Tatsuno, Takahiro*; Nihei, Naoto*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Ote, Nobuhito*
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 332(6), p.1677 - 1686, 2023/06
Periez, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Jung, K. T.*; Kim, K. O.*; Liptak, L.*; Little, A.*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Maderich, V.*; Min, B. I.*; Suh, K. S.*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 261, p.107138_1 - 107138_8, 2023/05
Lagrangian models present several advantages over Eulerian models to simulate the transport of radionuclides in the aquatic environment in emergency situations. A radionuclide release is simulated as a number of particles whose trajectories are calculated along time and thus these models do not require a spatial discretization. In this paper we investigate the dependence of a Lagrangian model output with the grid spacing which is used to calculate concentrations from the final distribution of particles, with the number of particles in the simulation and with the interpolation schemes which are required because of the discrete nature of the water circulation data used to feed the model.
Idomura, Yasuhiro; Dif-Pradalier, G.*; Garbet, X.*; Sarazin, Y.*; Tore Supra Teams*
Physics of Plasmas, 30(4), p.042508_1 - 042508_18, 2023/04
Two time slices in linear and saturated ohmic confinement (LOC and SOC) regimes in a Tore Supra ohmic L-mode discharge are analyzed using nonlinear global full- gyrokinetic simulations, and qualitative features of the LOC-SOC transition are reproduced. The exhaust of carbon impurity ions is caused by fast ion mixing, which is driven by the toroidal field stress. The intrinsic rotation develops in the opposite direction between the LOC and SOC phases, which is characterized by the different features of the mode asymmetry between trapped electron modes in the LOC phase and ion temperature gradient driven modes in the SOC phase, leading to the change of the profile shear stress. The energy fluxes of electrons and deuterium ions are dominant in the LOC and SOC phases, respectively, and the ratio of the energy confinement time between two phases agree with the experimental value.
Shimomura, Kenta; Yamashita, Takuya; Nagae, Yuji
JAEA-Data/Code 2022-012, 270 Pages, 2023/03
In a light water reactor, which is a commercial nuclear power plant, a severe accident such as loss of cooling function in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and exposure of fuel rods due to a drop in the water level in the reactor can occur when a trouble like loss of all AC power occurs. In the event of such a severe accident, the RPV may be damaged due to in-vessel conditions (temperature, molten materials, etc.) and leakage of radioactive materials from the reactor may occur. Verification and estimation of the process of RPV damage, molten fuel debris spillage and expansion, etc. during accident progression will provide important information for decommissioning work. Possible causes of RPV failure include failure due to loads and restraints applied to the RPV substructure (mechanical failure), failure due to the current eutectic state of low-melting metals and high-melting oxides with the RPV bottom members (failure due to inter-material reactions), and failure near the melting point of the structural members at the RPV bottom. Among the failure factors, mechanical failure is verified by numerical analysis (thermal hydraulics and structural analysis). When conducting such a numerical analysis, the heat transfer properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, density) and material properties (thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile, creep) of the materials (zirconium, boron carbide, stainless steel, nickel-based alloy, low alloy steel, etc.) constituting the RPV and in-core structures to near the melting point are required to evaluate the creep failure of the RPV. In this document, we compiled data on the properties of base materials up to the melting point of each material constituting the RPV and in-core structures, based on published literature. In addition, because welds exist in the RPV and in-core structures, the data on welds are also included in this report, although they are limited.
Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Rovira Leveroni, G.
EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00012_1 - 00012_5, 2023/03
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*
JAEA-Review 2022-063, 86 Pages, 2023/02
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2021. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "The study of oxidative stress status in the organs exposed to low dose/low dose-rate radiation" conducted from FY2019 to FY2021. Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for three fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of low dose/low dose-rate radiation exposure, which is of great social interest, on the oxidative stress status of individual organs and will contribute to the collection of scientific data in a dose range to be required. The samples to be analyzed in this study were collected from wild Japanese macaques exposed in the ex-evacuation zone after the accident of 1F.
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; National Institute for Materials Science*
JAEA-Review 2022-045, 82 Pages, 2023/01
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2021. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of genetic and electrochemical diagnosis and inhibition technologies for invisible corrosion caused by microorganisms" conducted in FY2021. The present study aims to develop innovative diagnostic techniques such as accelerated test specimens and on-site genetic testing for microbially induced and accelerated corrosion of metallic materials (microbially influenced corrosion, MIC), and to identify the conditions that promote MIC at 1F for proposing methods to prevent MIC through water quality and environmental control. We also aim to develop a research base based on materials, microorganisms, and electrochemistry, to develop technologies that can be used by engineers in the field, and to cultivate
Sawaguchi, Takahiro*; Tomota, Yo*; Yoshinaka, Fumiyoshi*; Harjo, S.
Acta Materialia, 242, p.118494_1 - 118494_14, 2023/01
Davies, S. J. C.*; Bolea-Alamanac, B.*; Endo, Kaori*; Yamamoto, Yu*; Yamasaki, Shudo*; Malins, A.; Evans, J.*; Sullivan, S.*; Ando, Shuntaro*; Nishida, Atsushi*; et al.
Journal of Transport & Health, 28, p.101564_1 - 101564_11, 2023/01
Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro
Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.179 - 183, 2023/01
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency accelerator-driven subcritical system (JAEA-ADS) pursues the reduction of nuclear waste by transmuting minor actinides. JAEA-ADS project drives a 30-MW proton beam to a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target to produce neutrons for a subcritical core reactor. To this end, the JAEA-ADS beam transport (BT) must provide a suitable beam profile and stable beam power to the beam window of the spallation target to avoid high-thermal stress in the components, such as the beam window. The beam transport was optimized by tracking a large number of macroparticles to mitigate the beam loss, performance with high stability in the presence of errors, and fulfill the length requirement on the transport. This work presents beam transport design and beam dynamics research for the JAEA-ADS project.
