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JAEA Reports

Continuous improvement activities on nuclear facility maintenance in Nuclear Science Research Institute of Japan Atomic Energy Agency in 2021

Task Force on Maintenance Optimization of Nuclear Facilities

JAEA-Technology 2022-006, 80 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Technology-2022-006.pdf:4.24MB

The Task force on maintenance optimization of nuclear facilities was organized in the Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) since November 2020, in order to adequately respond to "the New nuclear regulatory inspection system since FY 2020" and to continuously improve the facility maintenance activities. In 2021, the task force has studied (1) optimization of the importance classification on maintenance and inspection of nuclear facilities, and (2) improvement in setting and evaluation of the performance indicators on safety, maintenance and quality management activities, considering "the Graded approach" that is one of the basic methodologies in the new nuclear regulatory inspection system. Each nuclear facility (research reactors, nuclear fuel material usage facilities, others) in the NSRI will steadily improve their respective safety, maintenance and quality management activities, referring the review results suggested by the task force.

JAEA Reports

Development of the technology for preventing radioactive particles' dispersion during the fuel debris retrieval (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2022-010, 155 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-010.pdf:9.78MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of the technology for preventing radioactive particles' dispersion during the fuel debris retrieval" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to clarify the behavior of microparticles in gas and liquid phases in order to steadily confine radioactive microparticles during fuel debris retrieval in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, TEPCO. As measures to prevent dispersion of microparticles, (1) a method to suppress the dispersion with minimum amount of water utilizing water spray etc., and (2) a method to suppress the dispersion by solidifying fuel

JAEA Reports

Identification of altered phases of fuel debris by laser fluorescence spectroscopy (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2022-007, 59 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Review-2022-007.pdf:2.09MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Identification of altered phases of fuel debris by laser fluorescence spectroscopy" conducted from FY2018 to FY2021 (this contract was extended to FY2021). Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for four fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to identify alteration phases occurring on the surface fuel debris at various conditions, using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), which is a selective analytical technique for U(VI), a major constituent of fuel debris and stable in oxidizing conditions. In particular, we pursue to improve its sensitivity and resolution by performing measurements at ultra-low temperature and identify multiple and heterogeneous U(VI)

JAEA Reports

Development of JAEA sorption database (JAEA-SDB); Update of sorption/QA data in FY2021

Sugiura, Yuki; Suyama, Tadahiro*; Tachi, Yukio

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-017, 58 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-017.pdf:1.98MB

Sorption behavior of radionuclides (RNs) in buffer materials (bentonites), rocks and cementitious materials is one of the key processes in a safe geological disposal of radioactive waste because RNs migration in these materials is expected to be retarded by the sorption process. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the sorption process and develop a database compiling reliable data and mechanistic/predictive models so that reliable parameters can be set under a variety of geochemical conditions relevant to a performance assessment (PA). For this purpose, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed the database of sorption parameters in bentonites, rocks and cementitious materials. This sorption database (SDB) was firstly developed as an important basis for the H12 PA of a high-level radioactive waste disposal, and have been provided through the Web. JAEA has continued to improve and update the SDB in the view of potential future needs of data focusing on assuring the desired quality level and testing the usefulness of the databases for possible applications to the PA-related parameter setting. This report focuses on updating of the sorption database (JAEA-SDB) as a basis of integrated approach for the PA-related distribution coefficient (Kd) setting and development of mechanistic sorption models. This report also includes an overview of the database structure and contents. Kd data and their quality assurance (QA) results were updated from literature collected with wider ranges. As a result, 8,503 Kd data from 70 references related to the above-mentioned systems were added and the total number of Kd values in JAEA-SDB reached 79,072. The QA/classified Kd data reached about 75.4% for all Kd data in JAEA-SDB. The updated JAEA-SDB is expected to make it possible to give a basis for the next-step PA-related Kd setting.

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the Nuclear Power Station in the fiscal year 2020 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Ishizaki, Azusa; Kawasaki, Yoshiharu*; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Hiraga, Shogo*; Sato, Kazuhiko*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kikuchi, Hikaru*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-029, 132 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Technology-2021-029.pdf:24.58MB

By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the FDNPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter has been conducted around FDNPS. The results of the airborne radiation monitoring and the evaluation for temporal change of dose rate in the fiscal 2020 were summarized in this report. Analysis considering topographical effects was applied to the result of the airborne monitoring to improve the accuracy of conventional method. In addition, technique for discriminating gamma rays from the ground and those from the airborne Rn-progenies was also utilized to evaluate their effect on airborne radiation monitoring.

