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Evaluation of power distribution calculation of the very high temperature reactor critical assembly (VHTRC) with Monte Carlo MVP3 code

Simanullang, I. L.*; 中川 直樹*; Ho, H. Q.; 長住 達; 石塚 悦男; 飯垣 和彦; 藤本 望*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 177, p.109314_1 - 109314_8, 2022/11

Power distribution plays a significant role in preventing the fuel temperature exceeds the safety limit of 1600$$^{circ}$$C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The experiment to measure the power distribution in the graphite-moderated system was carried out with the Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly facility. In the previous study, the power distribution in the VHTRC was calculated using a nuclear design code system based on diffusion calculation. The results showed a maximum discrepancy of up to 20 between the experiment and calculated values in the axial direction. The large discrepancy occurred near the boundary of fuel and reflector regions. This study describes the evaluation results of pin-wise power distribution of the VHTRC with the Monte Carlo MVP3 code. The calculation results were in good agreement with the measured results. In the axial direction, the discrepancy was less than 1 around the boundary of fuel and reflector regions.


Accurate estimation of spectral density of LCS gamma-ray source

Omer, M.; 静間 俊行*; 羽島 良一*; 小泉 光生

第43回日本核物質管理学会年次大会会議論文集(インターネット), 3 Pages, 2022/11

Gamma-rays originated from laser Compton scattering (LCS) are convenient photon sources for nondestructive interrogation of nuclear materials. LCS can be used with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), the two of which are considered photon-based active interrogation techniques. However, an accurate estimation of the incident LCS $$gamma$$-ray flux is crucial. The $$gamma$$-ray flux is customarily measured using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, usually calibrated using standard point-like radioactive $$gamma$$-ray sources. These standard sources are entirely different from LCS beams in terms of detection geometry. Therefore, the calibration process must be corrected to meet the LCS beam conditions. Here, we demonstrate how to implement the required corrections and provide experimental validation of these corrections.


Uncertainty analysis of dynamic PRA using nested Monte Carlo simulations and multi-fidelity models

Zheng, X.; 玉置 等史; 高原 省五; 杉山 智之; 丸山 結

Proceedings of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management (PSAM16) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/09

Uncertainty gives rise to the risk. For nuclear power plants, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) systematically concludes what people know to estimate the uncertainty in the form of, for example, risk triplet. Capable of developing a definite risk profile for decision-making under uncertainty, dynamic PRA widely applies explicit modeling techniques such as simulation to scenario generation as well as the estimation of likelihood/probability and consequences. When quantifying risk, however, epistemic uncertainties exist in both PRA and dynamic PRA, as a result of the lack of knowledge and model simplification. The paper aims to propose a practical approach for the treatment of uncertainty associated with dynamic PRA. The main idea is to perform the uncertainty analysis by using a two-stage nested Monte Carlo method, and to alleviate the computational burden of the nested Monte Carlo simulation, multi-fidelity models are introduced to the dynamic PRA. Multi-fidelity models include a mechanistic severe accident code MELCOR2.2 and machine learning models. A simplified station blackout (SBO) scenario was chosen as an example to show practicability of the proposed approach. As a result, while successfully calculating the probability of large early release, the analysis is also capable to provide uncertainty information in the form probability distributions. The approach can be expected to clarify questions such as how reliable are results of dynamic PRA.


Calculating off-axis efficiency of coaxial HPGe detectors by Monte Carlo simulation

Omer, M.; 静間 俊行*; 羽島 良一*; 小泉 光生

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 198, p.110241_1 - 110241_7, 2022/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:68.2(Chemistry, Physical)

In beam geometries where a directed $$gamma$$-ray beam hits the surface of a coaxial high purity germanium detector (HPGe), the detector efficiency is sensitive to the position where $$gamma$$-rays initially hit the detector surface because the structure of the detector is nonuniform. This may cause inaccuracy of the detector efficiency when measured using standard sources that are point-like sources emitting $$gamma$$-rays isotropically. Obtaining a precise estimation of the full energy peak efficiency of the coaxial HPGe detector in the beam geometry for on-axis and off-axis measurements requires a Monte Carlo simulation. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation that calculates the detector efficiency in the beam geometry. The effects of the off-axis distance and $$gamma$$-ray beam size on the efficiency are quantitatively analyzed. We found that the intrinsic efficiency in the beam geometry is maximized when the beam hits the detector at specific off-axis distances. Our Monte Carlo calculations have been supported by a nuclear resonance fluorescence experiment using laser Compton scattering $$gamma$$-ray beam.


