Yoshida, Naoki; Amano, Yuki; Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Abe, Hitoshi
JAEA-Research 2020-014, 33 Pages, 2020/12
Considering the boiling and drying accident of high-level liquid waste in fuel reprocessing plant, Ruthenium (Ru) is an important element. It is because Ru would form volatile compounds such as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO) and could be released into the environment with other coexisting gasses such as nitric oxides (NOx) such as nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO). To contribute to the safety evaluation of this accident, we experimentally evaluated the effect of NOx on the decomposition and chemical change behavior of the gaseous RuO (RuO(g)). As a result, the RuO(g) decomposed over time under the atmospheric gasses with NO or NO, however, the decomposition rate was slower than the results of experiments without NOx. These results showed that the NOx stabilized RuO(g).
Miyahara, Naoya; Miwa, Shuhei; Goullo, M.*; Imoto, Jumpei; Horiguchi, Naoki; Sato, Isamu*; Osaka, Masahiko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(12), p.1287 - 1296, 2020/12
In order to clarify the cesium iodide (CsI) transport behavior with a focus on the mechanisms of gaseous iodine formation in the reactor coolant system of LWR under a severe accident condition, a reproductive experiment of CsI transport behavior was conducted using a facility equipped with a thermal gradient tube. Various analyses on deposits and airborne materials during transportation could elucidate two mechanisms for the gaseous iodine formation. One was the gaseous phase chemical reaction in Cs-I-O-H system at relatively high-temperature region, which led to gaseous iodine transport to the lower temperature region without any further changes in gas species due to the kinetics limitation effects. The other one was the chemical reactions related to condensed phase of CsI, namely those of CsI deposits on walls with surface of stainless steel to form CsCrO compound and CsI aerosol particles with steam, which were newly found in this study.
Matsumoto, Toshinori; Iwasawa, Yuzuru; Ajima, Kohei*; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki
Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2020 (ASRAM 2020) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2020/11
The probability of ex-vessel debris coolability under the wet cavity strategy is analyzed. The first step is the uncertainty analyses by severe accident analysis code MELCOR to obtain the melt condition. Five uncertain parameters which are relating with the core degradation and transfer process were chosen. Input parameter sets were generated by LHS. The analyses were conducted and the conditions of the melt were obtained. The second step is the analyses for the behavior of melt under the water by JASMINE code. The probabilistic distribution of parameters are determined from the results of MELCOR analyses. Fifty-nine parameter sets were generated by LHS. The depth of water pool is set to be 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m. Debris height were compared with the criterion to judge the debris coolability. As the result, the success probability of debris cooling was obtained through the sequence of calculations. The technical difficulties of this evaluation method are also discussed.
Pellegrini, M.*; Herranz, L.*; Sonnenkalb, M.*; Lind, T.*; Maruyama, Yu; Gauntt, R.*; Bixler, N.*; Morreale, A.*; Dolganov, K.*; Sevon, T.*; et al.
Nuclear Technology, 206(9), p.1449 - 1463, 2020/09
Negishi, Hitoshi; Kamide, Hideki; Maeda, Seiichiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Abe, Tomoyuki
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 62(8), p.438 - 441, 2020/08
Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, Monju, was under decommission since April, 2018. It is the first time for Japan to make a sodium cooled reactor into decommission. It is significant work and will take 30 years. The Monju has provided wide spectrum and huge amount of findings and knowledge, e.g., design, R&D, manufacturing, construction, and operation up to 40% of full power over 50 years of development history. It is significant to utilize such findings and knowledge for the development and commercialization of a fast rector in Japan.
Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Yamano, Hidemasa
Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08
Uchibori, Akihiro; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Takata, Takashi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2020/08
The multi-scenario simulation system named SPECTRA has been developed for integrated analysis of in- and ex-vessel phenomena during a severe accident in sodium-cooled fast reactors. The base module computing ex-vessel compressible gas behavior by a lumped mass model and a sodium-concrete interaction module were verified through the basic analyses individually. A validity of the system including the base module and the individual physical module such as the sodium-concrete interaction module was confirmed through the analysis assuming sodium leakage from a reactor vessel and a primary cooling loop.
Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Washiya, Tadahiro
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.704 - 718, 2020/06
To suggest efficient process of the fuel debris treatment after the retrieval from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F), thorough investigation is indispensable on potential source of U in the fuel debris. Estimation on the fuel debris accumulated in the reactor pressure vessel is specifically important due to its limited accessibility. The present study aims to estimate the chemical forms of U in the in-vessel fuel debris, especially in the minor phases such as metallic phases, by performing the thermodynamic calculation considering the material relocation and changing environment during the accident progression in the 1F Unit 2. Input conditions for the thermodynamic calculation such as composition, temperature, and oxygen amount were assumed mainly based on the results of severe accident analysis. The chemical form of U varied depending on the local amount of Fe and O. In regions of low steel content, the U-containing metallic phase was dominated by -(Zr,U)(O), while regions of high steel content were dominated by Fe(Zr,U) (Laves phase). A few percent of U was transferred to the metallic phases under reducing conditions, raising challenging issues on the chemical removal of nuclear material from fuel debris.
Ishida, Shinya; Kawada, Kenichi; Fukano, Yoshitaka
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00523_1 - 19-00523_17, 2020/06
The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) approach was applied to the validation of SAS4A code in order to indicate the reliability of SAS4A code sufficiently and objectively. Based on this approach, issue and objective were clarified, plant design and scenario were defined, FOM and key phenomena were selected, and the code validation test matrix was completed with the results of investigation about analysis models and test cases. The results of the test analysis corresponding to this matrix show that the SAS4A models required for the IP evaluation were sufficiently validated. Furthermore, the validation with this matrix is highly reliable, since this matrix represents the comprehensive validation that also considers the relation between physical phenomena. In this study, the reliability and validity of SAS4A code were significantly enhanced by using PIRT approach to the sufficient level for CDA analyses in SFR.
Development Group for LWR Advanced Technology
JAEA-Data/Code 2019-017, 59 Pages, 2020/03
ECUME (ffective hemistry database of fission products nder ultiphase raction) is the database for the analyses of FP chemistry which strongly affects all the FP behaviors in a severe accident (SA) of nuclear facility like LWR. ECUME consists of three kinds of datasets: CRK (dataset for hemical eaction inetics), EM (lemental odel set) and TD (hermoynamic dataset). The present version of ECUME is prepared especially for the more accurate evaluation of cesium and iodine distribution in a reactor and release amount into an environment which should be of crucial importance towards the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings (1F) and the enhancement of LWR safety after the 1F SA.
Miwa, Shuhei; Takase, Gaku; Imoto, Jumpei; Nishioka, Shunichiro; Miyahara, Naoya; Osaka, Masahiko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(3), p.291 - 300, 2020/03
For the evaluation of transport behavior of control material boron in a severe accident of BWR from the viewpoint of chemical effects on cesium and iodine behavior, boron chemistry during transportation in the high temperature region above 400 K was experimentally investigated. The heating tests of boron oxide specimen were conducted using the dedicated experimental apparatus reproducing fission product release and transport in steam atmosphere. Released boron oxide vapor was deposited above 1,000 K by the condensation onto stainless steel. The boron deposits and/or vapors significantly reacted with stainless steel above 1,000 K and formed the stable iron-boron mixed oxide (FeO)BO. These results indicate that released boron from degraded BWR control blade in a severe accident could remain in the high temperature region such as a Reactor Pressure Vessel. Based on these results, it can be said that the existence of boron deposits in the high temperature region would decrease the amount of transported cesium vapors from a Reactor Pressure Vessel due to possible formation of low volatile cesium borate compounds by the reaction of boron deposits with cesium vapors.
Miradji, F.; Suzuki, Chikashi; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Osaka, Masahiko
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 136, p.109168_1 - 109168_9, 2020/01
Kitagaki, Toru; Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Brissonneau, L.*; Tormos, B.*; Domenger, R.*; Roger, J.*; Washiya, Tadahiro
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(9-10), p.902 - 914, 2019/09
Nakatsuka, Toru; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.1650 - 1656, 2019/08
The OECD/NEA is launching a new project named "Analysis of Information from Reactor Buildings and Containment Vessels of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (ARC-F)" Project. This project will serve as the successor to the precedent NEA project, "Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF) Phase II" which investigated the accident scenarios, associated fission products behavior in the damaged units and source term to the environment. The ARC-F project comprises three tasks: Task 1: Refinement of analysis for accident scenarios and associated fission product transportation and dispersion; Task 2: Compilation and management of data and information; and Task 3: Discussion for future long-term project. Japan Atomic Energy Agency is the operating agent, responsible to lead all the tasks. Duration of the project is from January 2019 to December 2021 and the final report is planned to be published in 2022.