JAEA Reports

Development of genetic and electrochemical diagnosis and inhibition technologies for invisible corrosion caused by microorganisms (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; National Institute for Materials Science*

JAEA-Review 2021-059, 71 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Review-2021-059.pdf:4.25MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of genetic and electrochemical diagnosis and inhibition technologies for invisible corrosion caused by microorganisms" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to develop innovative diagnostic techniques such as accelerated test specimens and on-site genetic testing for microbially induced and accelerated corrosion of metallic materials (microbially influenced corrosion, MIC), and to identify the conditions that promote MIC at 1F for proposing methods to prevent MIC through water quality and environmental control. We also aim to develop a research base based on materials, microorganisms, and electrochemistry, to develop technologies that can be used by engineers in the field, and to cultivate leade

JAEA Reports

Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Keio University*

JAEA-Review 2021-048, 181 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-048.pdf:14.5MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms" conducted in FY2019 and FY2020. Since the final year of this proposal was FY2020, the results for two fiscal years were summarized. The purpose of the study is to obtain knowledge related to microorganisms that will be useful in the decommissioning process of 1F. Therefore, we clarified the current conditions of the microbial community inhabiting the power plant and its premises. Environmental samples were taken from several sites such as, topsoil from the south of the plant site boundary (south of the treated water tanks), seabed soil and its above water near the plant, surface water 3km offshore, and metagenomic

JAEA Reports

Safe, efficient cementation of challenging radioactive wastes using alkali activated materials with high-flowability and high-anion retention capacity (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Hokkaido University*

JAEA-Review 2021-036, 95 Pages, 2021/12

JAEA-Review-2021-036.pdf:5.13MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Safe, efficient cementation of challenging radioactive wastes using alkali activated materials with high-flowability and high-anion retention capacity" conducted in FY2020. For safe storage and disposal of iron sludge generated from contaminated water treatment, the present study aims to 1) explore alkali activated materials (AAM) with high-flowability and high-anion retention capacity and its recipe, 2) try mock-up manufacture and evaluation for one-tenth the size of real waste and propose the concept of the manufacturing equipment for a real plant, 3) show potential of AAM as the material for the solidification of waste with various physicochemical properties and radioactive nuclide compositions from the result of

Journal Articles

${it In situ}$ spectrometry of terrestrial gamma rays using portable germanium detectors in area of 80 km radius around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Mikami, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki*; Okuda, Naotoshi*; Sakamoto, Ryuichi*; Ochi, Kotaro; Uno, Kiichiro*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Saito, Kimiaki

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 20(4), p.159 - 178, 2021/12

In order to know the background radiation level where the area affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, terrestrial gamma rays had been measured by using portable germanium detectors repeatedly from 2013 through 2019, at 370 locations within 80 km radius area centered on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Radioactive concentrations of Uranium 238, Thorium 232, Potassium 40 and kerma rates in air due to terrestrial gamma rays were obtained at those locations based on the method of ICRU report 53. Averaged concentrations of $$^{238}$$U, $$^{232}$$Th and $$^{40}$$K were 18.8, 22.7, 428 Bq/kg, respectively, and kerma rate in air over the area was found to be 0.0402 $$mu$$Gy/h. The obtained kerma rates in air were compared to those reported in literatures. It was confirmed that the data were correlated with each other, and were agreed within the range of their uncertainty. This is because the kerma rate in air due to terrestrial gamma rays is depend on geology. The similar trend to previous findings was observed that the kerma rate in air at locations geologically classified as Mesozoic era, Granite and Rhyolite were statistically significantly higher than the others.

