Riyana, E. S.; Okumura, Keisuke; Terashima, Kenichi; Matsumura, Taichi; Sakamoto, Masahiro
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00543_1 - 19-00543_8, 2020/06
Carter, L. M.*; Crawford, T. M.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Choi, C.*; Kim, C. H.*; Brown, J. L.*; Bolch, W. E.*; Zanzonico, P. B.*; Lewis, J. S.*
Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 60(12), p.1802 - 1811, 2019/12
Voxel human phantoms have been used for internal dose assessment. More anatomically accurate representation become possible for skins or layer tissues owing to recent developments of advanced polygonal mesh-type phantoms and thus internal dose assessment using those advanced phantoms are desired. However, the Monte Carlo transport calculation by implementing those phantoms require an advanced knowledge for the Monte Carlo transport codes and it is only limited to experts. We therefore developed a tool, PARaDIM, which enables users to conduct internal dose calculation with PHITS easily by themselves. With this tool, a user can select tetrahedral-mesh phantoms, set radionuclides in organs, and execute radiation transport calculation with PHITS. Several test cases of internal dosimetry calculations were presented and usefulness of this tool was demonstrated.
Yeom, Y. S.*; Han, M. C.*; Choi, C.*; Han, H.*; Shin, B.*; Furuta, Takuya; Kim, C. H.*
Health Physics, 116(5), p.664 - 676, 2019/05
Recently, Task Group 103 of the ICRP developed the mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MCRPs), which are planned for use in future ICRP dose coefficient calculation. Performance of major Monte Carlo particle transport codes (Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS) were tested with MCRP. External and internal exposure of various particles and energies were calculated and the computational times and required memories were compared. Additionally calculation for voxel-mesh phantom was also conducted so that the influence of different mesh-representation in each code was studied. Memory usage of MRCP was as large as 10 GB with Geant4 and MCNP6 while it is much less with PHITS (1.2 GB). In addition, the computational time required for MRCP tends to increase compared to voxel-mesh phantoms with Geant4 and MCNP6 while it is equal or tends to decrease with PHITS.
Riyana, E. S.; Okumura, Keisuke; Terashima, Kenichi
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2019/05
Han, M. C.*; Yeom, Y. S.*; Lee, H. S.*; Shin, B.*; Kim, C. H.*; Furuta, Takuya
Physics in Medicine and Biology, 63(9), p.09NT02_1 - 09NT02_9, 2018/05
The multi-threading computation performances of the Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS codes were evaluated using three tetrahedral-mesh phantoms with different complexity. Photon and neutron transport simulations were conducted and the initialization time, calculation time, and memory usage were measured as a function of the number of threads N used in the simulation. The initialization time significantly increases with the complexity of the phantom, but not much with the number of the threads. For the calculation time, Geant4 showed good parallelization efficiency with multi-thread computation (30 times speed-up factor for N = 40) adopting the private tallies while saturation of the speed-up factor were observed in MCNP6 and PHITS (10 and a few times for N = 40) due to the time delay for the sharing tallies. On the other hand, Geant4 requires larger memory specification and the memory usage rapidly increases with the number of threads compared to MCNP6 or PHITS. It is notable that when compared to the other codes, the memory usage of PHITS is much smaller, regardless of both the complexity of the phantom and the number of the threads.
Furuta, Takuya; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Han, M. C.*; Yeom, Y. S.*; Kim, C. H.*; Brown, J. L.*; Bolch, W. E.*
Physics in Medicine and Biology, 62(12), p.4798 - 4810, 2017/06
A new function to treat tetrahedral-mesh geometry, a type of polygon-mesh geometry, was implemented in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code Systems (PHITS). Tetrahedral-mesh is suitable to describe complex geometry including curving shapes. In addition, construction of three-dimensional geometry using CAD software becomes possible with file format conversion. We have introduced a function to create decomposition maps of tetrahedral-mesh objects at the initial process so that the computational time for transport process can be reduced. Owing to this function, transport calculation in tetrahedral-mesh geometry can be as fast as that for the geometry in voxel-mesh with the same number of meshes. Due to adaptability of tetrahedrons in size and shape, dosimetrically equivalent objects can be represented by tetrahedrons with much fewer number of meshes compared with the voxels. For dosimetric calculation using computational human phantom, significant acceleration of the computational speed, about 4 times, was confirmed by adopting the tetrahedral mesh instead of the voxel.
