Li, C.-Y.; Wang, K.*; Uchibori, Akihiro; Okano, Yasushi; Pellegrini, M.*; Erkan, N.*; Takata, Takashi*; Okamoto, Koji*
Applied Sciences (Internet), 13(13), p.7705_1 - 7705_29, 2023/07
Kurisaka, Kenichi; Nishino, Hiroyuki; Yamano, Hidemasa
Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2023/05
The objective of this study is to develop an effectiveness evaluation methodology of the measures for improving resilience of nuclear structures against excessive earthquake by applying the failure mitigation technology. This study regarded those measures for improving resilience of important structures, systems, and components for safety to enlarge their seismic safety margin. To evaluate effectiveness of those measures, seismic core damage frequency (CDF) is selected as an index. Reduction of CDF as an effectiveness index is quantified by applying seismic PRA technology. Accident sequences leading to loss of decay heat removal are significant contributor to seismic CDF of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), and those sequences result in core damage via ultra-high temperature condition. This study improved the methodology to evaluate not only the measures against shaking due to excessive earthquake but also the measures at the ultra-high temperature condition. To examine applicability of the improved methodology, a trial calculation was implemented with some assumptions for a loop-type SFR. Within the assumption, the measures for improving resilience were significantly effective for decreasing CDF in excessive earthquake up to several times of a design basis ground motion. Through the applicability examination, the methodology for the effectiveness evaluation was developed successfully.
Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2023/05
This study aims to understand a time trend of the occurrence rate of steam generator (SG) tube leak in the existing sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) based on the observed data. The target on SFRs in the present paper is Phenix in France and BN600 in Russia. From the open literature review, we investigated the number of tube-to-tube plate weld, the number of tube-to-tube weld, heat transfer area of tube base metal, operating time of SGs, dates when SG tube leak occurred, leaked location, corrective action after tube leak such as replacement of leaked module. Based on these observed data, time to leak is estimated and then time trend of the occurrence rate of SG tube leak for each of the above-mentioned parts was quantitatively analyzed by the hazard plotting method. As a result, the rate of leak at tube-to-tube weld in Phenix shows increase with time due to probable cause of cyclic thermal stress in a short term. As for a long-term trend, the rate of tube leak in both Phenix and BN600 SGs indicated decrease with time probably thanks to improvement in welding and in SG operating condition and to removal of initial failure.
Li, C.-Y.; Watanabe, Akira*; Uchibori, Akihiro; Okano, Yasushi
Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2023/05
Kubo, Shigenobu; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki
Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, Second Edition, p.173 - 194, 2023/03
Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, Second Edition is a fully revised and updated comprehensive resource on the latest research and advances in generation IV nuclear reactor concepts. Editor Igor Pioro and his team of expert contributors have updated every chapter to reflect advances in the field since the first edition published in 2016. JAEA contributes to Chapter 5; Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) and Chapter 12; Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) concepts in Japan. Major characteristics and current technology developments including safety enhancement were described in Chapter 5. Chapter 12 shows design activities of SFR. Innovative technology developments, and update of the Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor design with lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.
Kobayashi, Jun; Aizawa, Kosuke; Ezure, Toshiki; Nagasawa, Kazuyoshi*; Kurihara, Akikazu; Tanaka, Masaaki
JAEA-Research 2022-009, 125 Pages, 2023/01
The design studies of an advanced loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor (Advanced- SFR) have been carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). At the core outlet, temperature fluctuations occur due to mixing of hot sodium from the fuel assembly with cold sodium from the control rod channels and radial blanket assembly. These temperature fluctuations may cause high cycle thermal fatigue around a bottom of Upper Internal Structure (UIS) located above the core. Therefore, we conducted a water experiment using a 1/3 scale 60 degree sector model that simulated the upper plenum of the advanced loop-type sodium-cooled reactor. And we proposed some countermeasures against large temperature fluctuations that occur at the bottom of the UIS. In this report, we have summarized that the effect of the countermeasure structure to mitigate the temperature fluctuation generated at the bottom of UIS is confirmed, and the Reynolds number dependency of the countermeasure structure and the characteristics of the temperature fluctuation on the control rod surface.
Zhang, T.*; Morita, Koji*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; Kamiyama, Kenji
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 179, p.109389_1 - 109389_10, 2022/12
Tsuji, Mitsuyo; Aizawa, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Kurihara, Akikazu
Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2022/10
In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), decay heat removal after a core disruptive accident (CDA) is an important issue for the safety enhancement. Therefore, water experiments using a 1/10 scale experimental apparatus (PHEASANT) that simulates the reactor vessel of an SFR are conducted to investigate the natural circulation phenomena in the reactor vessel. In this study, experiments under the operation of the dipped-type DHX were conducted to investigate the effect of the heat generation ratio between the fuel debris on the core catcher in lower plenum and the reactor core remnant on the natural circulation behavior in the reactor vessel. The temperature distribution and the velocity distribution were measured under two heat generation conditions. Thus, the effect of the heat generation ratio between the fuel debris in the lower plenum and the reactor core remnant on the natural circulation behavior was quantitatively grasped under the dipped-type DHX operating conditions.