JAEA Reports

Background radiation monitoring using manned helicopter for application of technique of nuclear emergency response in the fiscal year 2020 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Sasaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Yoshiharu*; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Hiraga, Shogo*; Sato, Kazuhiko*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kikuchi, Hikaru*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-020, 138 Pages, 2021/11

JAEA-Technology-2021-020.pdf:17.11MB

A large amount of radioactive material was released by the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company, caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring via manned helicopter has been utilized to grasp rapidly and widely the distribution of the radioactive materials surrounding FDNPS. We prepare the data of background radiation dose, geomorphic characteristics and the controlled airspace surrounding nuclear facilities of the whole country in order to make effective use of the monitoring technique as a way of emergency radiation monitoring and supply the results during an accident of a facility. This report is summarized that the knowledge as noted above achieved by the aerial radiation monitoring around Tsuruga and Mihama nuclear power station, research reactors in Kindai University Atomic Energy Research Institute and Institute for Integrated Radiation and Nuclear Science, Kyoto University. In addition, examination's progress aimed at introduction of airborne radiation monitoring via unmanned plane during nuclear disaster and the technical issues are summarized in this report.

JAEA Reports

Review of research on advanced computational science in FY2020

Center for Computational Science & e-Systems

JAEA-Evaluation 2021-001, 66 Pages, 2021/11

JAEA-Evaluation-2021-001.pdf:1.66MB

Research on advanced computational science for nuclear applications, based on "the plan to achieve the mid- and long-term goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency", has been performed by Center for Computational Science & e-Systems (CCSE), Japan Atomic Energy Agency. CCSE established a committee consisting of external experts and authorities which does research evaluation and advice for the assistance of the future research and development. This report summarizes the results of the R&D performed by CCSE in FY2020 (April 1st, 2020 - March 31st, 2021), the results expected at the end of the 3rd mid and long-term goal period, and the evaluation by the committee on them.

Journal Articles

Initiatives to address the lifetime improvement of HBC stripper foil for 3GeV synchrotron of J-PARC

Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Nakanoya, Takamitsu; Yamazaki, Yoshio; Saha, P. K.; Kinsho, Michikazu; Yamamoto, Shunya*; Okazaki, Hiroyuki*; Taguchi, Tomitsugu*; Yamada, Naoto*; Yamagata, Ryohei*

Proceedings of 18th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.850 - 854, 2021/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Pseudo-material method for graphite with arbitrary porosities in Monte Carlo criticality calculations

Okita, Shoichiro; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Fukaya, Yuji

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(9), p.992 - 998, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Laser beam direct energy deposition of graded austenitic-to-martensitic steel junctions compared to dissimilar electron beam welding

Villaret, F.*; Boulnat, X.*; Aubry, P.*; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Fabregue, D.*; de Carlan, Y.*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 824, p.141794_1 - 141794_10, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

Journal Articles

Growing need for humanities and social science studies in uranium waste disposal

Yasuda, Hiroshi*; Fumoto, Hiromichi*; Saito, Tatsuo

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(8), p.610 - 614, 2021/08

Regarding the handling of uranium bearing waste, which is contaminated with uranium, which is a naturally occurring radionuclide, and its descendant nuclides, in recent years, the Japan Nuclear Regulatory Commission, etc. have been carefully and actively deliberated based on the knowledge of natural science and safety engineering. It was carried out, and as of March 2021, a certain policy has been shown. On the other hand, when disposing of uranium waste, which may cause dose exposure to future generations, the authors consider not only the science and engineering perspectives that have been conducted so far, but also the humanities and social science perspectives. We have been discussing with experts in related fields, thinking that it is necessary. In this report, we will introduce the background that brought about such an idea and the direction of future discussions.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen production using thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process test facility made of industrial structural materials; Engineering solutions to prevent iodine precipitation

Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Myagmarjav, O.; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Shinji

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46(43), p.22328 - 22343, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:23.98(Chemistry, Physical)

An iodine-sulfur process offers the potential for mass producing hydrogen with high-efficiency, and it uses high-temperature heat sources, including HTGR, solar heat, and waste heat of industries. R&D tasks are essential to confirm the integrity of the components that are made of industrial materials and the stability of hydrogen production in harsh working conditions. A test facility for producing hydrogen was constructed from corrosion-resistant components made of industrial materials. For stable hydrogen production, technical issues for instrumental improvements (i.e., stable pumping of the HIx solution, improving the quality control of glass-lined steel, prevention of I$$_{2}$$ precipitation using a water removal technique in a Bunsen reactor) were solved. The entire process was successfully operated for 150 h at the rate of 30 L/h. The integrity of components and the operational stability of the hydrogen production facility in harsh working conditions were demonstrated.