A Scoping study on the use of direct quantification of fault tree using Monte Carlo simulation in seismic probabilistic risk assessments

久保 光太郎; 藤原 啓太*; 田中 洋一; 白田 勇人*; 荒毛 大輔*; 内山 智曜*; 村松 健*

Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 29) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/08

福島第一原子力発電所の事故後、外部事象、特に地震や津波に対する確率論的リスク評価(PRA)の重要性が認識された。日本原子力研究開発機構では、地震PRAのための解析手法として、DQFM(direct quantification of fault tree using Monte Carlo simulation)法を開発してきた。DQFMは、地震応答と機器の耐力に関する適切な相関行列が与えられた場合、解析解や多次元数値積分を用いてミニマルカットセット確率を求める方法では困難であるANDゲートやORゲートで接続された機器の相関損傷の影響をフォールトツリーで考慮することが可能であり、その有用性が示されている。このDQFMの計算時間を短縮することは、規制機関や事業者が実施するPRAにおいて、多数の解析が可能になる。そこで、本研究では、準モンテカルロサンプリング,重要度サンプリング及び並列計算の3つのアプローチで予備的検討を行い、計算効率の向上を図った。具体的には、加圧水型原子炉の簡易的なPRAモデルに対する、DQFMによる条件付炉心損傷確率の計算に準モンテカルロサンプリング,重要度サンプリング,並列計算を適用した。その結果、準モンテカルロサンプリングは、仮定した中及び高地震動レベルで有効であり、重要度サンプリングは低地震動レベルで有効という結果が示された。また、並列計算により、実用的な不確実さ解析及び重要度解析が実施可能であることが示された。これらの改良を組合わせてPRAコードに実装することで、計算の大幅な高速化が期待でき、リスク情報を用いた意思決定におけるDQFMの実用化の見通しを得た。


Development of dynamic PRA methodology for external hazards (Application of CMMC method to severe accident analysis code)

Li, C.; 渡部 晃*; 内堀 昭寛; 岡野 靖

第26回動力・エネルギー技術シンポジウム講演論文集(インターネット), 4 Pages, 2022/07



Adjoint-weighted correlated sampling for $$k$$-eigenvalue perturbation in Monte Carlo calculation

Tuya, D.; 長家 康展

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 169, p.108919_1 - 108919_9, 2022/05

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Depletion calculation of subcritical system with consideration of spontaneous fission reaction

Riyana, E. S.; 奥村 啓介; 坂本 雅洋; 松村 太伊知; 寺島 顕一

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(4), p.424 - 430, 2022/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Modification of the Monte Carlo depletion calculation code OpenMC was performed to enable the depletion calculation of the subcritical neutron multiplying system. With the modified code, it became possible to evaluate the quantity of short half-life fission products from spontaneous and induced fissions in the subcritical system. As a preliminary study, it was applied to the fuel debris storage canister filled with nuclear materials and spontaneous fission nuclides. It was confirmed that the code could successfully provide a quantity of short half-life FPs over time and provide the relationship between the activity ratio of Kr-88 to Xe-135 and effective neutron multiplication factor of the canister.


Quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method for simulation-based dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants

久保 光太郎; Jang, S.*; 高田 孝*; 山口 彰*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(3), p.357 - 367, 2022/03

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:51.67(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of seismic-induced flooding in pressurized water reactor by seismic, flooding, and thermal-hydraulics simulations

久保 光太郎; Jang, S.*; 高田 孝*; 山口 彰*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 15 Pages, 2022/00

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)



