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Journal Articles

Development of a function calculating internal dose coefficients based on ICRP 2007 Recommendations

Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

BIO Web of Conferences (Internet), 14, p.03011_1 - 03011_2, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.23

Dose coefficients, which are committed effective dose per unit intake of radionuclides, are fundamental amounts for dose estimation and protection standards against internal exposures. In this study, we built a calculation function of dose coefficients using the latest dosimetric models and data as a part of development of internal dosimetry code in accordance with 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). Quality of the function was assured by comparing the results generated by the function to values recorded in a database of dose coefficients for workers provided by ICRP. In the presentation, we will report the results of quality assurance and the future plans of code development.

Journal Articles

Overview of computational frog models

Kinase, Sakae; Mohammadi, A.*; G$'o$mez-Ros, J.-M.*

Computational Anatomical Animal Models; Methodological Developments and Research Applications, p.5_1 - 5_9, 2018/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.04

Journal Articles

Current situations and discussions in Japan in relation to the new occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye

Yokoyama, Sumi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Hayashida, Toshiyuki*; Tsujimura, Norio; Tatsuzaki, Hideo*; Kurosawa, Tadahiro*; Nabatame, Kuniaki*; Oguchi, Hiroyuki*; Ono, Kazuko*; Kawaura, Chiyo*; et al.

Journal of Radiological Protection, 37(3), p.659 - 683, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:84.86(Environmental Sciences)

Since the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended reducing the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye in 2011, there have been extensive discussions in various countries. This paper reviews the current situations in radiation protection of the ocular lens and the discussions on the potential impact of the new lens dose limit in Japan. Topics include historical changes to the lens dose limit, the current situations in occupational lens exposures (e.g., in medical workers, nuclear workers, and Fukushima nuclear power plant workers) and measurements, and the current status of biological studies and epidemiological studies on radiation cataracts. Our focus is on the situations in Japan, but we believe such information sharing will be useful in many other countries.

Journal Articles

Recent discussion on protection quantities and operational quantities by ICRP and ICRU

Endo, Akira

Hoken Butsuri, 52(1), p.39 - 41, 2017/03

Radiological protection requires the quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionizing radiation. To this end, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) developed a dosimetry system consisting of protection quantities and operational quantities. The existing dosimetry system has been successfully used in radiological protection practice and regulations. Nevertheless, the system has some limitations and needs further improvements to consider changes in the fields of radiological protection. ICRP and ICRU have been discussing the issues to propose an alternative system of radiation dosimetry. This presentation overviews recent discussion on the protection quantities and operational quantities by ICRP and ICRU and the proposed dosimetry system for radiological protection.

Journal Articles

Operational quantities and new approach by ICRU

Endo, Akira

Annals of the ICRP, 45(1S), p.178 - 187, 2016/06

The protection quantities, equivalent dose in an organ or tissue and effective dose, were developed by ICRP to allow quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionizing radiation to be used for the implementation of the limitation and optimization principles. The body-related protection quantities are not measurable in practice. Therefore, ICRU developed a set of operational dose quantities for use in radiation measurements for external radiations that provide assessment of the protection quantities. ICRU has examined the rationale for operational quantities taking into account the changes in the definitions of the protection quantities in the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. The committee has investigated a set of alternative definitions for operational quantities different to the existing quantities. The major change in the currently favoured set of quantities is the redefinition of the operational quantities for area monitoring from being based on doses at a point in the ICRU sphere to ones based on particle fluence and the relationship to the protection quantities.

Journal Articles

Summary of ICRP Symposium on Radiological Protection Dosimetry

Endo, Akira; Hamada, Nobuyuki*

Isotope News, (745), p.42 - 43, 2016/06

ICRP Symposium on Radiological Protection Dosimetry was held in Hongo campus, the University of Tokyo on February 18, 2016. Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is engaged in the development of dose coefficients for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposures; development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, and reference data for workers and members of the public. The symposium aimed at reviewing the current work of ICRP and discussing research needed for the ICRP System of radiological protection dosimetry. This article reviews the presentations and discussion in the symposium.

Journal Articles

Calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a measure of excess cancer risk following radiation exposure

Shimada, Kazumasa; Kai, Michiaki*

Journal of Radiological Protection, 35(4), p.763 - 775, 2015/12

AA2014-0479.pdf:1.53MB

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:48.17(Environmental Sciences)

This paper has proposed that disability-adjusted life year (DALY) can be used as a measure of radiation health risk. DALY is calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). This multidimensional concept can be expressed as a risk index without a probability measure to avoid the misuse of the current radiation detriment at low doses. In this study, we calculated YLL and YLD using Japanese population data by gender. DALY for all cancers in Japan per 1 Gy per person was 0.84 year in men and 1.34 year in women. When we calculated the ICRP detriment from the same data, DALYs for the cancer sites were similar to the radiation detriment in the cancer sites, excluding leukemia, breast and thyroid cancer. A big advantage over the ICRP detriment is that DALY can calculate the risk components for non-fatal diseases without the data of lethality. This study showed that DALY is a practical tool that can compare many types of diseases encountered in public health.