Journal Articles

Great achievements of M. Salvatores for nuclear data adjustment study with use of integral experiments

Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 154, p.108100_1 - 108100_11, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:48.83(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the design of innovative nuclear reactors such as fast reactors, the improvement of the prediction accuracies for neutronics properties is an important task. The nuclear data adjustment is a promising methodology for this issue. The idea of the nuclear data adjustment was first proposed in 1964. Toward its practical application, however, a great deal of study has been conducted over a long time. While it took about 10 years to establish the theoretical formulation, the research and development for its practical application has been conducted for more than half a century. Researches in this field are still active, and the fact suggests that the improvement of the prediction accuracies is indispensable for the development of new types of nuclear reactors. Massimo Salvatores, who passed away in March 2020, was one of the first proposers to develop the nuclear data adjustment technique, as well as one of the great contributors to its practical application. Reviewing his long-time works in this area is almost the same as reviewing the history of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. The authors intend that this review would suggest what should be done in the future toward the next development in this area. The present review consists of two parts: a) the establishment of the nuclear data adjustment methodology and b) the achievements related to practical applications. Furthermore, the former is divided into two aspects: the study on the nuclear data adjustment theory and the numerical solution for sensitivity coefficient that is requisite for the nuclear data adjustment. The latter is separated to three categories: the use of integral experimental data, the uncertainty quantification and design target accuracy evaluation, and the promotion of nuclear data covariance development.

Journal Articles

Analysis of residual stress in steel bar processed by cold drawing and straightening

Nishida, Satoru*; Nishino, Soichiro*; Sekine, Masahiko*; Oka, Yuki*; Harjo, S.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Morii, Yukio*; Ishii, Yoshinobu*

Materials Transactions, 62(5), p.667 - 674, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Synthesis of a Si-Al gel as a starting material of aluminosilicate solids

Sato, Junya; Shiota, Kenji*; Takaoka, Masaki*

Zairyo, 70(5), p.406 - 411, 2021/05

An aluminosilicate solid is an inorganic material that has the property of immobilizing heavy metals or radionuclides in the matrix. In this study, aluminosilicates with a Si/Al molar ratio of 0.5 was synthesized from a chemical reagent in order to produce aluminosilicate solids with a low Si/Al molar ratio, which were expected to improve the immobilization of heavy metals and radionuclides contained in the matrix. The synthesized Si-Al gel with a Si/Al molar ratio of 0.5 had little impurity content and was in an amorphous phase. In addition, the compressive strength of the aluminosilicate solid produced by the synthesized Si-Al gel showed a 5 MPa or more, confirming that it can be used as a raw material for aluminosilicate solids. The aluminosilicate solid with a Si/Al molar ratio of 1.25 had a dense surface structure from the result of BSE images and had the highest compressive strength among all samples.

JAEA Reports

Technical basis of ECCS acceptance criteria for light-water reactors and applicability to high burnup fuel

Nagase, Fumihisa; Narukawa, Takafumi; Amaya, Masaki

JAEA-Review 2020-076, 129 Pages, 2021/03

JAEA-Review-2020-076.pdf:3.9MB

Each light-water reactor (LWR) is equipped with the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) to maintain the coolability of the reactor core and to suppress the release of radioactive fission products to the environment even in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by breaks in the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The acceptance criteria for ECCS have been established in order to evaluate the ECCS performance and confirm the sufficient safety margin in the evaluation. The limits defined in the criteria were determined in 1975 and reviewed based on state-of-the-art knowledge in 1981. Though the fuel burnup extension and necessary improvements of cladding materials and fuel design have been conducted, the criteria have not been reviewed since then. Meanwhile, much technical knowledge has been accumulated regarding the behavior of high-burnup fuel during LOCAs and the applicability of the criteria to the high-burnup fuel. This report provides a comprehensive review of the history and technical bases of the current criteria and summarizes state-of-the-art technical findings regarding the fuel behavior during LOCAs. The applicability of the current criteria to the high-burnup fuel is also discussed.

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