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JAEA Reports

Basic research on the stability of fuel debris including alloy phase (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*

JAEA-Review 2020-032, 97 Pages, 2021/01

JAEA-Review-2020-032.pdf:4.16MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Basic Research on the Stability of Fuel Debris Including Alloy Phase" conducted in FY2019. In the present study, we focus on fuel debris consisting of oxide phase and alloy phase generated by the high-temperature chemical reaction between structure materials (SUS pipes, pressure vessels, etc.) and fuels (melted fuels, claddings components, etc.). We synthesize the simulated debris of UO$$_{2}$$-SUS system and UO$$_{2}$$-Zr(ZrO$$_{2}$$)-SUS system by high-temperature heat treatment, and measure their chemical property and dissolution behavior in water. Also, we will conduct research and development to spectroscopically analyze secular changes of oxide phase and alloy phase in the simulated debris.

Journal Articles

Study on chemisorption model of cesium hydroxide onto stainless steel type 304

Nakajima, Kunihisa; Nishioka, Shunichiro*; Suzuki, Eriko; Osaka, Masahiko

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00564_1 - 19-00564_14, 2020/06

A large amount of cesium (Cs) chemisorbed onto stainless steel is predicted to be present especially in the upper region of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during light water reactor severe accident (LWR SA) and a chemisorption model was developed for estimation of such amounts of Cs for stainless steel type 304 (SS304). However, this existing chemisorption model cannot accurately reproduce experimental results. Therefore, in this study, a modified Cs chemisorption model which accounts for silicon content in SS304 and concentration of cesium hydroxide (CsOH) in gaseous phases was constructed by combining penetration theory for gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction and mass action law for CsOH decomposition at interface between gaseous and solid phases. As a result, it was found that the modified model was able to reproduce the experimental data more accurately than the existing model.

JAEA Reports

Basic research on the stability of fuel debris including alloy phase (Contract research); FY2018 Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*

JAEA-Review 2019-035, 61 Pages, 2020/03

JAEA-Review-2019-035.pdf:2.9MB

JAEA/CLADS, had been conducting the Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2018. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Basic Research on the Stability of Fuel Debris Including Alloy Phase". In the present study, we focus on fuel debris consisting of oxide phase and alloy phase generated by the high-temperature chemical reaction between structure materials (SUS pipes, pressure vessels, etc.) and fuels (melted fuels, claddings components, etc.). We synthesize the simulated debris of UO$$_{2}$$-SUS system and UO$$_{2}$$-Zr(ZrO$$_{2}$$)-SUS system by high-temperature heat treatment, and measure their chemical property and dissolution behavior in water. Also, we will conduct research and development to spectroscopically analyze secular changes of oxide phase and alloy phase in the simulated debris.

Journal Articles

Synthesis and characterization of CeO$$_{2}$$-based simulated fuel containing CsI

Takamatsu, Yuki*; Ishii, Hiroto*; Oishi, Yuji*; Muta, Hiroaki*; Yamanaka, Shinsuke*; Suzuki, Eriko; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko; Kurosaki, Ken*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 17(3/4), p.106 - 110, 2018/12

In order to establish the synthesis method of simulated fuel contacting Cesium (Cs) which is required for the evaluation of physical/chemical characteristics in fuel and release behavior of Cs, sintering tests of the cerium dioxide (CeO$$_{2}$$) based simulated fuels containing Cesium iodide (CsI) are performed by using spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The sintered CeO$$_{2}$$ pellets with homogeneous distribution of several micro meter of CsI spherical precipitates were successfully obtained by optimizing SPS conditions.

JAEA Reports

Development and installation of thermal diffusivity measurement apparatus for minor actinide compounds (Contract research)

Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Takano, Masahide; Ito, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Kizaki, Minoru

JAERI-Tech 2005-051, 13 Pages, 2005/09

JAERI-Tech-2005-051.pdf:1.38MB

An apparatus has been developed to measure the thermal diffusivities of minor actinide (MA) compounds. By installing the laser flash apparatus in a glove box with highly purified inert gas atmosphere, the thermal diffusivities measurement of MA compounds of $$alpha$$-decay nuclides was enabled. A new sample holder has been also developed to measure the thermal diffusivities of very small samples. The performance of this new apparatus was confirmed by measuring the thermal diffusivities of small samples of tantalum, nickel and cerium oxides. The thermal diffusivity values obtained in this work agreed well with the literature values and the values measured by a conventional thermal diffusivities measurement apparatus. Accordingly, this apparatus was found to be useful for thermal diffusivities measurement of MA compounds.

