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JAEA Reports

Development of genetic and electrochemical diagnosis and inhibition technologies for invisible corrosion caused by microorganisms (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; National Institute for Materials Science*

JAEA-Review 2021-059, 71 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Review-2021-059.pdf:4.25MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of genetic and electrochemical diagnosis and inhibition technologies for invisible corrosion caused by microorganisms" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to develop innovative diagnostic techniques such as accelerated test specimens and on-site genetic testing for microbially induced and accelerated corrosion of metallic materials (microbially influenced corrosion, MIC), and to identify the conditions that promote MIC at 1F for proposing methods to prevent MIC through water quality and environmental control. We also aim to develop a research base based on materials, microorganisms, and electrochemistry, to develop technologies that can be used by engineers in the field, and to cultivate leade

JAEA Reports

Investigation of environment induced property change and cracking behavior in fuel debris (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2021-058, 75 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Review-2021-058.pdf:4.82MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Investigation of environment induced property change and cracking behavior in fuel debris" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to investigate the environment induced property change and cracking behavior in fuel debris from the viewpoints of materials science. The research objective is cracking behavior in fuel debris which is presumed to be influenced by environment during long-term fuel debris processing period. The degradation models will be established to simulate the oxidation and hydrogenation processes possibly occurred at fuel debris. The evolution of phase constitution and the corresponding property change in the simulated fuel debris under various environmental conditions will be systematically

JAEA Reports

Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Keio University*

JAEA-Review 2021-048, 181 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-048.pdf:14.5MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms" conducted in FY2019 and FY2020. Since the final year of this proposal was FY2020, the results for two fiscal years were summarized. The purpose of the study is to obtain knowledge related to microorganisms that will be useful in the decommissioning process of 1F. Therefore, we clarified the current conditions of the microbial community inhabiting the power plant and its premises. Environmental samples were taken from several sites such as, topsoil from the south of the plant site boundary (south of the treated water tanks), seabed soil and its above water near the plant, surface water 3km offshore, and metagenomic

JAEA Reports

Safe, efficient cementation of challenging radioactive wastes using alkali activated materials with high-flowability and high-anion retention capacity (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Hokkaido University*

JAEA-Review 2021-036, 95 Pages, 2021/12

JAEA-Review-2021-036.pdf:5.13MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Safe, efficient cementation of challenging radioactive wastes using alkali activated materials with high-flowability and high-anion retention capacity" conducted in FY2020. For safe storage and disposal of iron sludge generated from contaminated water treatment, the present study aims to 1) explore alkali activated materials (AAM) with high-flowability and high-anion retention capacity and its recipe, 2) try mock-up manufacture and evaluation for one-tenth the size of real waste and propose the concept of the manufacturing equipment for a real plant, 3) show potential of AAM as the material for the solidification of waste with various physicochemical properties and radioactive nuclide compositions from the result of

Journal Articles

Fe, Mn and $$^{238}$$U accumulations in ${it Phragmites australis}$ naturally growing at the mill tailings pond; Iron plaque formation possibly related to root-endophytic bacteria producing siderophores

Nakamoto, Yukihiro*; Doyama, Kohei*; Haruma, Toshikatsu*; Lu, X.*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Fukuyama, Kenjin; Fukushima, Shigeru; Ohara, Yoshiyuki; Yamaji, Keiko*

