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Journal Articles

Dispersion modelling of radioactive materials

Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi*

Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster; Dispersion, Monitoring, Mitigation and Lessons Learned, p.230 - 242, 2019/08

An overview of SPEEDI is provided in the context of it development, functions, and role in the framework of nuclear emergency management. Thereafter, we examine how it was used and how it should be used for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident from a system developer perspective. We believe that our review can provide lessons or tasks for improving the prediction system and for considering better utilization of the system; it is also beneficial to consider reconstructing the framework of nuclear emergency management. Furthermore, we hope this review will prove useful in understanding and effectively using the atmospheric dispersion predictions from the system in the case of a similar accident in the future.

Journal Articles

Enhancing emergency response in the field based on analysis of workload distribution at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Yoshizawa, Atsufumi*; Oba, Kyoko; Kitamura, Masaharu*

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 18(2), p.55 - 68, 2019/06

This study aims to improve the potential of an emergency response by analyzing the workload management during the accident at the Emergency Response Center (ERC) of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Specifically, the research focused on the response of the ERC during the time between the discontinuation of Unit 3 core water injection and its recovery. It identified the different types of workload at the ERC had and how they had been managed based on the record of a TV conference. It also deduced the casual factors of the responses, supplementing the interview record of the director of ERC at the time by applying workload management analysis. On the basis of these findings, lessons to enhance the potential of the on-site emergency response have been obtained for ERC and outside organizations.

Journal Articles

Preparedness and response for nuclear or radiological emergency as a designated public corporation

Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ebine, Noriya; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2019/05

In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act of Japan undertakes a role to support the national government and local governments. This paper (1) illuminates the roles of the JAEA as a designated public corporation for preparedness and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency of nuclear facilities; (2) summarizes emergency response activities of the JAEA in accordance with its Disaster Management Operation Plan against the off-site radiological emergencies attributed to a loss of control of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that occurred in 2011; and (3) reports its activities in normal times especially participation in the drills organized by the national government and local governments in the light of the Basic Disaster Management Plan of Japan and Local Disaster Management Plans of prefectural governments, respectively.

JAEA Reports

External dose evaluation of emergency responder in off-site at the time of Fukushima-Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident (Contract research)

Shimada, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Toshihisa*; Iijima, Masashi*; Munakata, Masahiro

JAEA-Research 2018-012, 68 Pages, 2019/02

JAEA-Research-2018-012.pdf:4.15MB

The external exposure dose of off-site emergency responders at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident were evaluated in order to consider a radiation protection of emergency responders. The maximum value of individual daily dose of emergency responders whose activities details were recorded from 12th to 31th March 2011 was 650 $$mu$$Sv engaged in evacuation support in Futaba Town on 12th. Next, atmospheric concentrations and deposition of radionuclides were calculated from the source terms estimated by previous studies using atmospheric diffusion and deposit calculation codes, and air dose rates at off-site were estimated. Then, the external exposure dose was calculated for 6 emergency responders whose daily activities and personal doses were continuously recorded. Furthermore, the maximum value and the average value of the calculation external dose of emergency responders in the activity area were compared with the measurement value of the personal dosimeter of them. These results showed that the calculated value of the external exposure dose of emergency responders calculated from the maximum value of the dose rate in the active area roughly includes the measured value.

JAEA Reports

Progress report on Nuclear Safety Research Center; JFY 2015 - 2017

Nuclear Safety Research Center, Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness

JAEA-Review 2018-022, 201 Pages, 2019/01

JAEA-Review-2018-022.pdf:20.61MB

Nuclear Safety Research Center (NSRC), Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting technical support to nuclear safety regulation and safety research based on the Mid-Long Term Target determined by Japanese government. This report summarizes the research structure of NSRC and the cooperative research activities with domestic and international organizations as well as the nuclear safety research activities and results in the period from JFY 2015 to 2017 on the nine research fields in NSRC; (1) severe accident analysis, (2) radiation risk analysis, (3) safety of nuclear fuels in light water reactors (LWRs), (4) thermohydraulic behavior under severe accident in LWRs, (5) materials degradation and structural integrity, (6) safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, (7) safety management on criticality, (8) safety of radioactive waste management, and (9) nuclear safeguards.

