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JAEA Reports

Design details of bottom shape for the 3rd glass melter in TVF

Asahi, Yoshimitsu; Shimamura, Keisuke*; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Kodaka, Akira

JAEA-Technology 2021-026, 50 Pages, 2022/03


In Tokai Reprocessing Plant, the highly active liquid waste derived from a spent fuel reprocessing is vitrified with a Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) embedded in Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF). For an LFCM, the viscosity of melted glass is increased by the deposition of oxidation products of platinum group elements (PGE) and the PGE-containing glass tends to settle to the melter's bottom basin even after draining glass out. Removal of the PGE-containing glass is needed to avoid the Joule heating current from being affected by the glass, it requires time-consuming work to remove. For the early accomplishment of vitrifying the waste, Japan Atomic Energy Agency is planning to replace the current melter with the new one in which the amount of PGE sediments would be reduced. In the past design activities for the next melter, several kinds of shapes in regard to the furnace bottom and the strainer were drawn. Among these designs, the one in which the discharge ratio of PGE-containing glass would be as much as or greater than the current melter and which be able to perform similar operational sequences done in the current melter is selected here. Firstly, an operational sequence to produce one canister of vitrified waste is simulated for three melter designs with a furnace bottom shape, using 3D thermal-hydraulic calculations. The computed temperature distribution and its changes are compared among the candidate structures. After discussions about the technical and structural feasibilities of each design, a cone shape with a 45$$^{circ}$$ slope was selected as the bottom shape of the next melter. Secondly, five strainer designs that fit the bottom shape above mentioned are drawn. For each design, the fluid drag and the discharge ratio of relatively high viscosity fluid resting near the bottom are estimated, using steady or unsteady CFD simulation. By draining silicone oil from acrylic furnace models, it was confirmed experimentally that there are no vortices

Journal Articles

Evaluation of internal strain distribution of dissimilar laser welding using high energy X-rays

Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi*; Muramatsu, Toshiharu*

SPring-8/SACLA Riyo Kenkyu Seikashu (Internet), 9(5), p.318 - 323, 2021/08

Laser welding has already been put into practical use for various metal materials because the irradiation area is very small and the control is easy. In this study, we evaluated strain, stress, deformation, etc. near the processing affected area by high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction method, which is one of the problems of laser welding of different materials that are expected to be put into practical use. As a result of internal deformation measurement of the bonding of dissimilar materials of copper and iron, it was confirmed that the copper side with a high coefficient of linear expansion was hardly deformed, strong tensile strain on the iron side, and a plastic deformation region on the heat-affected zone. In addition, a retained austenite phase, which is thought to be caused by the mixture of copper, was observed in the plastic deformation region of iron, and further problems were clarified in the evaluation of material strength in the mixed metallic materials.

Journal Articles

Neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging for microstructure and residual strain in induction hardened gears

Su, Y.; Oikawa, Kenichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Kai, Tetsuya; Horino, Takashi*; Idohara, Osamu*; Misaka, Yoshitaka*; Tomota, Yo*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.4155_1 - 4155_14, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Journal Articles

Constraint effect on fracture mechanics evaluation for an under-clad crack in a reactor pressure vessel steel

Shimodaira, Masaki; Tobita, Toru; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Hanawa, Satoshi

Proceedings of ASME 2020 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2020) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2020/08

In JEAC 4206 which prescribes the methodology for assessing the structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), an under-clad crack (UCC) at the inner surface of RPV is postulated, and it is required that the fracture toughness of RPV steels is higher than stress intensity factor for at the crack tip during the pressurized thermal shock event. In the present study, to investigate the effect of cladding on the fracture toughness, we performed three-point bending fracture toughness tests and finite element analyses (FEAs) for an RPV steel containing an UCC or a surface crack, and the constraint effect for UCC was also discussed. As the result, we found that the fracture toughness for UCC was considerably higher than that for surface crack. On the other hand, the FEAs showed that the cladding decreased the constraint effect for UCC.

Journal Articles

Intergranular strains of plastically deformed austenitic stainless steel

Suzuki, Kenji*; Shobu, Takahisa

E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance (Internet), 10(4), p.9 - 17, 2019/02

In materials with an elastic anisotropy, a stress difference is generated between crystals when plastic deformation occurs, and it is known that this is deeply involved in material fracture. In this study, the residual stress for load direction in the plastically deformed material was investigated for each crystal orientation using the high-energy synchrotron radiation diffraction method. As a result, it was found that the residual stress is a tensile residual stress at an index with a high X-ray elastic constant (Young's modulus obtained for each diffraction surface) and a compressive residual stress at an index with a low X-ray elastic constant. We believe that this result will be useful for the technique of controlling the crystal orientation like the texture as improving the material strength.