Minerals (Internet), 11(12), p.1337_1 - 1337_17, 2021/12

Mine drainage is a vital water problem in the mining industry worldwide because of the heavy metal elements and low pH. Rhizofiltration using wetland plants is an appropriate method to remove heavy metals from the water via accumulation in the rhizosphere. ${it Phragmites australis}$ is one of the candidate plants for this method because of metal accumulation, forming iron plaque around the roots. At the study site, which was the mill tailings pond in the Ningyo-toge uranium mine, ${it P. australis}$ has been naturally growing since 1998. The results showed that ${it P. australis}$ accumulated Fe, Mn, and $$^{238}$$U in the nodal roots without/with iron plaque compared with other plant tissues. Among the 837 bacterial colonies isolated from nodal roots, 88.6% showed siderophore production activities. Considering iron plaque formation around ${it P. australis}$ roots, we hypothesized that microbial siderophores might influence iron plaque formation because bacterial siderophores have catechol-like functional groups. The complex of catechol or other phenolics with Fe was precipitated due to the networks between Fe and phenolic derivatives. The experiment using bacterial products of root endophytes, such as ${it Pseudomonas}$ spp. and ${it Rhizobium}$ spp., showed precipitation with Fe ions, and we confirmed that several ${it Ps.}$ spp. and ${it R.}$ spp. produced unidentified phenolic compounds. In conclusion, root-endophytic bacteria such as ${it Pseudomonas}$ spp. and ${it R.}$ spp., isolated from metal-accumulating roots of ${it P. australis}$, might influence iron plaque formation as the metal accumulation site. Iron plaque formation is related to tolerance in ${it P. australis}$, and ${it Ps.}$ spp. and ${it R.}$ spp. might indirectly contribute to tolerance.

JAEA Reports

Environmental performance data in "Environmental report 2020"

Safety and Environmental Management Section, Safety and Nuclear Security Administration Department

JAEA-Review 2021-005, 209 Pages, 2021/11

JAEA-Review-2021-005.pdf:6.92MB

In September, 2020 Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) published the Environmental Report 2020 concerning the activities of FY 2019 under "Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc., by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures". This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2019 as the base of the Environmental Report 2020. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA.

Journal Articles

The Effect and effectiveness of decontaminating a pond in a residential area of Fukushima

Katengeza, E. W.*; Ochi, Kotaro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Iimoto, Takeshi*; Yoshinaga, Shinji*

Health Physics, 121(1), p.48 - 57, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

Special reconstruction and revitalization bases were designated in Fukushima's difficult-to-return zones by the Japanese government as targets of intensive decontamination to drastically lower air dose rates and enable residents to return. A pond amidst residences of one of these bases was targeted for decontamination and this study aimed at evaluating the effect and effectiveness of the decontamination by decontamination factor, air dose rate reduction factor, and the additional annual effective dose to residents. Air dose rates were measured in-situ with KURAMMA-II while soil core samples were collected and measured for radioactivity in the laboratory by gamma spectrometry. Lower decontamination factors were observed for more deeply distributed radiocesium soil profiles whereas areas covered with gravel demonstrated the largest reduction in air dose rates. Decontamination effectively lowered the radiocesium inventory and air dose rates by 51% and 37-91% respectively. Moreover, the additional annual effective dose to the public changed from 1.7$$pm$$0.79 mSv to 1.2$$pm$$0.57 mSv because of decontamination representing a dose aversion of 29%. These findings demonstrate how decontaminating ponds in residential areas can help to further lower the external exposure.

Journal Articles

Iodine-129 in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant and the environment

Nakano, Masanao

Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 56(1), p.17 - 25, 2021/03

The Tokai Reprocessing Plant is the first reprocessing plant in Japan which started hot test in 1977, and had reprocessed 1140 tons of spent nuclear fuel by May 2007. The gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes has been discharged to the environment. Since iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) is one of the most important nuclides for environmental impact assessment. Therefore, $$^{129}$$I in the exhaust and effluent has been controlled, and a precise analysis method of $$^{129}$$I in the environmental samples was developed, and the concentration of 129I in the environment was investigated. This report presents an overview of these activities. Not limited to $$^{129}$$I on reprocessing facilities, it is essential for nuclear operators to reduce the amount released to the environment in the spirit of ALARA, and to continuously develop the further upgrading environmental monitoring methods and evaluation methods in order to foster a sense of safety and security among residents living in the vicinity of the facilities.