Nagaya, Yasunobu; Adachi, Masaaki*
Proceedings of International Conference on Mathematics & Computational Methods Applied to Nuclear Science & Engineering (M&C 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2017/04
MVP is a general-purpose Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport calculations based on the continuous-energy method. To speed up the MVP code, hybrid parallelization is applied with a message passing interface library MPI and a shared-memory multiprocessing library OpenMP. The performance test has been done for an eigenvalue calculation of a fast reactor subassembly, a fixed-source calculation of a neutron/photon coupled problem and a PWR full core model. Comparisons has been made for MPI only with 4 processes and hybrid parallelism with 4 processes 3 threads. As a result, the hybrid parallelism yields the reduction of elapsed time by 16% to 34% and the used memories are almost the same.
Nagaya, Yasunobu; Okumura, Keisuke; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mori, Takamasa
JAEA-Data/Code 2016-018, 421 Pages, 2017/03
In order to realize fast and accurate Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and photon transport problems, two Monte Carlo codes MVP (continuous-energy method) and GMVP (multigroup method) have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The codes have adopted a vectorized algorithm and have been developed for vector-type supercomputers. They also support parallel processing with a standard parallelization library MPI and thus a speed-up of Monte Carlo calculations can be achieved on general computing platforms. The first and second versions of the codes were released in 1994 and 2005, respectively. They have been extensively improved and new capabilities have been implemented. The major improvements and new capabilities are as follows: (1) perturbation calculation for effective multiplication factor, (2) exact resonant elastic scattering model, (3) calculation of reactor kinetics parameters, (4) photo-nuclear model, (5) simulation of delayed neutrons, (6) generation of group constants, etc. This report describes the physical model, geometry description method used in the codes, new capabilities and input instructions.
Kashima, Takao; Suyama, Kenya; Takada, Tomoyuki*
JAEA-Data/Code 2014-028, 152 Pages, 2015/03
There have been two versions of SWAT depending on details of its development history: the revised SWAT that uses the deterministic calculation code SRAC as a neutron transportation solver, and the SWAT3.1 that uses the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP or MCNP5 for the same purpose. It takes several hours, however, to execute one calculation by the continuous energy Monte Carlo code even on the super computer of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Moreover, two-dimensional burnup calculation is not practical using the revised SWAT because it has problems on production of effective cross section data and applying them to arbitrary fuel geometry when a calculation model has multiple burnup zones. Therefore, SWAT4.0 has been developed by adding, to SWAT3.1, a function to utilize the deterministic code SARC2006, which has shorter calculation time, as an outer module of neutron transportation solver for burnup calculation. SWAT4.0 has been enabled to execute two-dimensional burnup calculation by providing an input data template of SRAC2006 to SWAT4.0 input data, and updating atomic number densities of burnup zones in each burnup step. This report describes outline, input data instruction, and examples of calculations of SWAT4.0.