Doi, Daisuke; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya*; Uno, Masayoshi*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(6), p.521 - 532, 2019/06
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.394 - 411, 2019/05
Water columns were adopted in the pressure measurement system of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit-3. Part of these water columns evaporated during the accident condition jeopardizing correct understanding on actual pressure. Through comparison of RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) and S/C pressures with D/W pressure, such water-column effect was evaluated. Correction for this effect was developed enabling clarification of slight pressure difference among RPV, S/C and D/W. This information was then integrated with other available data such as, water level, CAMS and environmental dose rate, into an interpretation of accident focusing on RPV and PCV pressurization/depressurization and radioactive material release to environment. It is suggested that dryout of in-vessel and ex-vessel debris was likely causing pressure decrease. S/C water poured into pedestal heated by relocated debris was the likely cause of pressurization. Cyclic reflooding of pedestal debris and dryout was likely.
Ishida, Shinya; Kawada, Kenichi; Fukano, Yoshitaka
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2019/05
Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) has been considered as one of the important safety issues in the severe accident evaluation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), and SAS4A code is developed for Initiating Phase (IP) of CDA. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) approach was applied to the validation of SAS4A code in order to enhance its reliability in this study. SAS4A was validated in the following steps: (1) selection of the figure of merit (FOM) corresponding to Unprotected Loss Of Flow (ULOF) which is one of the most important and typical events in CDA, (2) identification of the phenomena involved in ULOF, (3) ranking the important phenomena, (4) development of the code validation test matrix, and (5) test analyses for validation corresponding to the test matrix. The reliability and validity of SAS4A code were significantly enhanced by this validation with PIRT approach.
Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Nagatake, Taku; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Tojo, Masayuki*; Goto, Daisuke*; Nishimura, Satoshi*; Suzuki, Hiroaki*; Yamato, Masaaki*; Watanabe, Satoshi*
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05
In this research program, cladding oxidation model in SFP accident condition, and numerical simulation method to evaluate capability of spray cooling system which was deployed for spent fuel cooling during SFP accident, have been developed. These were introduced into the severe accident codes such as MAAP and SAMPSON, and SFP accident analyses were conducted. Analyses using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code were conducted as well for the comparison with SA code analyses and investigation of detail in the SFP accident. In addition, three-dimensional criticality analysis method was developed as well, and safer loading pattern of spent fuels in pool was investigated.
Chai, P.; Yamashita, Susumu; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki
Proceedings of 9th Conference on Severe Accident Research (ERMSAR 2019) (Internet), 14 Pages, 2019/03
In order to obtain a precise understanding of molten material behavior inside RPV and to improve the accuracy of the SA code, a new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with multi-phase, multi-physics models, which is called JUPITER, was developed. It optimized the algorithms of the multi-phase calculation. Besides, the chemical reactions are also modeled carefully in the code so that the melting process could be treated precisely. A series of verification and validation studies are conducted, which show good agreement with analytical solutions and previous experiments. The capabilities of the multi-physics models in JUPITER code provide us another useful tool to investigate the molten material behaviors in the relevant severe accident scenario.
Miyahara, Naoya; Miwa, Shuhei; Horiguchi, Naoki; Sato, Isamu*; Osaka, Masahiko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(2), p.228 - 240, 2019/02
In order to improve LWR source term under severe accident conditions, the first version of a fission product (FP) chemistry database named "ECUME" was developed. The ECUME is intended to include major chemical reactions and their effective kinetic constants for representative SA sequences. It is expected that the ECUME can serve as a fundamental basis from which FP chemical models in the SA analysis codes can be elaborated. The implemented chemical reactions in the first version were those for representative gas species in Cs-I-B-Mo-O-H system. The chemical reaction kinetic constants were evaluated from either literature data or calculated values using ab-initio calculations. The sample chemical reaction calculation using the presently constructed dataset showed meaningful kinetics effects at 1000 K. Comparison of the chemical equilibrium compositions by using the dataset with those by chemical equilibrium calculations has shown rather good consistency for the representative Cs-I-B-Mo-O-H species. From these results, it was concluded that the present dataset should be useful to evaluate FP chemistry in Cs-I-B-Mo-O-H system under LWA SA conditions.