Journal Articles

Measurement of nuclide production cross-sections of $$^{mathrm{nat}}$$Fe for 0.4-3.0 GeV protons in J-PARC

Matsuda, Hiroki; Takeshita, Hayato*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011047_1 - 011047_6, 2021/03

Accurate nuclide production cross-section data are required for the design of Accelerator-Driven nuclear transmutation System (ADS) such as the design of radioactive waste disposal, design of remote-handling procedure of highly activated components, and evaluation of exposure doses of rad-workers. Although much efforts have been devoted to nuclide production cross-section measurements so far, uncertainties of the measured data are sometimes large as several tens percentage, and there is no experimental data in the GeV energy region even for some of important nuclides. In this study, proton induced nuclide production cross-section of iron, which is the most important constituent element of steel, was measured. The present experiment was compared with calculations by the PHITS code with several physics models including Bertini and INCL4.6 and evaluated nuclear data JENDL-HE/2007. The most significant discrepancy found in this study was the production cross sections via the (p,xn) reaction. It was suggested that further improvements, such as the in-medium effect on the nucleon-nucleon scattering and the Pauli blocking, were required in the intra-nuclear cascade models used in this study.

JAEA Reports

Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Keio University*

JAEA-Review 2020-047, 63 Pages, 2021/01

JAEA-Review-2020-047.pdf:3.85MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms" conducted in FY2019. The purpose of the study is to obtain knowledge related to microorganisms that will be useful in the decommissioning process of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. For this reason, the current conditions of the microbial community inhabiting the power plant and its premises will be clarified. In the first research year, we obtained environmental samples such as soils from the south of the boundary of the plant, seabed soils near the plant, and surface water 3 km offshore from the plant, and successfully prepared their microbial genomic DNAs. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed bacterial and micro

JAEA Reports

Environmental performance data in annual report "Japan Atomic Energy Agency 2019"

Safety and Environmental Management Section, Safety and Nuclear Security Administration Department

JAEA-Review 2020-019, 196 Pages, 2020/11

JAEA-Review-2020-019.pdf:6.21MB

We have prepared Annual Report "Japan Atomic Energy Agency 2019" as a means for comprehensively reporting on the activities of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In September, 2019 Japan Atomic Energy Agency published results of environmental activity as a part of Annual Report "Japan Atomic Energy Agency 2019" concerning the activities of FY 2018 under "Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc., by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures". This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2018 as the base of "Annual Report Japan Atomic Energy Agency 2019" and its additional information's. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promotion of environment-conscious activities in JAEA.

Journal Articles

Simulation analysis of the Compton-to-peak method for quantifying radiocesium deposition quantities

Malins, A.; Ochi, Kotaro; Machida, Masahiko; Sanada, Yukihisa

Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.147 - 154, 2020/10

Journal Articles

Mechanical and thermal properties of Zr-B and Fe-B alloys

Sun, Y.*; Abe, Yuta; Muta, Hiroaki*; Oishi, Yuji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.917 - 925, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:39.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

A Knowledge-sharing activity on the environmental radiation monitoring results affected by the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident at Tokai-Oarai area in Ibaraki Prefecture

Nakano, Masanao; Hosomi, Kenji; Nishimura, Shusaku; Matsubara, Natsumi; Okura, Takehisa; Kuramochi, Akihiko; Kawasaki, Masatsugu; Takeuchi, Erina; Fujii, Yutaka*; Jinno, Tsukasa*; et al.

Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 55(2), p.102 - 109, 2020/06

After the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) Accident in March 2011, the increase was significantly observed in a part of the result of the environmental radiation monitoring in Ibaraki prefecture. "The review meeting of the environmental effect from 1F accident" was established to discuss technically the fluctuation of monitoring data. The review meeting collected the monitoring data from the four nuclear operators, and discussed a fluctuating trend, $$^{134}$$Cs/$$^{137}$$Cs activity ratio, and so on. In this report, the results of the dose rate and $$^{137}$$Cs in fallout, surface soil, flatfish and seabed sediment are introduced. Also the problem solving in the review meeting is introduced.

Journal Articles

Temporal change in radiological environments on land after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Saito, Kimiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Ando, Masaki; Matsuda, Norihiro; Kinase, Sakae; Tsuda, Shuichi; Sato, Tetsuro*; Seki, Akiyuki; Sanada, Yukihisa; Wainwright-Murakami, Haruko*; et al.

Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 44(4), p.128 - 148, 2019/12

Journal Articles

Intercomparison of numerical atmospheric dispersion prediction models for emergency response to emissions of radionuclides with limited source information in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Iwasaki, Toshiki*; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi*; Nakajima, Teruyuki*; Watanabe, Akira*; Suzuki, Yasushi*; Kondo, Hiroaki*; Morino, Yu*; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Takigawa, Masayuki*; et al.

Atmospheric Environment, 214, p.116830_1 - 116830_11, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:39.15(Environmental Sciences)

The utilization of numerical atmospheric dispersion prediction (NDP) models for accidental discharge of radioactive substances was recommended by a working group of the Meteorological Society of Japan. This paper is to validate the recommendation through NDP model intercomparison in the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Emission intensity is assumed to be constant during the whole forecast period for the worst-case scenario unless time sequence of emission is available. We expect to utilize forecasts of surface air contaminations for preventions of inhalations of radioactive substances, and column-integrated amounts for mitigation of radiation exposure associated with wet deposition. Although NDP forecasts have ensemble spread, they commonly figure out relative risk in space and time. They are of great benefit to disseminating effective warnings to public without failure. The multi-model ensemble technique may be effective to improve the reliability.

JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima (FY2018)

Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.

JAEA-Research 2019-002, 235 Pages, 2019/08

JAEA-Research-2019-002.pdf:21.04MB

The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (hereinafter referred to 1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, JAEA has been conducting Long-term Environmental Dynamics Research concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.

Journal Articles

Cryogenic sample environments shared at the MLF, J-PARC

Kawamura, Seiko; Takahashi, Ryuta*; Ishikado, Motoyuki*; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro*; Nakamura, Masatoshi*; Ouchi, Keiichi*; Kira, Hiroshi*; Kambara, Wataru*; Aoyama, Kazuhiro*; Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; et al.

Journal of Neutron Research, 21(1-2), p.17 - 22, 2019/05

The Cryogenics and Magnets group in the Sample Environment team is responsible for operation of cryostats and magnets for user's experiments at the MLF in J-PARC. We have introduced a top-loading $$^4$$He cryostat, a bottom-loading $$^3$$He cryostat, a dilution refrigerator insert and a superconducting magnet. The frequency of use of them dramatically becomes higher in these two years, as the beam power and the number of proposal increase. To respond such situation, we have made efforts to enhance performance of these equipment as follows. The $$^3$$He cryostat originally involves an operation software for automatic initial cooling down to the base temperature and automatic re-charge of $$^3$$He. Recently we made an additional program for automatic temperature control with only the sorb heater. Last year, a new outer vacuum chamber of the magnet with an oscillating radial collimator (ORC) was fabricated. The data quality was drastically improved by introducing this ORC so that the magnet can be used even for the inelastic neutron scattering experiments.

Journal Articles

Estimation of the release time of radio-tellurium during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and its relationship to individual plant events

Takahashi, Sentaro*; Kawashima, Shigeto*; Hidaka, Akihide; Tanaka, Sota*; Takahashi, Tomoyuki*

Nuclear Technology, 205(5), p.646 - 654, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:42.44(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

A Laboratory investigation of microbial degradation of simulant fuel debris by oxidizing microorganisms

Liu, J.; Dotsuta, Yuma; Kitagaki, Toru; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamaji, Keiko*; Onuki, Toshihiko

Proceedings of International Topical Workshop on Fukushima Decommissioning Research (FDR 2019) (Internet), 2 Pages, 2019/05

To decommission the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), it is necessary to estimate the current status of fuel debris and predicate the possible change under various condition. Some microorganisms may enter the plant due to the seawater injection after accident and future defueling activity. In this study, microbial influence on fuel debris under aerobic condition was experimentally investigated. By culturing some bacteria in the presence of simulant fuel debris in liquid medium, the microbial degradation of fuel debris was observed.

288 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)