since in core, the radiolysis of water causes a generation of various kind of radical species and some oxidizing species such as hydrogen peroxide, the water chemistry in irradiation capsules must be assessed by measurements of the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP). For the in-core measurement of ECP in JMTR, we fabricated and tested the Fe/Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ type ECP sensor. After the fabrication, the function of each sensor was examined in high temperature water by out-of-core thermal cycling and high temperature holding tests.

Journal Articles

Effects of silicon, carbon and molybdenum additions on IASCC of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steels

Nakano, Junichi; Miwa, Yukio; Koya, Toshio; Tsukada, Takashi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 329-333(Part1), p.643 - 647, 2004/08

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:51.86(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To study effects of minor elements on the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), high purity Type 304 and 316 stainless steels (SSs) were fabricated and added minor elements, Si or C. After neutron irradiation to 3.5$$times$$10$$^{25}$$n/m$$^{2}$$ (E$$>$$1MeV), the slow strain rate tests (SSRT) for the irradiated specimens was conducted in oxygeneted high purity water at 561 K. Fracture surface of the specimens was examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the SSRT. Fraction of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) on the fracture surface after the SSRT increased with netron fluence. Suppression of irradiation hardening and increase of peiod to SCC fracture as benefitical effects of the additional elements, Si or Mo, were not observed obviously. In high purity SS added C, fraction of IGSCC was the smallest in the all SSs, although irraidiation hardening level was the largest in the all SSs. Addition of C suppressed the susceptibility to IGSCC.

JAEA Reports

Development of facility for in-situ observation during slow strain rate test for irradiated materials

Nakano, Junichi; Tsukada, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Terakado, Shogo; Koya, Toshio; Endo, Shinya

JAERI-Tech 2003-092, 54 Pages, 2004/01

JAERI-Tech-2003-092.pdf:14.05MB

Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a degradation phenomenon caused by synergy of neutron radiation, aqueous environment and stress on in-core materials, and it is an important issue in accordance with increase of aged light water reactors. Isolating crack initiation stage from crack growth stage is very useful for the evaluation of the IASCC behavior. Hence facility for in-situ observation during slow strain rate test (SSRT) for irradiated material was developed. As performance demonstrations of the facility, tensile test with in-situ observation and SSRT without observation were carried out using unirradiated type 304 stainless steel in 561 K water at 9 MPa. The following were confirmed from the results. (1) Handling, observation and recording of specimen can be operated using manipulators in the hot cell. (2) In-situ observation can be performed in pressurized high temperature water and flat sheet type specimen is suitable for the in-situ observation. (3) Test condition can be kept constantly and data can be obtained automatically for long test period.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of JMTR, No.17, FY2002; April 1, 2002 - March 31, 2003

Department of JMTR

JAERI-Review 2003-041, 89 Pages, 2004/01

JAERI-Review-2003-041.pdf:6.32MB

During the FY2002 (April 2002 to March 2003), the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) was operated in three operation cycles for studies on the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of internal structures of light water reactors, development of the fusion blanket, basic materials research, radioisotope production, and so on. The reactor was twice subjected to unscheduled shutdowns, once due to an error signal of the control-rod drive mechanism and afterwards due to leakage of primary coolant. Recovery and corrective actions were taken properly, such as improvements in related facilities and revision of operation manuals. Besides, the beryllium reflector frames were replaced, which are internal structures of the JMTR. Concerning development on techniques for irradiation utilization, noticeable progress was made in an evaluation method of neutron and $$gamma$$-ray heating rates of materials in JMTR irradiation, in development and installation of a monitoring and control system of specimen temperatures for IASCC irradiation examinations, and in successful performance tests by a post-irradiation crack-growth testing device, which brought a prospect of comparative studies between in-situ and post-irradiation examinations. In studies on the fusion blanket, a basic process was established for production of tritium breeder pebbles, and irradiation techniques were developed for in-pile functional tests of a simulated blanket module. In addition, joint seminars were held with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) on techniques for irradiation and post-irradiation examinations. The present report summarizes the JMTR operation and related technical development in the Department of JMTR during the FY2002.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of corrosion behavior on ion irradiated stainless steel using AFM

Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors (CD-ROM), p.1185 - 1190, 2004/01

The aim of this work is to evaluate corrosion behavior of irradiated materials for mechanistic understanding of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Solution annealed high purity Fe-18Cr-12Ni specimens were used in this study. H and He were implanted during irradiation with 12MeV Ni$$^{3+}$$ ion at 573K and 673K. After corrosion procedure, the specimens were examined with atomic force microscope (AFM) to evaluate corrosion behavior. It was shown that the corroded volume of irradiated area increased with radiation damage. H implantation at lower temperature accelerated corrosion, but H implantation at higher temperature did not accelerate corrosion. He implantation suppressed corrosion, and corroded volume was larger for the specimens irradiated at 673K than these at 573K. It is suggested from this study that implantations of H and He affect the passivating behavior of Ni$$^{3+}$$ ion irradiated alloy.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of corrosion behavior of ion irradiated stainless steel using atomic force microscope

Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi

Nippon AEM Gakkai-Shi, 11(4), p.242 - 248, 2003/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Influence of H and He on corrosion behavior of ion irradiated stainless steel

Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi; Abe, Hiroaki*; Sekimura, Naoto*

JAERI-Review 2003-033, TIARA Annual Report 2002, p.171 - 173, 2003/11

The aim of this work is to evaluate corrosion behavior of irradiated materials for mechanistic understanding of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Solution annealed high purity Fe-18Cr-12Ni specimens were used in this study. H and He were implanted during irradiation with 12MeV Ni$$^{3+}$$ ion at 573K. After corrosion procedure, the specimens were examined with atomic force microscope (AFM) to evaluate corrosion behavior. It was shown that the corroded volume of irradiated area increased with radiation damage. H implantation at lower temperature accelerated corrosion. He implantation suppressed corrosion.

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