Iwamoto, Yosuke; Taniguchi, Shingo*; Nakao, Noriaki*; Itoga, Toshio*; Nakamura, Takashi*; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Satoh, Daiki; Yashima, Hiroshi*; Yamakawa, Hiroshi*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 562(2), p.789 - 792, 2006/06
Neutron energy spectra produced from thick targets play an important role in validation of calculation codes that are employed in the design of spallation neutron sources and the shielding design of accelerator facilities. However, appropriate experimental data were scarce in the forward direction for the incident energy higher than 100 MeV. In this study, neutron spectra at 0 degree from thick targets bombarded with 350 MeV protons were measured by the time-of-flight technique using an NE213. The targets used were graphite, Al, Fe and Pb and their thicknesses were chosen to be a little thicker than the stopping lengths. The experiment was carried out at the TOF course of the RCNP (Research Center of Nuclear Physics) ring cyclotron, Osaka University. The flight path length between center of the target and of an NE213 were 11.4 m for the measurement of low energy neutrons and 95 m for high energy neutrons. The experimental data are compared with the calculated results by using the Monte Carlo transport codes, such as MCNPX and PHITS codes.
Sono, Hiroki; Ono, Akio*; Kojima, Takuji; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Yamane, Yoshihiro*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 43(3), p.276 - 284, 2006/03
For a study on the applicability of a personal dosimetry method to criticality accident dosimetry, an assessment of the human body surface and internal dose estimations was performed by experimental and computational simulations. The experimental simulation was carried out in a criticality accident situation at the TRACY facility. The neutron and -ray absorbed doses in muscle tissue were separately estimated by a dosimeter set of an alanine dosimeter and a thermoluminescence dosimeter made of enriched lithium tetra borate with a phantom. The computational simulation was conducted with a Monte Carlo code taking account of dose components of neutrons, prompt -rays and delayed -rays. The computational simulation was ascertained to be valid by comparison between the calculated dose distributions in the phantom and the measured ones. The assessment based on the experimental and computational simulations confirmed that the personal dosimetry using the dosimeter set provided a first estimation of the body surface and internal doses with precision.
Sono, Hiroki; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi*; Ono, Akio*; Kojima, Takuji; Soramasu, Noboru*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(8), p.678 - 687, 2005/08
Component analysis of -ray doses in criticality accident situations is indispensable for further understanding on emission behavior of -rays and accurate evaluation of external exposure to human bodies. Such dose components were evaluated, categorizing -rays into four components: prompt, delayed, pseudo components in the period of criticality, and a residual component in the period after the termination of criticality. This evaluation was performed by the combination of dosimetry experiments at the TRACY facility using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) made of lithium tetra borate and computational analyses using a Monte Carlo code. The evaluation confirmed that the dose proportions of the above components varied with the distance from the TRACY core tank. This variation was due to the difference in attenuation of the individual components with the distance from the core tank. The evaluated dose proportions quantitatively clarified the contribution of the pseudo and the residual components to be excluded for accurate evaluation of -ray exposure.
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(4), p.378 - 383, 2005/04
Experiments were made to verify a dose assessment method from activated sodium in body in criticality accidents. A phantom containing sodium chloride solution was irradiated in the Transient Experiment Critical Facility to simulate activation of sodium. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to obtain quantitative relation between the activity of induced Na-24 and neutron dose in the phantom. In the previous work, conversion coefficients from specific activity of induced Na-24 to neutron dose had been analyzed with the MCNP-4B code concerning neutron spectra at some hypothesized configurations. One of the prepared coefficients was applied to evaluate neutron dose from the measured activity. The estimated dose agreed with the dose analyzed by the Monte Carlo calculation in the present study within an acceptable uncertainty, which is indicated by the IAEA. In addition, the dose calculated with the prepared coefficient was close to the result measured with dosimeters. These results suggest that the prepared coefficients can be applied to dose assessments from induced Na-24 in body.
Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki*; Okuno, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori
Proceedings of International Conference on Physics of Fuel Cycles and Advanced Nuclear Systems; Global Developments (PHYSOR 2004) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2004/04
This paper provides validation results of SWAT2, the revised version of SWAT, which is a code system combining point burnup code ORIGEN2 and continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP, by the analysis of post irradiation examinations (PIEs). Some isotopes show differences of calculation results between SWAT and SWAT2. However, generally, the differences are smaller than the error of PIE analysis that was reported in previous SWAT validation activity, and improved results are obtained for several important fission product nuclides. This study also includes comparison between an assembly and a single pin cell geometry models.
