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Journal Articles

Oxidation and embrittlement behavior of FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

Narukawa, Takafumi; Kondo, Keietsu; Fujimura, Yuki; Kakiuchi, Kazuo; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 587, p.154736_1 - 154736_8, 2023/12

Journal Articles

Alloy design and characterization of a recrystallized FeCrAl-ODS cladding for accident-tolerant BWR fuels; An Overview of research activity in Japan

Ukai, Shigeharu; Sakamoto, Kan*; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Kimura, Akihiko*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 583, p.154508_1 - 154508_24, 2023/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:78.15(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Behavior of FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

Narukawa, Takafumi; Kondo, Keietsu; Fujimura, Yuki; Kakiuchi, Kazuo; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 582, p.154467_1 - 154467_12, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:84.98(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

High temperature mechanical properties and microstructure in 9Cr or 12Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steels

Mitsuhara, Masatoshi*; Kurino, Koichi*; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Toyama, Takeshi*; Onuma, Masato*; Nakashima, Hideharu*

Tetsu To Hagane, 109(3), p.189 - 200, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel, a candidate material for fast reactor fuel cladding, has low thermal expansion, good thermal conductivity, and excellent resistance to irradiation damage and high temperature strength. The origin of the excellent high-temperature strength lies in the dispersion of fine oxides. In this study, creep tests at 700 or 750$$^{circ}$$C, which are close to the operating temperatures of fast reactors, and high-temperature tensile tests at 900 to 1350 $$^{circ}$$C, which simulate accident conditions, were conducted on 9Cr ODS ferritic steels, M11 and MP23, and 12Cr ODS ferritic steel, F14, to confirm the growth behavior of oxides. In the M11 and F14 creep test samples, there was little oxide growth or decrease in number density from the initial state, indicating that dispersion strengthening by oxides was effective during deformation. After creep deformation of F14, the development of dislocation substructures such as dislocation walls and subgrain boundaries was hardly observed, and mobile dislocations were homogeneously distributed in the grains. The dislocation density increased with increasing stress during the creep test. In the high-temperature ring tensile tests of MP23 and F14, the strength of both steels decreased at higher temperatures. In MP23, elongation decreased with increasing test temperature from 900 to 1100 $$^{circ}$$C, but increased at 1200 $$^{circ}$$C, decreased drastically at 1250 $$^{circ}$$C, and increased again at 1300 $$^{circ}$$C. In F14, elongation decreased with increasing temperature. It was inferred that the formation of the $$delta$$-ferrite phase was responsible for this complex change in mechanical properties of MP23 from 1200 to 1300 $$^{circ}$$C.

Journal Articles

Characterization and corrosion behavior of Al-added high Mn ODS austenitic steels in oxygen-saturated lead-bismuth eutectic

Haoran, W.*; Yu, H.*; Liu, J.*; Kondo, Sosuke*; Okubo, Nariaki; Kasada, Ryuta*

Corrosion Science, 209, p.110818_1 - 110818_12, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:26.88(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The corrosion behavior of newly developed Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ forming high Mn oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) austenitic steels was examined in oxygen-saturated lead-bismuth eutectic at 450$$^{circ}$$C for 430 h. Compared with non-ODS steels, the ODS steels possessed superior resistance to corrosion and spallation. The high density grain boundaries in the ODS steels acted as channels for the rapid outward diffusion of metallic elements, forming an internal continuous Cr$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ scale at the original surface. Accelerated Al diffusion, along with oxidation prevention by the external (Fe, Mn) oxide scale and the internal Cr$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ scale, jointly resulted in the formation of a continuous Al-rich oxide scale in ODS-7Al steel, contributing to its superior corrosion resistance.