Journal Articles

ICRP Publication 116 "Conversion Coefficients for Radiological Protection Quantities for External Radiation Exposures"; Summary

Endo, Akira

Isotope News, (736), p.34 - 37, 2015/08

Japanese translation of ICRP Publication 116 entitled "Conversion Coefficients for Radiological Protection Quantities for External Radiation Exposures" was published by the Japan Radioisotope Association in March 2015. The book gives fluence to dose conversion coefficients for both effective dose and organ absorbed doses for various types of external exposures, consistent with the 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP. A complete set of conversion coefficients is provided in an accompanying CD in ASCII format and Microsoft Excel software. This article overviews ICRP Publication 116 and its impact to practice of radiation protection.

Journal Articles

What nuclear and radiation professional engineers should do for the sake of people after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Sasaki, Satoru

Gijutsushi, 27(3), p.12 - 15, 2015/03

There seem to be a problem, though, the people tend to take safety and relief (Anzen-Anshin) as the same concept, without correctly understanding the concept of risk. It is an important issue, then, for the specialists of science and technology how to secure safety as well as how to inform the public about safety. Here I consider what nuclear and radiation professional engineers should do to transfer the information on safety to achieve Anshin (relief) among the public in Japan after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

Journal Articles

Development of lung and soft tissue substitutes for photons

Kinase, Sakae; Kimura, Masaya*; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 115(1-4), p.284 - 288, 2005/12

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:59.05(Environmental Sciences)

We have developed polyurethane-based tissue substitutes simulating lung, soft tissue, muscle, muscle-adipose mixture tissue, cartilage, brain, larynx, trachea, thyroid, kidney, liver and skin. The formulation of the tissue substitutes for photons was based on the basic data method together with an equation for calculating the optimum relative mass of corrective additives. The tissue substitutes were formulated to be phantom materials in the photon energy range of at least 10 keV-10 MeV. In particular, they were designed to match the tissues with linear attenuation coefficients for low photon energy (13.6, 17.2 and 20.2 keV from $$^{239}$$Pu) and to have the same mass densities as the tissues. The tissue substitutes developed in the present study were examined for the photon transmissions using 16.6 keV KX-rays from $$^{93}$$Nb$$^{m}$$. The experimental transmission curves of the substitutes were found to be in good agreement with those derived from data on the tissues in ICRP Publication 23. It was found that the tissue substitutes are suitable as the corresponding tissues defined in ICRP.

JAEA Reports

Nuclear Decay Data for Dosimetry Calculation; Revised data of ICRP Publication 38

Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Eckerman, K. F.*

JAERI 1347, 114 Pages, 2005/02

JAERI-1347.pdf:6.57MB

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

11th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association

Kinase, Sakae; Saegusa, Jun; Sagawa, Hiroyuki*; Hosoda, Masahiro*

Hoken Butsuri, 39(4), p.307 - 311, 2004/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

JAEA Reports

Dose evaluation with ICRP Publication 60 at postulated accidents of NSRR, 2003

Kashima, Yoichi; Taki, Mitsumasa; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Sasajima, Hideo; Nakamura, Takehiko

JAERI-Tech 2003-088, 100 Pages, 2003/12

JAERI-Tech-2003-088.pdf:5.55MB

A new experiment plan is in progress to perform pulse-irradiation experiments at the NSRR with irradiated fuel rods in the high temperature and high pressure capsules. This report describes the results of the public dose evaluation for the design basis accident and postulated accidents with the models that follow the ICRP Publication 60. It was confirmed that the results met the criteria for safety design and siting with ample margins.

Journal Articles

Nuclear decay data used in radiation protection

Endo, Akira

Hoken Butsuri, 38(4), p.308 - 317, 2003/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development and assessment of new radioactive decay database used for dosimetry calculation

Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Eckerman, K. F.*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 105(1-4), p.565 - 569, 2003/09

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:61.24(Environmental Sciences)

The present paper discusses a strategy for the development of a new radioactive decay database, which will succeed ICRP Publ.38 used for dosimetry calculations. The development of the database requires 1) Consistency checking of the ENSDF used for compilation of the decay data, 2) Improvement of the computer code EDISTR for processing the ENSDF, and 3) Comparison with other decay data prepared from the different computer codes and libraries for the verification of the compiled data. This paper identifies several technical issues that need to be addressed for the development of the new radioactive decay database.

Journal Articles

Topical Meeting on a New System of Radiological Protection

Kinase, Sakae

Hoken Butsuri, 38(1), p.24 - 27, 2003/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Views from the Japan Health Physics Society

Mizushita, Seiichi

Proceedings of Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection, p.12-1-1 - 12-1-5, 2002/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Reassessment of nuclear decay database used for dose calculation

Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 39(Suppl.2), p.1433 - 1436, 2002/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Nuclear decay data used in radiation protection and medical application

Endo, Akira

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 43(12), p.1191 - 1194, 2001/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Nuclear decay data, a set of data on half-life and energies and intensities of radiations emitted by nuclear transformation, are required in calculating external and internal doses by emissions from radionuclides. A nuclear decay database, which has been the most widely used for dose calculation in radiation protection, is Publication 38 (ICRP38) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The paper describes overview of ICRP38 and a future plan of its revision.

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