Cullen, D. E.*; Blomquist, R. N.*; Dean, C.*; Heinrichs, D.*; Kalugin, M. A.*; Lee, M.*; Lee, Y. K.*; MacFarlane, R.*; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Trkov, A.*
UCRL-TR-203892, p.1 - 40, 2004/04
no abstracts in English
Oishi, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Sugita, Takeshi*; Yoshida, Makoto
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 40(6), p.441 - 445, 2003/06
An EGS4 user code has been developed to design and optimize ray detection systems for several types of radiation sources. The code is fundamentally based on the PRESTA-CG, which is improved on the electron transport in the EGS4 and specialized for the utilization of a combinatorial geometry (CG) method. The main additional functions in the present user code are classified into two parts of the definition of radiation sources and the transport of photons. The developed user code was applied to two types of detection systems in order to demonstrate its availability. As the result, it was found that the present code allows the detailed response analysis of complicated detection systems for several sources with just a simple handling.
Masaki, Kei; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi*; Tanabe, Tetsuo*; Goto, Yoshitaka*; Tobita, Kenji; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Kodama, Kozo; Arai, Takashi; Miya, Naoyuki
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 2(2), p.130 - 139, 2003/06
no abstracts in English
Masaki, Kei; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi*; Tanabe, Tetsuo*; Goto, Yoshitaka*; Miyasaka, Kazutaka*; Tobita, Kenji; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Kodama, Kozo; Arai, Takashi; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 313-316, p.514 - 518, 2003/03
Detailed tritium profiles on the JT-60U W-shaped divertor and first wall tiles were examined by Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT) and full combustion method. The tritium deposition image obtained by TIPT was consistent with the distribution measured by combustion method. The highest tritium concentration was 60 kBq/cm at the dome top tile. However, deposition layer was not obviously observed on the dome top tile. The tritium concentration in the inner divertor target tile was lower (2 kBq/cm) even with the thick deposition layer of 60 m. This tritium distribution can be explained by energetic triton particle loss due to ripple loss. According to the simulation using the OFMC code, 31% of the triton particles produced by D-D nuclear reaction is implanted deeply to the wall without fully losing the initial energy of 1 MeV.
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro
Radioisotopes, 52(2), p.94 - 97, 2003/02
Effect of phantom material on backscattered radiations was studied for photon irradiation. Monte Carlo calculations using MCNP-4B code were performed to analyze scattered radiation on the surface of 30x30x15cm3 slab phantoms with different material. Dose on the surface of a human body was also estimated with a modified MIRD-5 type phantom. No significant difference of dose due to scattered radiation was observed between a soft tissue slab and phantom the water-filled slab phantom recommended by the International Organization for Standardization. On the other hand, dose on the surface of the PMMA phantom was found to be larger than doses on the phantom with water or soft tissue. The results also showed that response of dosimeter on the ISO phantom would be near to that on the trunk of a human body.
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Midori*; Miyazawa, Chuzo*; Hamada, Tatsuji*; Funabiki, Jun*; Saito, Kimiaki
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 103(2), p.125 - 130, 2003/01
Absorbed dose to tooth enamels against external photon exposure was examined by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dosimetry using tooth samples placed in a realistic physical phantom. Dose to teeth region was also measured with thermo-luminescence dosimeters (TLDs). A voxel-type phantom was constructed from CT images of the physical phantom. Monte Carlo calculations with this voxel-type phantom were performed to analyse the results of the experiments. The obtained data in this study were compared to the enamel doses, which were calculated with a modified MIRD-type and already given in a previous paper. The results suggested that the conversion factors from enamel dose to organ doses obtained by the modified MIRD-type phantom are to be applicable for retrospective individual dose assessments by the ESR dosimetry. The analysis, however, indicated that the size and figure of the head can affect the enamel dose for low photon energy region below 100keV.