Journal Articles

Effect of nitrogen concentration on creep strength and microstructure of 9Cr-ODS ferritic/martensitic steel

Oka, Hiroshi*; Tanno, Takashi; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Hashimoto, Naoyuki*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 572, p.154032_1 - 154032_8, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:87.22(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steels with slightly different nitrogen concentrations (0.0034 - 0.029 wt%) were prepared and their creep property at 973 K was investigated with microstructural characterization before and after the creep test. The creep strength decreased significantly as the nitrogen concentration increased. Microstructural observation revealed that, in the higher nitrogen concentration specimen, coarse Y-rich inclusions were found along the boundary between transformed ferrite region and residual ferrite region. The solubility difference of nitrogen in $$alpha$$ and $$gamma$$ phase would induce the localized increment of nitrogen concentration in the boundary region during the austenitizing process, resulting in the thermodynamic destabilization and subsequent coarsening of the dispersed oxide particles. The rows of creep voids were found near the rupture part of the crept specimen, suggesting that the coarse inclusions were the starting point of creep void formation and the subsequent premature fracture.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of tensile and creep properties on 9Cr-ODS steel claddings

Yano, Yasuhide; Hashidate, Ryuta; Tanno, Takashi; Imagawa, Yuya; Kato, Shoichi; Onizawa, Takashi; Ito, Chikara; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-015, 64 Pages, 2022/01


From a view point of practical application of fast breeder reactor cycles, which takes advantage of safety and economic efficiency and makes a contribution of volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste, it is necessary to develop fuel cladding materials for fast reactors (FRs) in order to achieve high-burnup. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel have been studied for use as potential fuel cladding materials in FRs owing to their excellent resistance to swelling and their high-temperature strength in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. It is very important to establish the materials strength standard in order to apply ODS steels as a fuel cladding. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire the mechanical properties such as tensile, creep rupture strength tests and so on. In this study, tensile and creep rupture strengths of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings were evaluated using by acquired these data. Because of the phase transformation temperature of 9Cr-ODS steel, temperature range for the evaluation was divided into two ones at AC1 transformation temperature of 850$$^{circ}$$C.

Journal Articles

Temperature effects on local structure, phase transformation, and mechanical properties of calcium silicate hydrates

Im, S.*; Jee, H.*; Suh, H.*; Kanematsu, Manabu*; Morooka, Satoshi; Koyama, Taku*; Nishio, Yuhei*; Machida, Akihiko*; Kim, J.*; Bae, S.*

Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 104(9), p.4803 - 4818, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:76.39(Materials Science, Ceramics)

Journal Articles

Effects of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of FeCrAl-ODS alloy claddings

Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*

Materials Transactions, 62(8), p.1239 - 1246, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:31.7(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The FeCrAl-ODS alloy claddings were manufactured and Vickers hardness, ring tensile tests and TEM observations of these claddings were performed to investigate the effects of thermal aging at 450 $$^{circ}$$C for 5,000 and 15,000 h. The age-hardening of all FeCrAl-ODS alloy cladding was found. In addition, the significant increase in tensile strength was accompanied by much larger loss of ductility. It was suggested that this age-hardening behavior was attributed to the (Ti, Al)-enriched phase ($$beta$$' phase) and the $$alpha$$' phase precipitates (content of Al is $$<$$ 7 wt%). In comparison with FeCrAl-ODS alloys with almost same chemical compositions, there was significant age-hardening in both alloys. However, the extrusion bar with no-recrystallized structures was keeping good ductility. It was suggested that this different behavior of reduction ductility was attributed to the effects of grain boundaries, dislocation densities and specimen preparation direction.