Onoda, Yuichi; Yamano, Hidemasa
Proceedings of 12th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS12) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/10
In Japan, sodium-cooled fast reactor design takes In-Vessel Retention (IVR) strategy to stably cool damaged core materials in the reactor vessel during a severe accident with various design measures. Although a possibility to fail IVR is extremely low, a probabilistic risk assessment study needs a wide variety of scenarios including the IVR failure. Therefore, in order to study a wide range of event spectra related to stable cooling of debris in the reactor vessel, this study numerically investigated the deformation and failure behavior of the reactor vessel due to the debris deposited onto the skirt of the core catcher using the FINAS-STAR structural analysis code. The analyses are conducted in two cases of power density with the aim of investigating failure conditions of the bottom of the reactor vessel. Reactor vessel deforms significantly when the temperature reaches about 1100 C and the reactor vessel reaches the failure criteria in high-power-density case.
Futagami, Satoshi; Kubo, Shigenobu; Sofu, T.*; Ammirabile, L.*; Gauthe, P.*
Proceedings of International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety; Strengthening Safety of Evolutionary and Innovative Reactor Designs (TIC 2022) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/10
Kato, Shinya; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Akaev, A.*; Vurim, A.*; Baklanov, V.*
Proceedings of 13th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-13) (Internet), 12 Pages, 2022/09
The In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of molten-core in Core Disruptive Accidents (CDAs) is of prime importance in enhancing the safety of sodium-cooled fast reactors. One of the main subjects in ensuring IVR is to design the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) which allows effective discharge of molten core materials from the core region. The effectiveness of the CRGT design is assessed through CDA analyses, and it is reasonable for these analyses to develop a computer code collaborated with experimental researches. Thus, experiments addressing the discharge behavior of the molten-core materials through the CRGT have proceeded as one of the subjects in the collaboration research named the EAGLE-3 project, and the obtained experimental results are reflected in the development of the SIMMER code. In this project, a series of out-of-pile tests using molten-alumina as the fuel simulant was conducted to understand the discharge behavior of molten-core materials through the CRGT. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of an internal structure in the CRGT on the discharge behavior of the molten-core materials, the data of an out-of-pile test in which the molten-alumina penetrated to a duct with the internal structure were analyzed. In addition, the post-test analysis using the SIMMER code was conducted and the results were compared with the test results.
Matsushita, Hatsuki*; Kobayashi, Ren*; Sakai, Takaaki*; Kato, Shinya; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji
Proceedings of 13th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-13) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/09
During core disruptive accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors, the molten core material flows through flow channels, such as the control rod guide tubes, into the core inlet plenum under the core region. The molten core material can be cooled and solidified while impinging on a horizontal plate of the inlet plenum in a sodium coolant. However, the solidification and cooling behaviors of molten core materials impinged on a horizontal structure have not been sufficiently studied thus far. Notably, this is an important phenomenon that needs to be elucidated from the perspective of improving the safety of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Accordingly, a series of experiments on discharging a simulated molten core material (alumina: AlO) into a sodium coolant on a horizontal structure was conducted at the experimental facility of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In this study, analyses on the sodium experiments using SIMMER-III as the fast reactor safety evaluation code were performed. The analysis methods were validated by comparing the results and experiment data. In addition, the cooling and solidification behaviors during jet impingement were evaluated. The results indicated that the molten core material exhibited fragmentation owing to the impingement on the horizontal plate and was, therefore, scattered toward the periphery. Furthermore, the simulated molten core material was evaluated to be cooled by sodium and subsequently solidified.
Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 29) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2022/08
Matsushita, Kentaro; Ezure, Toshiki; Imai, Yasutomo*; Fujisaki, Tatsuya*; Tanaka, Masaaki
Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 29) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/08
Development of evaluation method for cover gas entrainment (GE) by vortices generated at free surface in upper plenum of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is required. GE evaluation tool, named StreamViewer, based on method using numerical results of three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis for loop-type SFRs has been developed. In this study, modification of evaluation method of StreamViewer to rationalize conservativeness in evaluation results was examined by identifying vortex center lines and calculating three-dimensional distribution of pressure decrease along vortex center lines. The applicability of modified method was checked using water experimental result in rectangular open channel where unsteady vortices are generated. As the result, it was indicated that evaluation results on gas core depth which were excessive in current method were improved in modified method, and it is confirmed that modified method may discriminate onset of GE with appropriate criteria.