最近のRPT誌レビュー論文から; PHITSの医学物理計算への応用

古田 琢哉

医学物理, 41(4), P. 194, 2021/12

粒子・重イオン輸送計算コードPHITSは、近年における放射線の医学利用の高まりを受けて医学分野での利用例が増大しており、当該分野で有効な計算機能も開発されてきた。このような研究に関係する成果を、2021年にRadiological Physics and Technology誌で発表した「PHITSの医学物理計算への応用」と題するレビュー論文にまとめた。その後、日本医学物理学会の編集委員会より、この論文の内容を国内の関係者へ周知する紹介記事の投稿依頼があった。そこで、レビュー論文で報告したPHITSを利用した医学物理分野での応用例や有益なPHITSの機能、そしてユーザー間の情報交換の目的のために解説したPHITSフォーラムの情報等を日本医学物理学会誌で紹介する。


Estimation of I-131 concentration using time history of pulse height distribution at monitoring post and detector response for radionuclide in plume

平山 英夫*; 川崎 将亜; 松村 宏*; 大倉 毅史; 波戸 芳仁*; 佐波 俊哉*; 滝 光成; 大石 哲也; 吉澤 道夫

Insights Concerning the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, Vol.4; Endeavors by Scientists, p.295 - 307, 2021/10

A method of deducing the I-131 concentration in a radioactive plume from the time history of peak count rates determined from pulse height spectra obtained from an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector employed as a detector of a monitoring post was presented. The concentrations of I-131 in the plumes were estimated from the count rates using the calculated response of the NaI(Tl) detector with egs5 for a model of a plume uniformly containing I-131. This method was applied to the data from the monitoring posts at Nuclear Science Research Institutes of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The estimated time history variation of I-131 concentrations in plumes was in fair agreement with those measured directly by an air sampling method. The difference was less than a factor of 4 for plumes that arrived on March 15 and March 21, indicating relatively high I-131 concentrations among the plumes studied in this work.


Medical application of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS

古田 琢哉; 佐藤 達彦

Radiological Physics and Technology, 14(3), p.215 - 225, 2021/09



Nuclear data processing code FRENDY; A Verification with HTTR criticality benchmark experiments

藤本 望*; 多田 健一; Ho, H. Q.; 濱本 真平; 長住 達; 石塚 悦男

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 158, p.108270_1 - 108270_8, 2021/08

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:51.67(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a new nuclear data processing code, namely FRENDY, to generate the ACE files from various nuclear libraries. A code-to-experiment verification of FRENDY processing was carried out in this study with criticality benchmark assessments of the high temperature engineering test reactor. The ACE files of the JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B-VII.1 was generated successfully by FRENDY. These ACE files have been used in MCNP6 transportation calculation for various benchmark problems of the high temperature engineering test reactor. As a result, the k$$_{rm eff}$$ and reaction rate obtained by MCNP6 calculation presented a good agreement compared to the experimental data. The proper ACE files generation by FRENDY was confirmed for the HTTR criticality calculations.


Numerical investigations on the coolability and the re-criticality of a debris bed with the density-stratified configuration

Li, C.; 内堀 昭寛; 高田 孝; Pellegrini, M.*; Erkan, N.*; 岡本 孝司*

第25回動力・エネルギー技術シンポジウム講演論文集(インターネット), 4 Pages, 2021/07



Monte Carlo criticality calculation of random media formed by multimaterials mixture under extreme disorder

植木 太郎

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 195(2), p.214 - 226, 2021/02

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:57.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates in nine forests in eastern Japan from $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity measurements

Malins, A.; 今村 直広*; 新里 忠史; 高橋 純子*; Kim, M.; 佐久間 一幸; 篠宮 佳樹*; 三浦 覚*; 町田 昌彦

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 226, p.106456_1 - 106456_12, 2021/01

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:26.77(Environmental Sciences)