Journal Articles

A Multi-exciton model for the electronic sputtering of oxides

Matsunami, Noriaki*; Fukuoka, Osamu*; Shimura, Tetsuo*; Sataka, Masao; Okayasu, Satoru

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 230(1-4), p.507 - 511, 2005/04

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:60.27(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Stability of lanthanide oxides in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt

Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo

Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 66(2-4), p.422 - 426, 2005/02

 Times Cited Count:28 Percentile:72.74(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Stability of lanthanide sesquioxides (Ln$$_2$$O$$_3$$; Ln=La, Nd, Gd) in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt is studied. Some lanthanide oxides have been pointed out to form oxide chlorides (LnOCl) in the chloride melts, according to the reaction, Ln$$_2$$O$$_3$$ + 2Cl$$^-$$ = 2LnOCl +O$$^{2-}$$. Equilibrium of the reaction for Ln = La, Nd, Gd in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt were studied. Entire La$$_2$$O$$_3$$ and a part of Nd$$_2$$O$$_3$$ converted to LaOCl and NdOCl respectively, though Gd$$_2$$O$$_3$$ remained with a trace amount of GdOCl for 2wt % of Ln$$_2$$O$$_3$$ in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt. The equilibrium depends on the free energies of formation of the solid compounds, Ln$$_2$$O$$_3$$ and LnOCl, and that of oxide ion (O$$^{2-}$$) in the melt. We derive the chemical potential of the oxide ion from the equilibrium using the reported thermochemical data of Ln$$_2$$O$$_3$$ and LnOCl.

JAEA Reports

Report of Examination of the Samples from Core Shroud (2F3-H6a) at Fukushima Dai-ni Nuclear Power Station Unit-3 (Contract Research)

The Working Team for Examination Operation of Samples From Core Shroud at Fukushima Dai-ni Unit-3

JAERI-Tech 2004-044, 92 Pages, 2004/05

JAERI-Tech-2004-044.pdf:15.18MB

The present examination has been performed with the objective to ensure the transparency of the examination as the third-party organization by providing technical basis for identifying the causes of cracking through examination of the sample taken from the cracked region of outer H6a welding portion of the core shroud at Fukushima Dai-ni Nuclear Power Station Unit-3, which was a part of sample stored in the Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd. in the examination of Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2001. The present examination of the sample was conducted at the post irradiation examination facilities of JAERI. The following findings were obtained from the result of the present examination. (1)Three cracks were observed at the portion 3 to 9mm apart from the weld metal and the maximum depth was about 8mm. (2)Intergranular cracking was observed in almost whole fracture surface. The transgranular cracking was partially observed within the depth of about 300$$mu$$m from the surface. (3)Hardening layer over Hv400 at its maximum was found from the surface to the depth of about 500$$mu$$m. Based on the examination results concerning presence of tensile residual stress by welding and relatively high dissolved oxygen contents in core coolant, it is concluded that the cracks were mainly initiated in the hardening layer by transgranular stress corrosion cracking and propagated along the grain boundaries.

JAEA Reports

Report of Examination of the Sample from Core Shroud (2F2-H3) at Fukushima Dai-ni Power Station Unit-2 (Contract research)

The Working Team for Examination of the Sample from Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Recirculation Pipi; Nakajima, Hajime*; Shibata, Katsuyuki; Tsukada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahide; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masahiko; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Nakano, Junichi; et al.