Journal Articles

Solid-solution strengthening by Al and Cr in FeCrAl oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloys

Ukai, Shigeharu*; Yano, Yasuhide; Inoue, Toshihiko; Sowa, Takashi*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 812, p.141076_1 - 141076_11, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:76.96(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

FeCrAl oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising materials for accident tolerant fuels for light water reactors (LWRs). In these alloys, Al and Cr are key elements with important synergistic effects: enhancement of the formation of oxidation-resistant Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ phase by Cr addition and suppression of the formation of the embrittling Cr-rich $$alpha$$' phase by Al addition. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The Al and Cr contents were systematically varied from 9-16 at.% and 10-17 at.%, respectively, and tensile tests were conducted at 298 K, 573 K and 973 K in the as-annealed condition. The solid solution strengthening increased linearly, 20 MPa per 1 at.% Al and 5 MPa per 1 at.% Cr, at the typical LWR operational temperature of 573 K. The conventional Fleischer-Friedel and Labusch theories cannot explain this level of solid-solution strengthening. It was shown that Suzuki's double kink theory for screw dislocations reasonably predicts the solid solution strengthening by Al and Cr as well as the inverse dependency on the absolute temperature and linear dependency on the Al and Cr content.

Journal Articles

Supercritical water pretreatment method for analysis of strontium and uranium in soil (Andosols)

Nagaoka, Mika; Fujita, Hiroki; Aida, Taku*; Guo, H.*; Smith, R. L. Jr.*

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 168, p.109465_1 - 109465_6, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

The radioactivities in the environmental samples are analyzed to monitor the nuclear power facilities. The pretreatment of radioactive nuclides of alpha and beta emitters in the environmental samples is performed with acid to decompose organic matter and extract object nuclide such as $$^{90}$$Sr, U and Pu. However, the pretreatment methods are time-consuming and used many concentrated acid solutions that are unsafe and hazardous. Therefore, we develop to the new pretreatment method using supercritical water instead of acid. Hydrothermal pretreatment of soils (Andosols) from Ibaraki prefecture (Japan) was used to improve methods for monitoring radioactive Sr and U. Calcined samples were pretreated with subcritical or supercritical water (SCW) followed by extraction with 0.5 M HNO$$_{3}$$ solutions. With SCW pretreatment, recoveries of Sr and U were 70% and 40%, respectively. Experimental recoveries obtained can be described by a linear relationship in water density. The proposed method is robust and can lower environmental burden of routine analytical protocols.

Journal Articles

Development of ODS tempered martensitic steel for high burn up fuel cladding tube of SFR

Otsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kaito, Takeji; Hashidate, Ryuta; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Chikara; et al.

2018 GIF Symposium Proceedings (Internet), p.305 - 314, 2020/05

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel has been developed worldwide as a high-strength and radiation-tolerant steel used for advanced nuclear system. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing ODS steel as the primary candidate material of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) high burn-up fuel cladding tube. Application of high burn-up fuel to SFR core can contribute to improvement of economical performance of SFR in conjunction with volume and hazardousness reduction of radioactive waste. This paper described the current status and future prospects of ODS tempered martensitic steel development in JAEA for SFR fuel application.

Journal Articles

Microstructure and texture evolution and ring-tensile properties of recrystallized FeCrAl ODS cladding tubes

Aghamiri, S. M. S.*; Sowa, Takashi*; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Ono, Naoko*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Yamashita, Shinichiro

Materials Science & Engineering A, 771, p.138636_1 - 138636_12, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:25 Percentile:89.71(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl ferritic steels are being developed as potential accident tolerance fuel cladding materials for the light water reactors (LWRs) due to significant improvement in steam oxidation by alumina forming scale and good mechanical properties up to high temperatures. In this study, the microstructural characteristics and tensile properties of the two FeCrAl ODS cladding tubes with different extrusion temperatures of 1100$$^{circ}$$C and 1150$$^{circ}$$C were investigated during processing conditions. While the hot extruded sample showed micron sized elongated grains with strong $$alpha$$-fiber in $$<$$110$$>$$ texture, cold pilger rolling process change the microstructure to submicron/micron size grain structure along with texture evolution to both $$alpha$$-fiber ($$<$$110$$>$$ texture) and $$gamma$$-fiber ({111} texture) via crystalline rotations. Subsequently, final annealing resulted in evolution of microstructure to large grain recrystallized structure starting at recrystallization temperature of $$sim$$810-850$$^{circ}$$C. Two distinct texture development happened in recrystallized cladding tubes, i.e., only large elongated grains of (110) $$<$$211$$>$$ texture following extrusion temperature of 1100$$^{circ}$$C; and two texture components of (110) $$<$$211$$>$$ and {111} $$<$$112$$>$$ following higher extrusion temperature of 1150$$^{circ}$$C. The different texture development and retarding of recrystallization progress in 1100$$^{circ}$$C-extruded cladding tubes were attributed to higher distribution of oxide particles.