Understanding the relationship between the distribution of radioactive $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs in forests and ambient dose equivalent rates ($textit{.{H}}$*(10)) in the air is important for researching forests in eastern Japan affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. This study used a large number of measurements from forest samples, including $$^{134}$$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs radioactivity concentrations, densities and moisture contents, to perform Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations for $textit{.{H}}$*(10) between 2011 and 2017. Calculated $textit{.{H}}$*(10) at 0.1 and 1 m above the ground had mean residual errors of 19% and 16%, respectively, from measurements taken with handheld NaI(Tl) scintillator survey meters. Setting aside the contributions from natural background radiation, $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs in the organic layer and the top 5 cm of forest soil generally made the largest contributions to calculated $textit{.{H}}$*(10). The contributions from $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs in the forest canopy were calculated to be largest in the first two years following the accident. Uncertainties were evaluated in the simulation results due to the measurement uncertainties in the model inputs by assuming Gaussian measurement errors. The mean uncertainty (relative standard deviation) of the simulated $textit{.{H}}$*(10) at 1 m height was 11%. The main contributors to the total uncertainty in the simulation results were the accuracies to which the $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs radioactivities of the organic layer and top 5 cm of soil, and the vertical distribution of $textsuperscript{134}$Cs and $textsuperscript{137}$Cs within the 5 cm soil layers, were known. Radioactive cesium located in the top 5 cm of soil was the main contributor to $textit{.{H}}$*(10) at 1 m by 2016 or 2017 in the calculation results for all sites.


Simulation analysis of the Compton-to-peak method for quantifying radiocesium deposition quantities

Malins, A.; 越智 康太郎; 町田 昌彦; 眞田 幸尚

Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.147 - 154, 2020/10

Compton-to-peak analysis is a method for selecting suitable coefficients to convert count rates measured with in situ gamma ray spectrometry to radioactivity concentrations of $$^{134}$$Cs & $$^{137}$$Cs in the environment. The Compton-to-peak method is based on the count rate ratio of the spectral regions containing Compton scattered gamma rays to that with the primary $$^{134}$$Cs & $$^{137}$$Cs photopeaks. This is known as the Compton-to-peak ratio (RCP). RCP changes as a function of the vertical distribution of $$^{134}$$Cs & $$^{137}$$Cs within the ground. Inferring this distribution enables the selection of appropriate count rate to activity concentration conversion coefficients. In this study, the PHITS Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to simulate the dependency of RCP on different vertical distributions of $$^{134}$$Cs & $$^{137}$$Cs within the ground. A model was created of a LaBr$$_3$$(Ce) detector used in drone helicopter aerial surveys in Fukushima Prefecture. The model was verified by comparing simulated gamma ray spectra to measurements from test sources. Simulations were performed for the infinite half-space geometry to calculate the dependency of RCP on the mass depth distribution (exponential or uniform) of $$^{134}$$Cs & $$^{137}$$Cs within the ground, and on the altitude of the detector above the ground. The calculations suggest that the sensitivity of the Compton-to-peak method is greatest for the initial period following nuclear fallout when $$^{134}$$Cs & $$^{137}$$Cs are located close to the ground surface, and for aerial surveys conducted at low altitudes. This is because the relative differences calculated between RCP with respect to changes in the mass depth distribution were largest for these two cases. Data on the measurement height above and on the $$^{134}$$Cs & $$^{137}$$Cs activity ratio is necessary for applying the Compton-to-peak method to determine the distribution and radioactivity concentration of $$^{134}$$Cs & $$^{137}$$Cs in the ground.


A Comparative study of sampling techniques for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants

久保 光太郎; Zheng, X.; 田中 洋一; 玉置 等史; 杉山 智之; Jang, S.*; 高田 孝*; 山口 彰*

Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.308 - 315, 2020/10



A New convention for the epithermal neutron spectrum for improving accuracy of resonance integrals

原田 秀郎; 高山 直毅; 米田 政夫

Journal of Physics Communications (Internet), 4(8), p.085004_1 - 085004_17, 2020/08

原子炉を用いた放射化分析などで重要な中性子共鳴積分値を高精度化するため、熱外中性子スペクトルの新しい近似を定式化した。近似式の導出に当たっては、はじめにモンテカルロ計算コードMVP-3を用いて参照解となる中性子スペクトルを計算し、これから 型の関数型を導出した。従来の近似式に比較し、導出した関数型は、中性子共鳴積分値を高精度に決定できることを示した。この検討は、過去にJRR-3で行われた$$^{135}$$Csの中性子共鳴積分値の測定データに基づき行われた。また、提唱した近似式に導入したパラメータ$$alpha$$及び$$beta$$を実験的に決定するため、3種類のフラックスモニター($$^{197}$$Au, $$^{59}$$Co及び$$^{94}$$Zr)を用いる手法を提唱するとともに、解析手法を定式化した。

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