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JAEA Reports

Spatial distribution of desaturation around the tunnel predicted by three-dimensional two-phase flow modeling of the degassing process of dissolved gases in groundwater

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Hajime*

JAEA-Research 2022-003, 40 Pages, 2022/05


The excavation of large-scale underground facilities, such as geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, creates an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) with cracks around the tunnel. In the EDZ, oxygen invades the bedrock through unsaturated cracks and affects environmental conditions for nuclide migration. When a tunnel is excavated in a geological formation containing a high concentration of dissolved CH$$_{4}$$, such as the Neogene marine sediments, degassed CH$$_{4}$$ prevents oxygen intrusion. However, it may be promoted through gas-phase diffusion through desaturation. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the method of estimating the spatial distribution of desaturation associated with the construction and operation of underground facilities in a stratum that contains a large amount of dissolved CH$$_{4}$$. A sequential excavation analysis that reflected the actual process of 10-year excavation of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was carried out along with gas-water two-phase flow analysis. The analysis results of the amount of groundwater and gas discharged from the URL were about 100 to 300 m$$^{3}$$ d$$^{-1}$$ and 250 to 350 m$$^{3}$$ d$$^{-1}$$, respectively, as of January 2017. These results showed values close to the observations (100 m$$^{3}$$ d$$^{-1}$$ and 300 m$$^{3}$$ d$$^{-1}$$, respectively). The analysis results of the saturation distribution were relatively high around the 250 m gallery and relatively low around the 350 m gallery, confirming that they are consistent with the in-situ observations. Although there were still technical issues of analysis regarding the conditions for groundwater drainage from the tunnel wall and the method of handling grout effects, the numerical calculation was generally appropriate. Although the results of the saturation distribution associated with the excavation were insufficient as the quantitative evaluation, they were almost correct from a qualitative point of view.

JAEA Reports

A Numerical simulation study of the desaturation and oxygen infusion into the sedimentary rock around the tunnel in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-002, 26 Pages, 2021/05


Investigations employing numerical simulation have been conducted to study the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into sedimentary formations. By mimicking the conditions of the Horonobe underground research laboratory, numerical simulations aided geoscientific investigation of the effects of dissolved gas content and rock permeability on the desaturation (Miyakawa et al., 2019) and mechanisms of oxygen intrusion into the host rock (Miyakawa et al., 2021). These simulations calculated multi-phase flow, including flows of groundwater and exsolved gas, and conducted sensitivity analysis changing the dissolved gas content, rock permeability, and humidity at the gallery wall. Only the most important results from these simulations have been reported previously, because of publishers' space limitations. Hence, in order to provide basic data for understanding the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into rock, all data for 27 output parameters (e.g., advective fluxes of heat, gas, and water, diffusive fluxes of water, CH$$_{4}$$, CO$$_{2}$$, O$$_{2}$$, and N$$_{2}$$, saturation degree, water pressure, and mass fraction of each component) over a modeling period of 100 years are presented here.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of oxygen infusion into desaturation resulting from artificial openings in sedimentary formations

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.609 - 614, 2021/01

Desaturation is expected due to excavation of an underground repository, especially in the newly created fractures zone (EDZ). During the construction and operation of facilities, the air in the gallery infuses into the rock around the gallery though the excavation affected area and causes oxidation of host rock and groundwater, which increase nuclide mobilities. In the Horonobe underground research laboratory (HURL), which is excavated in the Neogene sedimentary formations, no pyrite dissolution or precipitation of calcium sulfates was found from the cores drilled in the rock around the gallery. The reason for no oxidation is estimated that the release of dissolved gases from groundwater due to pressure decrease flows against the air infusion. In this research, the mechanism of O$$_{2}$$ intrusion into the rock was investigated by numerical multiphase flow simulation considering advection and diffusion of groundwater and gases. In the simulation, only Darcy's and Henry's laws were considered, that is, chemical reaction related to oxidation was not handled. The effects of dissolved gas and rock permeability on O$$_{2}$$ infusion into the rock were almost identical. Decreasing humidity with relatively low permeability leads to extensive accumulation of O$$_{2}$$ into the EDZ even though with a relatively large amount of dissolved gas. In the HURL, the shotcrete attenuates O$$_{2}$$ concentration and keeps 100% humidity at the boundary of the gallery wall, which inhibits O$$_{2}$$ infusion. Without the shotcrete, humidity at the gallery wall decreases according to seasonal changes and ventilation, which promotes O$$_{2}$$ intrusion into the EDZ but the chemical reaction related to O$$_{2}$$ buffering such as pyrite oxidation consumes O$$_{2}$$.