Journal Articles

Overview of accident-tolerant fuel R&D program in Japan

Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ioka, Ikuo; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kawanishi, Tomohiro; Kurata, Masaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Fukahori, Tokio; Nozawa, Takashi*; Sato, Daiki*; Murakami, Nozomu*; et al.

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.206 - 216, 2019/09

After the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant, research and development (R&D) program for establishing technical basis of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) started from 2015 in Japan. Since then, both experimental and analytical studies necessary for designing a new light water reactor (LWR) core with ATF candidate materials are being conducted within the Japanese ATF R&D Consortium for implementing ATF to the existing LWRs, accompanying with various technological developments required. Until now, we have accumulated experimental data of the candidate materials by out-of-pile tests, developed fuel evaluation codes to apply to the ATF candidate materials, and evaluated fuel behavior simulating operational and accidental conditions by the developed codes. In this paper, the R&D progresses of the ATF candidate materials considered in Japan are reviewed based on the information available such as proceedings of international conference and academic papers, providing an overview of ATF program in Japan.

Journal Articles

Challenge next-generation nuclear system; Development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel

Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

Enerugi Rebyu, 39(1), p.44 - 46, 2019/01

For performance improvement of next-generation nuclear system such as fast reactor, it has been expected to develop advanced material resistant to severe in-reactor environment (i.e. high-dose neutron irradiation at high-temperature). Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel for long life fuel cladding tube of fast reactor. Application of ODS ferritic steel to fast reactor fuel can extend the fuel life time twice or more as long as the fuel with conventional cladding tube (i.e. modified SUS316), thus reducing fuel exchange frequency and fuel cost. It can be adaptable to high-temperature plant operation, which is favorable for improvement of power generation efficiency. This paper interprets the development of ODS ferritic steel cladding tube for sodium-cooled fast reactor, which has been led by JAEA for dozens of years.

Journal Articles

Corrosion behaviour of FeCrAl-ODS steels in nitric acid solutions with several temperatures

Takahatake, Yoko; Ambai, Hiromu; Sano, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Koizumi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kan*; Yamashita, Shinichiro

Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on Reactor Fuel Performance (TopFuel 2018) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/10

The corrosion behaviour of FeCrAl-ODS steels for the accident tolerant fuel cladding of LWRs were investigated in nitric acid solutions for the reprocessing process of spent fuels. The corrosion tests were carried out at 60$$^{circ}$$C, 80$$^{circ}$$C and the boiling point of the solutions, and the specimens were then analysed by XPS. The corrosion remarkably progressed at the boiling point, and the highest corrosion rate was 0.22 mm/y. In the oxide film, the atomic concentration of Fe was lower, than that in the base material, and those of Cr and Al were higher. The results show that the corrosion of FeCrAl-ODS steels in hot nitric acid solution is not severe because of the high corrosion resistance of the oxide film formed on the material; hence, the corrosion resistance of the new cladding materials in the dissolution process of spent fuel is acceptable for reprocessing operations.