JAEA Reports

Development of a calculation method for atmospheric dispersion database that can immediately provide calculation results for any source term and period from hindcast to short-term forecast (Joint research)

Terada, Hiroaki; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Kadowaki, Masanao; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tanaka, Atsunori*

JAEA-Data/Code 2017-013, 31 Pages, 2018/01

JAEA-Data-Code-2017-013.pdf:9.52MB

We developed an atmospheric dispersion calculation method that can respond to various needs for dispersion prediction in nuclear emergency and prepare database of information useful for planning of emergency response. In this method, it is possible to immediately get the prediction results for provided source term by creating a database of dispersion calculation results without specifying radionuclides, release rate and period except release point. By performing this calculation steadily along with meteorological data update, it is possible to immediately get calculation results for any source term and period from hindcast to short-term forecast. This function can be used for pre-accident planning such as optimization of monitoring plan and understanding events to be supposed for emergency response. Spatiotemporal distribution of radioactive materials reproduced by source term estimated inversely from monitoring based on this method is useful as a supplement to monitoring.

Journal Articles

User interface of atmospheric dispersion simulations for nuclear emergency countermeasures

Hamuza, E.-A.; Nagai, Haruyasu; Sagara, Hiroshi*

Energy Procedia, 131, p.279 - 284, 2017/12

 Percentile:100

In this study we would like to propose a method to use atmospheric dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI for consideration of crisis management on radionuclide dispersion from a nuclear power plant. WSPEEDI can simulate and output crucial information regarding environmental distribution of radionuclides and weather pattern for nuclear emergency countermeasures, thus this study will make use of its output to display the effective information for evacuation planning from a radionuclide dispersion. We will be assembling database of atmospheric dispersion outputs for one year by using WSPEEDI for a nuclear facility, then the database will be analysed to make the summary that has useful information for nuclear emergency managements. WSPEEDI outputs are converted into numeric information showing dispersion characteristics so that users can understand WSPEEDI predictions easily.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2015 - March 31, 2016

Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center

JAEA-Review 2017-011, 54 Pages, 2017/07

JAEA-Review-2017-011.pdf:3.46MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national and some local governments in case of a nuclear incident. In case of a nuclear emergency, the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) dispatches experts of JAEA, supplies the governments with emergency equipment, and gives them technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various drills/exercises and training courses to nuclear emergency responders. In FY2015, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Improvement of hardware and software for technical support activities (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency responders ; (3) Researches on nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and dissemination of useful information for emergency responders; (4) Arrangements for technical support for aerial monitoring; and (5) Technical contributions to Asian countries on nuclear emergency preparedness and response.

Journal Articles

Lessons learned in protection of the public for the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Callen, J.*; Homma, Toshimitsu

Health Physics, 112(6), p.550 - 559, 2017/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:42.02(Environmental Sciences)

What insights can the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant provide in the reality of decision making on actions to protect the public during a severe reactor and spent fuel pool emergency? In order to answer this question, and with the goal of limiting the consequences of any future emergencies at a nuclear power plant due to severe conditions, this article presents the main actions taken in response to the emergency in the form of a timeline. The focus of this paper are those insights concerning the progression of an accident due to severe conditions at a light water reactor nuclear power plant that must be understood in order to protect the public.

Journal Articles

Radiation tolerance and management method of Robots and unmanned heavy construction machines using semiconductors on the shelf

Kawatsuma, Shinji; Asama, Hajime*

Nippon Robotto Gakkai-Shi, 34(8), p.552 - 557, 2016/10

There was not a guideline available for researchers, developers or users for robots or heavy construction machines on the evaluation of radiation tolerance and management method of robots and heavy construction machines using semiconductors, like as CPUs on the shelf, under radiation condition, when Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accidents occurred on March 11th, 2011. The evaluation and the management method became necessary, in order to deploy robots like as QUINCE developing for big city accidents or unmanned heavy construction machines for landside disaster. According to "radiation tolerance data base on parts or materials" developed in 1980's to 1990's by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), a guideline, for robots and unmanned heavy construction machines, was tentatively developed.