JAERI-Tech 2004-015, 114 Pages, 2004/03

JAERI-Tech-2004-015.pdf:38.06MB

The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) visually inspected the weld joint of core shroud at Fukushima Dai-ni Nuclear Power Station Unit-2 by a direction of the Nuclear and Industrial Agency, cracks were observed at outer side of the ring weld joint (H3) between a core shroud middle trunk and a middle ring. TEPCO has conducted a material examination with Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co. Ltd. (NFD) on the specimen including cracks sampled from the core shroud. The present examination has been performed with the objective to independently investigate and evaluate the materials by jointly attending the examination with NFD from the planning stage. Based on results of the present examination, the probable presence of tensile residual stress by welding process and dissolved oxygen contents in the cooling water, it was shown that the cracks were considered to be stress corrosion cracking (SCC). However, the cause of the cracks needs more consideration on the way of shroud construction.

JAEA Reports

Report of Examination of the Sample from Core Shroud (O1-H2) at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 (Contract research)

The Working Team for Examination of the Sample from Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Recirculation Pipi

JAERI-Tech 2004-012, 62 Pages, 2004/02

JAERI-Tech-2004-012.pdf:16.4MB

At Onagawa Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of the Tohoku Electric Power co., inc., cracks were confirmed near welded joints of core shroud in 15th periodical inspection. Tohoku Electric Power co., inc. has conducted a material examination with Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd.. To investigate independently, a JAERI's own evaluation report was provided. The results are as follows; (1) Hardening layer was detected at the depth of about 150-250$$mu$$m from outer surface of the sample. (2) Corrosion products were observed on inner surface of the cracks and some of them penetrated into grains. (3) Transgranular cracking and intergranular cracking were observed at the region within about 100$$mu$$m and the deeper region more than about 200$$mu$$m in depth from outer surface of the sample, respectively. (4) Distinct chromium depletion was not detected at the grain boundaries. (5) Chemical compositions of the sample corresponded to type 304L stainless steel in Japanese Industrial Standard. From the above, it is concluded that the cracks are stress corrosion cracking.

JAEA Reports

Report of Examination of the Sample from Core Shroud (K1-H4) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 (Contract research)

The Working Team for Examination of the Sample from Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Recirculation Pipi

JAERI-Tech 2004-011, 64 Pages, 2004/02

JAERI-Tech-2004-011.pdf:14.65MB

At the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of the TEPCO, cracks were confirmed at the weld joint (H4) in the middle of core shroud, by the visual inspection test for the weld joint of core shroud during the 13th periodic examination by a direction of the Nuclear and Industrial Agency. TEPCO has conducted a material examination with NFD on the specimen including cracks sampled from the core shroud. The present research has been performed with the objective to independently investigate and evaluate the materials by jointly attending the examination with NFD from the planning stage, receiving the final data given by the examination and providing JAERI's own evaluation report as a third-party organization for assuring the transparency. As a result, the consideration of residual stress induced with welding process and dissolved oxygen concentration in core cooling water, it was concluded that the cracks were initiated by SCC and propagated three-dimensionally through grains, and some cracks reached weld metal.

JAEA Reports

Report of Examination of the Sample from Core Shroud (1F4-H4) at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Unit-4 (Contract research)

The Working Team for Examination of the Sample from Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Recirculation Pipi

JAERI-Tech 2004-004, 74 Pages, 2004/02

JAERI-Tech-2004-004.pdf:31.62MB

During the 12th periodical inspection in Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Unit-4 (BWR, 784MW) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), which has been held from September 1993 to February 1994, cracks were found at welded joints No.H4 in the core shroud middle shell. TEPCO has conducted a material examination with Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co. Ltd. (NFD) on the SUS304L specimen including cracks sampled from the inner surface of welded joints (H4) of the middle shell of the core shroud. The present examination has been performed with the objective to independently investigate and evaluate the materials by jointly attending the examination with NFD, receiving the final data given by the examination and providing a JAERI's own evaluation report as a third-party organization for assuring the transparency. Based on the research results described above, presence of tensile residual stress by welding and relatively high dissolved oxygen contents in core coolant, it is concluded that the cracks observed were caused by the stress corrosion cracking (SCC).

