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JAEA Reports

Calculation of appropriate oxygen concentration for corrosion inhibition of 9Cr-1Mo steel in molten lead bismuth eutectic

Komatsu, Atsushi

JAEA-Research 2021-019, 24 Pages, 2022/05


In order to reduce the corrosion rate of materials in molten lead bismuth eutectic (LBE), it is important to adjust the oxygen concentration, and past reports show that the oxygen concentration is often adjusted to about 10$$^{-7}$$ to 10$$^{-5}$$wt%. However, it is not clearly stated what concentration is optimal, and there are some reports of severe corrosion even within this concentration range. In this study, a corrosion model considering diffusion in oxide and LBE was developed for 9Cr-1Mo steel, and the corrosion control method estimated from the corrosion model were investigated. We also tried to calculate the optimum oxygen concentration to prevent the flow blockage at the low temperature of loop environment while reducing the corrosion of 9Cr-1Mo steel in molten LBE. As a result, it was expected that the corrosion mode of 9Cr-1Mo steel in LBE could be classified into three types, dense film formation, precipitation film formation, and film dissolution, depending on the ratio of oxide film thickness to diffusion layer thickness, iron concentration in LBE, and temperature. In order to inhibit corrosion, it is important to adjust the oxygen concentration so that the conditions for dense film formation can be maintained. For this purpose, it was expected that a pre-oxidized film of more than 10$$^{-7}$$m should be applied before immersion in LBE. The oxygen concentration of about 10$$^{-7}$$ to 10$$^{-5}$$wt% is the appropriate oxygen concentration when the oxide film has grown to some extent, and a higher oxygen concentration was expected to be required when the film is thin.

Journal Articles

Journal Articles

Oxidation kinetics of silicon carbide in steam at temperature range of 1400 to 1800$$^{circ}$$C studied by laser heating

Pham, V. H.; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki; Bottomley, D.; Furumoto, Kenichiro*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 529, p.151939_1 - 151939_8, 2020/02


 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:62.87(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Oxidation of silicon carbide in steam studied by laser heating

Pham, V. H.; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki; Furumoto, Kenichiro*; Sato, Hisaki*; Ishibashi, Ryo*; Yamashita, Shinichiro

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.670 - 674, 2019/09

Journal Articles

Effect of re-oxidation rate of additive cations on corrosion rate of stainless steel in boiling nitric acid solution

Irisawa, Eriko; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kato, Chiaki; Motooka, Takafumi; Ban, Yasutoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(4), p.337 - 344, 2019/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Improvements in drill-core headspace gas analysis for samples from microbially active depths

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Okumura, Fumiaki*

Geofluids, 2018, p.2436814_1 - 2436814_11, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:15.51(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Oxidation and reduction behaviors of a prototypic MgO-PuO$$_{2-x}$$ inert matrix fuel

Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, p.1 - 4, 2017/04

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:50.55(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Oxidation and reduction behaviors of prototypic MgO-based inert matrix fuels (IMFs) containing PuO$$_{2-x}$$ were experimentally investigated by means of thermogravimetry. The oxidation and reduction kinetics of the MgO-PuO$$_{2-x}$$ specimen were determined. The oxidation and reduction rates of the MgO-PuO$$_{2-x}$$ were found to be low compared with those of PuO$$_{2-x}$$. It is note that the changes in O/Pu ratios of MgO-PuO$$_{2-x}$$ from stoichiometry were smaller than those of PuO$$_{2-x}$$ at high oxygen partial pressure. From these results, it can be said that MgO matrix lower the oxygen supply and release of PuO$$_{2-x}$$, which is preferable as the minor actinides incineration devices, since the high oxygen potentials of minor actinide oxides can cause certain problems in terms of thermochemical aspects such as enlarged cladding inner-surface corrosion.

Journal Articles

Corrosion test of HTGR graphite with SiC coating

Chikhray, Y.*; Kulsartov, T.*; Shestakov, V.*; Kenzhina, I.*; Askerbekov, S.*; Sumita, Junya; Ueta, Shohei; Shibata, Taiju; Sakaba, Nariaki; Abdullin, Kh.*; et al.