Ohira, Hiroaki*; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Ezure, Toshiki
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 172, p.109075_1 - 109075_10, 2022/07
In order to evaluate the mist behavior in the cover gas region of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) in good accuracy, turbulent model for Rayleigh-Bnard convection (RBC) was selected, and the Reynolds-averaged number density and momentum equations for mist behavior were developed and incorporated into the OpenFOAM code. In the first stage, the RBC in a simple parallel channel was calculated using Favre-averaged k- SST model. The average temperature and flow characteristics agreed well with results from DNS, LES, and experiments. Then the basic heat transfer experiment simulating the cover gas region of SFRs was calculated using this turbulent model and new mist models. The calculated average temperature distribution in the height direction and the mist mass concentration agreed well with the experimental results. We developed a method that could simulate the mist behavior in turbulent RBC environments and the cover gas region of SFRs with high accuracy.
Li, C.-Y.; Watanabe, Akira*; Uchibori, Akihiro; Okano, Yasushi
Dai-26-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/07
Identifying accident scenarios that could lead to severe accidents and evaluating their frequency of occurrence are essential issues. This study aims to establish the methodology of the dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors that can consider the time dependency and the interdependence of each event. Specifically, the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo (CMMC) method is newly applied to the SPECTRA code, which analyzes the severe accident conditions of nuclear reactors, to develop an evaluation methodology for typical external hazards. Currently, a fault-tree model of air coolers of decay heat removal system is implemented as the CMMC method, and a series of preliminary analysis of the plant's transient characteristics under the scenario of volcanic ashfall has been conducted.
Ishida, Shinya; Fukano, Yoshitaka
Nihon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 88(911), p.21-00304_1 - 21-00304_11, 2022/07
In previous studies, the reliability and validity of the SAS4A code was enhanced by applying Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) approach to the Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF). SAS4A code has been developed to analyze the early stage of Core Disruptive Accident (CDA), which is named Initiating Phase (IP). In this study, PIRT approach was applied to Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP), which was one of the most important and typical events in CDA as well as ULOF. The phenomena were identified by the investigation of UTOP event progression and physical phenomena relating to UTOP were ranked. 8 key phenomena were identified and the differences in ranking between UTOP and ULOF were clarified. The code validation matrix was completed and an SAS4A model, which was not validated in ULOF, was identified and validated. SAS4A code became applicable to various scenarios by using PIRT approach to UTOP and the reliability and validity of SAS4A code were significantly enhanced.
Johnson, M.*; Delacroix, J.*; Journeau, C.*; Brayer, C.*; Clavier, R.*; Montazel, A.*; Pluyette, E.*; Matsuba, Kenichi; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji
Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/04
Fuel-coolant interactions in the event of molten fuel discharge to the lower plenum of a sodium cooled fast reactor is under investigation as part of a French-Japanese experimental collaboration on severe accidents. The MELT facility enables the X-ray visualisation of the quenching of molten core material jets in sodium at kilogram-scale. The SERUA facility, currently under preparation, is presented for the investigation of boiling heat transfer at elevated melt-coolant interface temperatures. In this article, the status of the collaboration using these facilities is presented.
Torikawa, Tomoaki*; Odaira, Naoya*; Ito, Daisuke*; Ito, Kei*; Saito, Yasushi*; Matsushita, Kentaro; Ezure, Toshiki; Tanaka, Masaaki
Konsoryu, 36(1), p.63 - 69, 2022/03
On free surface of a sodium cooled fast reactor, gas entrainment can be caused by free surface vortices, which may result in disturbance in core power. It is important to develop an evaluation model to predict accurately entrained gas flow rate. In this study, entrained gas flow rate a simple gas entrainment experiment is conducted with focusing on effect of pressure difference between upper and lower tanks. Pressure difference between upper and lower tanks are controlled by changing gas pressure in lower tank. As a result, it is confirmed that the entrained gas flow rate increases with increasing pressure difference between upper and lower tanks. By visualization of swirling annular flow in suction pipe, it is also observed that pressure drop in suction pipe increases with increase in entrained gas flow rate, which implies that entrained gas flow rate can be predicted by evaluation model based on pressure drop in swirling annular flow region.
Uchida, Mao*; Alzahrani, H.*; Shiono, Mikihito*; Sakai, Takaaki*; Matsushita, Kentaro; Ezure, Toshiki; Tanaka, Masaaki
Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 16 Pages, 2022/03
Gas entrainment from cover gas is one of key issues for sodium-cooled fast reactors design to prevent unexpected effects to core reactivity. A vortex model based evaluation method has been developed to evaluate the surface vortex gas core growth at the free surface in the reactor vessel. In this study, water experiments were performed to clarify the prediction accuracy for the vortex gas core growth during the vortex drift motion using a circulating water tunnel with an open flow channel test section. Gas core growth were predicted by applying the evaluation method to the numerical analyses performed in the same geometry of the experiments, and compared with the experimental results. It was observed the gas core growth became large at downstream region where downward velocity became large in experiment. However, the gas core length which were predicted from numerical result showed a discrepancy with the experimental result on the peak position and an overestimation of peak value.