Journal Articles

Charge disproportionation and magnetic properties in perovskite iron oxides

Kuzushita, Kaori; Morimoto, Shotaro*; Nasu, Saburo*

Physica B; Condensed Matter, 329-333(1-4), p.736 - 737, 2003/05

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:47.17(Physics, Condensed Matter)

The physical properties of perovskite iron oxides are closely related to the network of FeO$$_6$$ octahedra. The charge disproportionation (2Fe$$^{4+}$$ $$rightarrow$$ Fe$$^{3+}$$ + Fe$$^{5+}$$), not observed in SrFeO$$_3$$, occurs in the oxides being cut the network of FeO$$_6$$ octahedra, for example, by introduction of Fe$$^{3+}$$ by substitution La for Sr and change in the dimension by insertion of SrO layer. When Co is substituted 40% of Fe in Sr$$_3$$Fe$$_2$$O$$_7$$, the magnetic order changes to ferromagnetic from antiferromagnetic and charge disproportionation is suppressed.

Journal Articles

Behavior of simulated spent fuel in subcritical water

Mineo, Hideaki; Suzuki, Tadashi; Morita, Yasuji

Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environment Applications (Super Green 2003), p.334 - 338, 2003/00

Behavior of spent nuclear fuel in subcritical water was investigated to look at the feasibility of fission-products (FPs) separation without organic solvent. The study employed unirradiated UO$$_{2}$$ particles simulating spent fuel burned up to 45,000MWdt$$^{-1}$$, which includes FP elements in oxide form: Sr, Zr, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm. Also, alloy particles consisted of Mo, Ru, Rh and Pd were prepared to simulate the metallic phase of FP. 12.728 g of the fuel and 52 mg of the alloy were placed in a 10 ml pressure vessel, where subcritical water was fed. The temperature was 523, 573, 623 and 663K, while the pressure was kept at 29MPa. Dissolved fraction decreased with elevating temperature. It was found that more than 5% of Ba, Mo and Pr were respectively dissolved. The dissolved fraction of Sr and Rh were about 1%, and about 0.3% for Zr. La, Ce, Nd and Sm, indicated almost the same result as U, which was about 0.1%. It was suggested that the subcritical water could separate portion of FP. Further study would be carried out with smaller-sized fuel.

Journal Articles

Preparation of epitaxial TiO$$_{2}$$ films by PLD for photocatalyst applications

Yamaki, Tetsuya; Sumita, Taishi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Miyashita, Atsumi

Journal of Crystal Growth, 237-239(Part1), p.574 - 579, 2002/04

Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with a KrF excimer laser was used to prepare epitaxial TiO$$_{2}$$ films on a (0001) sapphire substrate. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of the films were then investigated as a function of the laser power density in the PLD. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results showed that the films were composed of the (100) oriented rutile phase with a small amount of the (001) oriented anatase. The anatase-to-rutile ratio in such phase-mixed films was controlled by the laser power; the ratio increased as the power density decreased. From atomic force microscopy observations, the film deposited at the lowest power was found to have a rough surface consisting of coarse grains. This film exhibited the best photocatalytic performance during the decomposition of the organic dyes possibly due to the maximum relative content of anatase and the large surface area.

Journal Articles

Formation of AgCl nanocluster by sequential implantation

Takahiro, Katsumi*; Nagata, Shinji*; Yamamoto, Shunya; Yamaguchi, Sadae*; Naramoto, Hiroshi

JAERI-Review 99-025, TIARA Annual Report 1998, p.143 - 145, 1999/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Present status of TRU fuels behavior analysis and their data bases

Ogawa, Toru

Shometsu Shori Kenkyu No Genjo; Atarashii Genshiryoku Gijutsu No Kanosei O Motomete, 0, p.117 - 124, 1994/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Dissolution of ThO$$_{2}$$-based oxides in nitric acid solutions at elevated temperatures

Akabori, Mitsuo; Shiratori, Tetsuo

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 31(6), p.539 - 545, 1994/06

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:76.33(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Computer simulation study of the structural similarities between fluoroberyllate and alkaline earth silicate melts

Umesaki, Norimasa*; Ono, Hideo; Igarashi, Kazuo*; *

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 150, p.302 - 306, 1992/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.05(Materials Science, Ceramics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Dissolution behavior of chromium-rich oxides in sulfuric acid-cerium(IV) solution

; ; Tachikawa, Enzo

Boshoku Gijutsu, (36), p.127 - 133, 1987/00

no abstracts in English

39 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)