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.572 - 577, 2016/11

Application of SiC as corrosion-resistive coating over graphite remains important task for HTGR. This study presents the results of chemical interaction of the SiC gradient coating over the high-density IG-110 graphite with water vapor in the temperature up to 1673 K. The experiments at 100 Pa of water vapor showed that the passive reaction caused to form SiO$$_{2}$$ film on the surface of SiC coating. Active corrosion of SiC in 1Pa of water vapor leads to deposits of various carbon composites on its surface.

Journal Articles

In situ X-ray diffraction study of the oxide formed on alloy 600 in borated and lithiated high-temperature water

Watanabe, Masashi*; Yonezawa, Toshio*; Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi; Shoji, Tetsuo*

Corrosion, 72(9), p.1155 - 1169, 2016/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

The Effect of crystal textures on the anodic oxidization of zirconium in a boiling nitric acid solution

Kato, Chiaki; Ishijima, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(9), p.1371 - 1379, 2016/09


 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:25.63(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The effects of crystal textures and the potentials in the anodic oxidation of zirconium in a boiling nitric acid solution were investigated to study the stress corrosion cracking of zirconium in nitric acid solutions. The growth of the zirconium oxide film dramatically changed depending on the applied potential at a closed depassivation potential (1.47 V vs. SSE). At 1.5 V, the zirconium oxide film rapidly grows, and its growth exhibits cyclic oxidation kinetics in accordance with a nearly cubic rate law. The zirconium oxide film grows according to the quantity of electric charge, and the growth rate does not depend on the crystal texture in the pretransition region before the cyclic oxidation kinetics. However, the growth and cracking under the thick oxide film depend on the crystal texture in the transition region. On the normal direction side, the oxide film thickness decreases on average since some areas of the thick oxide film are separated from the specimen surface owing to the cracks in the thick oxide. On the rolling direction side, cracks are found under the thick oxide film, which deeply propagate along the RD without an external stress. The cracks under the thick oxide film propagate to the center of the oxide layer. The cracks in the oxide layer propagate in the (0002)Zr plane in the zirconium matrix. The oxide layer consists of string-like zirconium oxide and zirconium hydride. The string-like zirconium oxide contains orthorhombic ZrO$$_{2}$$ in addition to monoclinic ZrO$$_{2}$$. As one assumption for the mechanism of crack initiation and propagation without an external stress, it is considered that the oxidizing zirconium hydrides precipitate in the (0002)Zr and then the phase transformation from orthorhombic ZrO$$_{2}$$ to monoclinic ZrO$$_{2}$$ in the oxide layer causes the crack propagation in the (0002) plane.

Journal Articles

Corrosion of 9-12Cr ferritic-martensitic steels in high-temperature CO$$_{2}$$

Rouillard, F.*; Furukawa, Tomohiro

Corrosion Science, 105, p.120 - 132, 2016/04

 Times Cited Count:57 Percentile:96.53(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The high temperature corrosion behavior of two 9Cr and 12Cr ferritic-martensitic steel grades was studied under CO$$_{2}$$ pressure varying from 1 to 250 bar for exposure times up to 8000 h. No breakaway oxidation was observed. 9Cr steel grades suffered from fast parabolic uniform oxidation and fast carburisation. Increasing CO$$_{2}$$ pressure had very little effect on the oxidation rate but increased the carburisation rate. The corrosion behavior of both 12Cr steel grades differed and might be influenced by gas composition, minor elements or surface finish. A corrosion mechanism coupling oxidation and carburisation is proposed.

Journal Articles

Activation and control of visible single defects in 4H-, 6H-, and 3C-SiC by oxidation

Lohrmann, A.*; Castelletto, S.*; Klein, J. R.*; Oshima, Takeshi; Bosi, M.*; Negri, M.*; Lau, D. W. M.*; Gibson, B. C.*; Prawer, S.*; McCallum, J. C.*; et al.