Journal Articles

The Effect of dissolved gas on rock desaturation in artificial openings in geological formations

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

Proceedings of 5th ISRM Young Scholars' Symposium on Rock Mechanics and International Symposium on Rock Engineering for Innovative Future (YSRM 2019 and REIF 2019) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2019/12

The construction and operation of geological repositories require excavation and ventilation of galleries, with significant groundwater drainage. Desaturation of rock around galleries is unavoidable and may affect hydraulic properties and redox conditions. This study used numerical modeling to assess the influence of dissolved gas on the degree of saturation of rock surrounding excavated galleries, focusing on siliceous mudstone rock in the 140 m, 250 m, and 350-m-deep galleries of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan. Based on previous ${it in situ}$ electrical survey, the degree of saturation in the 250 m gallery was higher than that in the 140 m and 350 m galleries. In the Horonobe area, deep groundwater contains high concentrations of dissolved methane, and exsolution of this methane from pore water can affect desaturation. Simple numerical modeling, including simulation of multiphase flows, was undertaken for each gallery to confirm the effect of dissolved gas and rock permeability on desaturation. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying dissolved gas contents and permeability. Results indicate that the dissolved gas content affects both the degree of saturation and its spatial extent, whereas rock permeability affects only the latter. Higher dissolved gas concentrations result in lower degrees of saturation with a greater spatial extent of desaturation, and higher permeability leads to greater extents of desaturation. It is therefore likely that gas content, rather than rock permeability, caused the observed variations in the saturation degree.

Journal Articles

Evolution of the excavation damaged zone around a modelled disposal pit; Case study at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Ishii, Eiichi; Nakayama, Masashi; Kimura, Shun

Proceedings of 13th SEGJ International Symposium (USB Flash Drive), 5 Pages, 2018/11

The construction of underground facilities induces fractures in the rock mass around the underground voids due to the resultant stress redistribution. This has particular implications for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal projects, where fracture development creates an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) that increases the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock mass and can provide a pathway for the migration of radionuclides from the storage facilities. It is therefore important to understand the long-term evolution of the EDZ and perform a comprehensive HLW disposal risk assessment. An in situ engineered barrier system experiment was conducted in the 350 m gallery at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan, to observe the near-field coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) process in situ and validate coupled THMC models. Here we investigate the evolution of the EDZ around the gallery and model a test pit that was excavated below the floor of the gallery using a series of seismic tomography surveys. There was a significant decrease in the seismic velocity field around the test pit due to its excavation, which became slightly more pronounced over time after the excavation. These seismic results, coupled with hydraulic tests and pore pressure measurements around the pit, indicate that fracture development and the decrease in saturation around the test pit resulted in a decrease in the seismic velocity field after the excavation of the test pit. Furthermore, the increase in saturation around the test pit is a key reason for the increase in the seismic velocity field after the heater test.

Journal Articles

Extending water retention curves to a quasi-saturated zone subjected to a high water pressure up to 1.5 Megapascals

Sakaki, Toshihiro*; Komatsu, Mitsuru*; Takeuchi, Ryuji

Vadose Zone Journal (Internet), 15(8), 7 Pages, 2016/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:12.15(Environmental Sciences)

In the Groundwater Recovery Experiment in Tunnel which is underway at the MIU, water saturation is one of the key parameters to monitor in order to understand the recovery processes. In this study, the process of saturation increase in the quasi-saturated zone where trapped discrete air phase affects saturation due to further increase in water pressure was studied. The relationship between the positive water pressure and saturation was measured by laboratory test using sands with trapped air bubbles and the effect of compression of bubbles on the changes in saturation was analyzed. The experimental results showed that the water pressure-saturation curves closely followed the relationship estimated solely based on the air bubble compression using Boyle's law. Based on this observation, a mathematical model was established to define the water pressure - saturation curve for the region where the water pressure is positive.