Journal Articles

Calculations of safe distance from the point of a severe accident during transportation of a package containing spent nuclear fuels

Watanabe, Fumitaka; Okuno, Hiroshi

Proceedings of 18th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transport of Radioactive Materials (PATRAM 2016) (DVD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2016/09

This paper shows our calculations on the effects of a radiological release by assuming a severe accident in nuclear material transportation. Following recalculations of safe distance from the point of a severe accident during transportation of a transportation cask TN12 typically used in France containing spent nuclear fuel, and calculations to replicate the "Regulatory Guide: Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities", a similar calculation was made for a spent fuel transportation cask NFT-14P that was typically utilized in Japan instead of TN12. The safe distance was calculated to be about 30 m. The above calculations were made with the HotSpot codes which adopted the Gauss plume model and had been developed by the USA. Some additional calculations were made with EyesAct, which was developed and used in Japan, adopting also the Gauss plume model, to compare calculation results.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015

Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center

JAEA-Review 2016-005, 55 Pages, 2016/05

JAEA-Review-2016-005.pdf:3.61MB

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, is a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national government and/or local governments in case of nuclear and/or radiological incidents. In order to fulfill the tasks as the designated public institution, the JAEA has established the Emergency Action Plan and the Civil Protection Action Plan. In case of a nuclear/radiological emergency, the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) dispatches specialists of JAEA, supplies the national government and local governments with emergency equipment and materials, and gives them technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various exercises and training courses concerning nuclear preparedness and response to emergency responders including the national and local government officers, in addition to the JAEA staff members. The NEAT also researches nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and cooperates with international organizations on the above research theme. In the FY2014, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Technical support activities as a designated public institution in cooperation with the national and local governments, (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency responders for the national and local governments, (3) Researches on nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and release to the public as useful information, (4) Technical contributions to Asian countries on nuclear emergency preparedness and response in collaboration with the international organizations.

Journal Articles

Fukushima cleanup; Status and lessons

Miyahara, Kaname; McKinley, I. G.*; Saito, Kimiaki; Iijima, Kazuki; Hardie, S. M. L.*

Nuclear Engineering International, 60(736), p.12 - 14, 2015/11

Remediation work in Fukushima is based on a comprehensive technical knowledge base, which is translated into actions that enable the rapid return of evacuees but also provides a globally valuable resource for disaster planning and contaminated site remediation.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2013 - March 31, 2014

Sato, Takeshi; Muto, Shigeo; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Aoki, Kazufumi; Okamoto, Akiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Kume, Nobuhide; Nakanishi, Chika; Koie, Masahiro; Kawamata, Hiroyuki; et al.

JAEA-Review 2014-048, 69 Pages, 2015/02

JAEA-Review-2014-048.pdf:13.91MB

JAEA was assigned as a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national government and/or local governments in case of disaster responses or response in the event of a military attack, etc. In order to fulfill the tasks, the JAEA has established the Emergency Action Plan and the Civil Protection Action Plan. In case of a nuclear emergency, NEAT dispatches specialists of JAEA, supplies the national government and local governments with emergency equipment and materials, and gives technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various exercises and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention to those personnel taking an active part in emergency response institutions of the national and local governments, police, fire fighters, self-defense forces, etc. in addition to the JAEA itself. The NEAT also researches nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and cooperates with international organizations. In the FY2013, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Technical support activities as a designated public institution in cooperation with the national and local governments, etc. (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency response personnel for the national and local governments, etc. (3) Researches on nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and sending useful information (4) International contributions to Asian countries on nuclear disaster preparedness and response in collaboration with the international organizations