Journal Articles

Model calculation of Cr dissolution behavior of ODS ferritic steel in high-temperature flowing sodium environment

Otsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kaito, Takeji

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 505, p.44 - 53, 2018/07


 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:22.17(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A calculation model was constructed to systematically study the effects of environmental conditions (i.e. Cr concentration in sodium, test temperature, axial temperature gradient of fuel pin, and sodium flow velocity) on Cr dissolution behavior. Chromium dissolution was largely influenced by small changes in Cr concentration (i.e. chemical potential of Cr) in liquid sodium in the model calculation. Chromium concentration in sodium coolant, therefore, should be recognized as a critical parameter for the prediction and management of Cr dissolution behavior in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) core. Because the fuel column length showed no impact on dissolution behavior in the model calculation, no significant downstream effects possibly take place in the SFR fuel cladding tube due to the much shorter length compared with sodium loops in the SFR plant and the large axial temperature gradient. The calculated profile of Cr concentration along the wall-thickness direction was consistent with that measured in BOR-60 irradiation test where Cr concentration in sodium bulk flow was set at 0.07 wt ppm in the calculation.

Journal Articles

Corrosion behavior of ODS steels with several chromium contents in hot nitric acid solutions

Tanno, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 494, p.219 - 226, 2017/10


 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:86.38(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel cladding tubes have been developed for fast reactors. 9 chromium ODS and 11Cr-ODS tempered martensitic steels are prioritized for the candidate material in research being carried out at JAEA. In this work, fundamental immersion tests and electro-chemical tests of 9 to 12Cr-ODS steels were systematically conducted in various nitric acid solutions at 95$$^{circ}$$C. The corrosion rate exponentially decreased with effective solute chromium concentration (Cr$$_{eff}$$) and nitric acid concentration. Addition of oxidizing ions also suppressed the corrosion rate. According to polarization curves and surface observations in this work, the combination of low Cr$$_{eff}$$ and dilute nitric acid could not prevent the active dissolution at the beginning of immersion, and the corrosion rate was high. In comparison, higher Cr$$_{eff}$$, concentrated nitric acid and addition of oxidizing ions helped to prevent the active dissolution, and suppressed the corrosion rate.

Journal Articles

Technical basis of accident tolerant fuel updated under a Japanese R&D project

Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa; Kurata, Masaki; Nozawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Seiichi*; Kirimura, Kazuki*; Kakiuchi, Kazuo*; Kondo, Takao*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; et al.

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

In Japan, the research and development (R&D) project on accident tolerant fuel and other components (ATFs) of light water reactors (LWRs) has been initiated in 2015 for establishing technical basis of ATFs. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has coordinated and carried out this ATF R&D project in cooperation with power plant providers, fuel venders and universities for making the best use of the experiences, knowledges in commercial uses of zirconium-base alloys (Zircaloy) in LWRs. ATF candidate materials under consideration in the project are FeCrAl steel strengthened by dispersion of fine oxide particles(FeCrAl-ODS) and silicon carbide (SiC) composite, and are expecting to endure severe accident conditions in the reactor core for a longer period of time than the Zircaloy while maintaining or improving fuel performance during normal operations. In this paper, the progresses of the R&D project are reported.

Journal Articles

Analytical study of the applicability of FeCrAl-ODS cladding for BWR

Takano, Sho*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; Goto, Daisuke*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Yamashita, Shinichiro

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

We focused on one of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) materials, Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe-Cr-Al Steel (FeCrAl-ODS). There is a reasonable prospect that FeCrAl-ODS is applied to BWRs, but relatively high neutron absorption should be compensated. To decrease adverse neutron economic impact, thin FeCrAl-ODS cladding was designed, and we evaluated characteristics of a core into which 9$$times$$9 Advanced BWR (ABWR) bundles with thin FeCrAl-ODS claddings were loaded. Thin FeCrAl-ODS water rods and channel boxes were also applied. We confirmed that FeCrAl-ODS core reactivity was sufficient by increasing enrichment of UO$$_{2}$$ fuel under the limit of 5 wt%. Moreover, some representative FeCrAl-ODS core characteristics were comparable to zircaloy core. We also confirmed that fuel thermal-mechanical behaviors of thin FeCrAl-ODS cladding at normal operation and transient conditions were acceptable. These results led to a conclusion that FeCrAl-ODS was applicable to BWR in the analysis range of this study.

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