Journal Articles

Impact of wall saturation on particle control in long and high-power-heated discharges in JT-60U

Nakano, Tomohide; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Kubo, Hirotaka; Miura, Yukitoshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Konoshima, Shigeru; Masaki, Kei; Higashijima, Satoru; JT-60 Team

Nuclear Fusion, 46(5), p.626 - 634, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:55.79(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

In order to understand plasma-wall interactions in a long time scale, the discharge pulse length has been extended from 15 s to 65 s, with the NB-heating duration extended to 30 s. Nearly-saturation of the divertor plates was observed in the latter half of long pulse ELMy H-mode discharges. Particle sink into the divertor plates gradually decreased, and subsequently, wall-pumping efficiency became zero. This wall saturation resulted in a rise of the main plasma density without any auxiliary particle supply besides NB with divertor-pumping. Even when the total injected energy reached up to $$sim$$ 350 MJ in a discharge, neither sudden increase of carbon generation such as carbon bloom nor increase of the dilution of the main plasma was observed.

Journal Articles

Saturation of zonal flow in gyrofluid simulations of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Li, J.; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Miyato, Naoaki; Matsumoto, Taro

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.6, p.585 - 588, 2004/00

An enhanced zonal flow is observed in collisionless electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence with weak magnetic shears. The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability is proposed as a primary damping mechanism of such flow. Some considerable evidences for the KH mode excitation are presented. Results seem to suggest a possibility of turbulence transition from the ETG-dominated one to the KH-dominated one due to the zonal flow dynamics in weak shear plasmas.

JAEA Reports

Development of FEMAG; Calculation code of magnetic field generated by ferritic plates in the tokamak devices

Urata, Kazuhiro*

JAERI-Data/Code 2003-005, 36 Pages, 2003/03


In design of the fusion devises in which ferritic steel is planned to use as the plasma facing material and/or the inserts for ripple reduction, the appreciation of the error field effect and the optimization of ferritic plate arrangement to reduce the toroidal field ripple require calculation of ferritic magnetic field. However iterative calculations by the non-linearity in B-H curve disturbs high-speed calculation. In the strong toroidal magnetic field in the tokamak, fully magnetic saturation of ferritic steel occurs. Hence a distribution of magnetic charges as magnetic field source is determined straightforward. Additionally objective ferritic steel geometry is limited to the thin plate and they are installed along the toroidal magnetic field. Taking them into account, high-speed calculation code FEMAG has been developed. In this report, the formalization of FEMAG, how to use FEMAG, and the validity check in comparison with a 3D FEM code, with the measurements of the magnetic field in JFT-2M are described. The presented examples are design studies for JT-60 modification.

Journal Articles

Mechanisms and kinetics of hydrogen yield from polymers by irradiation

Seguchi, Tadao

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 185(1-4), p.43 - 49, 2001/12

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:51.16(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Decoloration and degradation of azo dye in aqueous solution supersaturated with oxygen by irradiation of high energy electron beams

; Arai, Hidehiko; Aizawa, Masaki*; Yamamoto, Ichiro*; Shimizu, Ken*; Sugiyama, Masahi*

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 44(9), p.1199 - 1203, 1993/00

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:87.16(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

MHD behavior in high $$beta$$$$_{P}$$ and $$beta$$$$_{N}$$ discharges in JT-60U

Neyatani, Yuzuru; ; Ozeki, Takahisa; Ishida, Shinichi

Proc. of the 20th EPS Conf. on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics,Vol. 17C,Part I, p.I-215 - I-218, 1993/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Tests of new polystyrene-based scintillators

*; *; *; *; *; Kojima, Takuji; *

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 311, p.498 - 504, 1992/00

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:81.82(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

1-dimensional single-mode nonlinear free electron laser(FEL) amplification code; Users manual

Kishimoto, Yasuaki; *

JAERI-M 89-061, 59 Pages, 1989/05


no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The Effect of wall materials on hydrogen recycling in JT-60

; Murakami, Yoshio

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 121, p.254 - 263, 1984/00

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:51.95(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Computer Codes for Simulating Atomic-Displacement Cascades in Solids Subject to Irradiation

; ; ; Nakagawa, Masayuki; ;

JAERI-M 8178, 126 Pages, 1979/03


no abstracts in English

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