Nanjo, Kotaro; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Yu; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Koji*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 8 Pages, 2023/00
Zhang, T.*; Morita, Koji*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; Kamiyama, Kenji
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 179, p.109389_1 - 109389_10, 2022/12
Maurer, C.*; Galmarini, S.*; Solazzo, E.*; Kumierczyk-Michulec, J.*; Bar, J.*; Kalinowski, M.*; Schoeppner, M.*; Bourgouin, P.*; Crawford, A.*; Stein, A.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.106968_1 - 106968_27, 2022/12
After performing multi-model exercises in 2015 and 2016, a comprehensive Xe-133 atmospheric transport modeling challenge was organized in 2019. For evaluation measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from four International Monitoring System stations located in Europe and North America with overall considerable influence of IRE and/or CNL emissions. As a lesion learnt from the 2nd ATM-Challenge participants were prompted to work with controlled and harmonized model set ups to make runs more comparable, but also to increase diversity. Effects of transport errors, not properly characterized remaining emitters and long IMS sampling times (12 to 24 hours) undoubtedly interfere with the effect of high-quality IRE and CNL stack data. An ensemble based on a few arbitrary submissions is good enough to forecast the Xe-133 background at the stations investigated. The effective ensemble size is below five.
JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.7 - 13, 2022/11
The partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technology has promising potential for volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. JAEA is developing the P-T technology combined with accelerator driven systems (ADS). One of critical issues affecting the feasibility of ADS is the proton beam window (PBW) which functions as a boundary between the accelerator and the sub-critical reactor core. The PBW is damaged by a high-intensity proton beam and spallation neutrons produced in the target, and also by flowing high-temperature liquid lead bismuth eutectic alloy which is corrosive to steel materials. To study the materials damage under the ADS environment, J-PARC is proposing a plan of proton irradiation facility which equips with a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target bombarded by a 400 MeV - 250 kW proton beam. The facility is also open for versatile purposes such as soft error testing of semi-conductor devises, RI production, materials irradiation for fission and fusion reactors, and so on. Application to nuclear data research with using the proton beam and spallation neutrons is also one of such versatile purposes, and we welcome unique ideas from the nuclear data community.
Koyama, Motomichi*; Yamashita, Takayuki*; Morooka, Satoshi; Yang, Z.*; Varanasi, R. S.*; Hojo, Tomohiko*; Kawasaki, Takuro; Harjo, S.
ISIJ International, 62(10), p.2043 - 2053, 2022/10
Yee-Rendon, B.; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji
Journal of Instrumentation (Internet), 17(10), p.P10005_1 - P10005_21, 2022/10
To reduce the hazard of minor actinides in nuclear waste, JAEA proposed an accelerator-driven subcritical system (JAEA-ADS). The JAEA-ADS drives a subcritical reactor 800-MWth by 30-MW proton linac delivering the beam to the spallation neutron target inside the reactor. The beam transport to the target (BTT) is required for high-beam power stability and low peak density to ensure the integrity of the beam window. Additionally, the design should have compatible with the reactor design for the maintenance and replacement of the fuel and the beam window. A robust-compact BTT design was developed through massive multiparticle simulations. The beam optics was optimized to guarantee beam window feasibility requirements by providing a low peak density of less than 0.3 A/mm. Beam stability was evaluated and improved by simultaneously applying the linac's input beam and element errors. The input beam errors to the reactor were based on the beam degradation obtained by implementing fast fault compensation in the linac. Those results show that the BTT fulfills the requirements for JAEA-ADS.
Sheng, Q.*; Kaneko, Tatsuya*; Yamakawa, Kohtaro*; Guguchia, Z.*; Gong, Z.*; Zhao, G.*; Dai, G.*; Jin, C.*; Guo, S.*; Fu, L.*; et al.
Physical Review Research (Internet), 4(3), p.033172_1 - 033172_14, 2022/09
Li, C.-Y.; Watanabe, Akira*; Uchibori, Akihiro; Okano, Yasushi
Dai-26-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/07
Identifying accident scenarios that could lead to severe accidents and evaluating their frequency of occurrence are essential issues. This study aims to establish the methodology of the dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors that can consider the time dependency and the interdependence of each event. Specifically, the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo (CMMC) method is newly applied to the SPECTRA code, which analyzes the severe accident conditions of nuclear reactors, to develop an evaluation methodology for typical external hazards. Currently, a fault-tree model of air coolers of decay heat removal system is implemented as the CMMC method, and a series of preliminary analysis of the plant's transient characteristics under the scenario of volcanic ashfall has been conducted.
Bateman, K.*; Murayama, Shota*; Hanamachi, Yuji*; Wilson, J.*; Seta, Takamasa*; Amano, Yuki; Kubota, Mitsuru*; Ouchi, Yuji*; Tachi, Yukio
Minerals (Internet), 12(7), p.883_1 - 883_20, 2022/07
Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.201 - 205, 2022/05
The nuclear transmutation technology is a powerful solution to the "nuclear waste" problem that accompanies nuclear power generation. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which combines a high-intensity accelerator and a subcritical core, is a promising tool for nuclear transmutation. In this paper, we will explain the significance and principle of nuclear transmutation by ADS, design examples of ADS, partitioning and transmutation technology and its effects, required performance of high-intensity accelerators, overseas trends, etc.