JAEA Reports

Study on estimation of evacuation distances for nuclear emergency

Sato, Sohei; Umemoto, Michitaka*; Homma, Toshimitsu

JAERI-Data/Code 2005-009, 114 Pages, 2005/09

JAERI-Data-Code-2005-009.pdf:6.64MB

JAERI has conducted the analytical studies on the PSA, the severe accidents, and the optimization of protective actions. Based on the results of these studies, JAERI is investigating the method for taking urgent protective actions more reasonably. If an accident occurs in a NPP, early protective actions are carried out. To implement these actions more effectively, emergency preparedness and emergency planning are important, and especially prompt evacuation is expected to reduce a large amount of radiation exposures. To examine the effect of early protective measures by using a PSA method, estimation of the parameter uncertainty related in the time for early protective actions is needed. For this purpose, we have developed an analytical method for urgent protective actions, and estimated the movement distance. This report provides a brief description of the method for estimating the movement distance, input data for this analysis, and the result. Moreover, the problem on the method of evacuation distance analysis and usefulness of this method for emergency planning were discussed.

Journal Articles

Improvement of Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (WSPEEDI), 2; Evaluation of numerical models by $$^{137}$$Cs deposition due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

Terada, Hiroaki; Chino, Masamichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(7), p.651 - 660, 2005/07

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:28.49(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The prediction performance of WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information), which consists of the atmospheric dynamic model MM5 and the Lagrangian particle dispersion model GEARN-new, is evaluated by measurements of precipitation and surface deposition of $$^{137}$$Cs over Europe during the Chernobyl accident. It is concluded that MM5/GEARN-new can predict $$^{137}$$Cs deposition distribution with good accuracy when accurate precipitation is predicted by using a explicit scheme on cloud microphysics with ice phase processes. High-resolutional calculation is also conducted for the area surrounding Chernobyl by a nesting method. MM5/GEARN-new can predict quite a realistic distribution of $$^{137}$$Cs deposition around Chernobyl which was not calculated by the previous version.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Technology and Education Center; April 1, 2003 - March 31, 2004

Nuclear Technology and Education Center

JAERI-Review 2004-022, 86 Pages, 2004/10

JAERI-Review-2004-022.pdf:6.75MB

This report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Technology and Education Center in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2003. It includes the domestic educational activities and the international training activities mainly for Asia-Pacific region as well as the activities of the research and the development for training courses and administrative aspects.

Journal Articles

Improvement of Worldwide Version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (WSPEEDI), 1; New combination of models, atmospheric dynamic model MM5 and particle random walk model GEARN-new

Terada, Hiroaki; Furuno, Akiko; Chino, Masamichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(5), p.632 - 640, 2004/05

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:19.84(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The new version of WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) is developed by introducing the combination of models, the atmospheric dynamic model MM5 and the Lagrangian particle dispersion model GEARN-new to improve the prediction capability. One of the improvements by the new system is that Environmental contaminations in multi domains are predicted simultaneously, and the other is that more precise physical processes are considered by using predicted meteorological conditions with high resolution in time and space. The performance of the system is evaluated for the test calculations of hypothetical nuclear accident in the East Asia region and the Chernobyl accident. The results of test calculation in East Asia seem to be reasonable and the calculated surface air concentrations of $$^{137}$$Cs from Chernobyl show good agreement with measurements.

Journal Articles

Development of remote surveillance squads for nuclear emergency

Yanagihara, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Tadayoshi; Miyajima, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Mitsugu

International Journal of Robotics and Automation, 18(4), p.160 - 165, 2003/12

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

NuTEC annual report; April l, 2001 - March 31, 2002

Nuclear Technology and Education Center

JAERI-Review 2003-003, 81 Pages, 2003/05

JAERI-Review-2003-003.pdf:3.48MB

This report summarizes the educational activities and related management of the Nuclear Technology andEducation Center (NuTEC) during the 2001 fiscal year. Both Tokyo and Tokai Education Centers have successfully conducted almost all the planned domestic and international training courses. In addition Tokai Education Center has performed the 3nd nuclear supervisor training course and introduced a new course for special nuclear emergency preparedness in response to the legal amendment after the criticality accident. The sum total number of participants was 1,310. The International Technology Transfer Division has not only planned and organized the international training courses, but also taken charge of the 3nd workshop on Human Resource Development in Nuclear Field in Asian and Pasific Region. Various researches have been made to improve the educational program.

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