Applied Physics Letters, 108(2), p.021107_1 - 021107_4, 2016/01

 Times Cited Count:26 Percentile:81.53(Physics, Applied)

Journal Articles

The Effect of oxidation and crystal phase condition on the ballooning and rupture behavior of Zircaloy-4 cladding tube-under transient-heating conditions

Narukawa, Takafumi; Amaya, Masaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(1), p.112 - 122, 2016/01

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:45.9(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Upgrade in catalytic activity of hydrophobic platinum catalysts by irradiation with electron beams

Iwai, Yasunori

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1796 - 1799, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:40.75(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Hydrophobic platinum catalysts have been widely applied in the field of nuclear fusion for the exchange reactions of hydrogen isotopes between hydrogen and vapor in the water detritiation system, and for the oxidation of tritium on the atmospheric detritiation system. Hydrophobic platinum catalysts are hardly susceptible to water mist and water vapor. Hydrophobic platinum catalysts are produced by supporting platinum directly on hydrophobic polymer beads. For the hydrophobic polymer, styrene - divinyl benzene (SDB) has been applied in Japan. It can be pointed out that the upgrade in catalytic activity of hydrophobic catalyst is expected to downsize the catalytic reactor based on a hard look at a large increase in flow rate in future. The upgrade in catalytic activity of two types of commercial Pt/SDB catalysts was found when they were irradiated with electron beams. After irradiation with electron beams, the catalytic activity was evaluated by means of overall reaction rate constant for the oxidation of tritium. The overall reaction rate constant increased as increase in dose. The constant showed the peak value in the dose between 500 to 1000 kGy. After the peak, the constant decreased as increase in dose. The overall reaction rate constant at the peak was 6 times larger than that evaluated with unirradiated. The mechanical strength of irradiated Pt/SDB kept sound until 1500 kGy. The irradiation is a promising method to the upgrading in catalytic activity of Pt/SDB catalyst.

Journal Articles

Corrigendum to "Real time observation of oxygen chemisorption states on Si(001)-2$$times$$1 during supersonic oxygen molecular beam irradiation"

Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Applied Surface Science, 346, P. 580, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:1.75(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Corrigendum to "Si 2p and O 1s photoemission from oxidized Si(001) surfaces depending on translational kinetic energy of incident O$$_{2}$$ molecules"

Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Applied Surface Science, 343, P. 212, 2015/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:1.75(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Corrigendum to "Coexistence of passive and active oxidation for O$$_{2}$$/Si(001) system observed by SiO mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy"

Teraoka, Yuden; Moritani, Kosuke*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Applied Surface Science, 343, P. 213, 2015/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:1.75(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Corrigendum to "Commissioning of surface chemistry end-station in BL23SU of SPring-8"

Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Applied Surface Science, 339, P. 158, 2015/06

Journal Articles

Intergranular oxidation within crevice of austenitic stainless steel in high temperature water

Soma, Yasutaka; Kato, Chiaki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2015/05

Intergranular oxidation (corrosion) occurred within crevice of austenitic low-carbon stainless steel (solution treated, almost no applied stress) after immersion in high temperature water (288$$^{circ}$$C, 8.5 MPa, dissolved oxygen conc. 32 ppm, electrical conductivity: 1.2$$pm$$0.2$$mu$$S (measured value at 25$$^{circ}$$C)) for 500 h. The intergranular oxidation occurred at specific position within the crevice that is relatively distant from the crevice mouth with relatively low crevice gap. Both the grain boundary and grain matrix were oxidized. In the oxidized area, Fe and Ni were depleted and Cr was enriched compared to the matrix. Maximum penetration depth of the oxidation was approximately 50 $$mu$$m after 500 h. In order to understand potential-pH condition within the crevice, surface oxide layer was microscopically and thermodynamically investigated. Thermodynamic properties of the surface oxides near the intergranular oxidized area indicated lowered pH of approximately 3.2 to 3.4. In-situ measurement of local solution electrical conductivity was carried out using small electrodes (dia. 800 $$mu$$m) imbedded into the crevice former plate. The solution pH was estimated using theoretically calculated pH vs. electrical conductivity relationship. In the area where the intergranular oxidation occurred, the solution electrical conductivity was nearly 100 times higher than that of bulk water and which indicated lowered pH of approximately 3.5. The above results suggested that, in the high temperature and relatively high purity water, acidification occurs within crevice of stainless steels and such aggressive corrosion condition result in the intergranular oxidation.

Journal Articles

Erratum; Precise control of Si(001) initial oxidation by translational kinetic energy of O$$_{2}$$ molecules

Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 54(3), P. 039204_1, 2015/03

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:87.41(Physics, Applied)

117 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)