Journal Articles

Development of creep property equations of 316FR stainless steel and Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel for sodium-cooled fast reactor to achieve 60-year design life

Onizawa, Takashi; Hashidate, Ryuta

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 6(1), p.18-00477_1 - 18-00477_15, 2019/02

Aiming at enhancing its economic competitiveness and reducing radioactive waste, JAEA has proposed an attractive plant concept and made great efforts to demonstrate the applicability of some innovative technologies to the plant. One of the most practical means is to extend the design life to 60 years. Accordingly, the material strength standards set by JSME have to be extended from 300,000 to 500,000 hours but this extension requires more precise estimation of creep rupture strength and creep strain of the materials in the long term. This paper describes the development of creep property equations of 316FR stainless steel and Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel considering changes in creep mechanisms at high temperatures in the long term based on evaluations of long-term creep properties of the materials. The creep property equations developed in this study will provide more precise estimation of the creep properties in the long term than the present creep property equations of JSME.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of thermal strain induced in components of Nb$$_{3}$$Sn strand during cooling

Suwa, Tomone*; Hemmi, Tsutomu*; Saito, Toru*; Takahashi, Yoshikazu*; Koizumi, Norikiyo*; Luzin, V.*; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Harjo, S.

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 28(3), p.6001104_1 - 6001104_4, 2018/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Journal Articles

Thermal strain in superconducting Nb$$_{3}$$Sn strand at cryogenic temperature

Harjo, S.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Ito, Takayoshi*; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Aizawa, Kazuya

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 8, p.031001_1 - 031001_5, 2015/09

JAEA Reports

Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project; Rock mechanical investigations at the -500m stage

Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Sato, Toshinori; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Yusuke

JAEA-Research 2015-005, 378 Pages, 2015/07


This report presents the results of following rock mechanical investigations conducted at the -500m Stage. (1) Laboratory tests using cores and block samples obtained at the -500m Stage. (2) In-situ stress measurement using Compact Conical-ended Borehole Overcoring (CCBO) method at the -500m Stage. (3) In-situ stress measurements using Differential Strain Curve Analysis(DSCA) method at the -500m Stage. (4) Development of rock mechanical model.

JAEA Reports

The Evaluation of the influence of hydride rim and biaxial stress condition on the cladding failure under a reactivity-initiated-accident by using EDC test method

Shinozaki, Takashi; Mihara, Takeshi; Udagawa, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Amaya, Masaki

JAEA-Research 2014-025, 34 Pages, 2014/12


EDC test is a test method on the mechanical property of fuel cladding tube, and it focuses on the stress condition generated by PCMI under a RIA. We conducted EDC tests which simulate the mechanical conditions during a RIA by using the unirradiated cladding tubes which simulate hydride rim. Circumferential residual strains observed in post-test specimens tended to decrease with increasing the hydrogen concentration in the test cladding tubes and the thickness of the hydride rim. We also prepared RAG tube and performed EDC tests on it. It was observed that circumferential total strains at failure tended to decrease with increasing pre-crack depth on the outer surface of RAG tube specimen. We conducted biaxial stress tests by applying longitudinal tensile load onto RAG tube specimens. It was observed that circumferential total strains at failure under biaxial stress conditions tended to decrease compared to the results under uniaxial tensile condition.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of the critical current and n-value in Nb$$_{3}$$Sn strand subjected to bending strain

Hirohashi, Masayuki*; Murakami, Haruyuki*; Ishiyama, Atsushi*; Ueda, Hiroshi*; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Okuno, Kiyoshi

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 16(2), p.1721 - 1724, 2006/06

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:48.15(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

To demonstrate the applicability of Nb$$_{3}$$Sn CICCs to ITER, four Nb$$_{3}$$Sn model coils have been constructed and tested. The experimental results showed that the measured critical current (Ic) degraded. In addition, the larger is the applied electromagnetic force, the larger the magnitude of the degradation is. The degradation in n-value was also observed. One of the explanations of this degradation is a local strand bending. This consideration has been supported by the test results. However, general dependence of Ic on periodic bending strain has not been clarified in this test since the experiments were carried out at a certain magnetic field, temperature and strain. Therefore, a numerical simulation code was developed to study the general dependence of the Ic and n-value of the Nb$$_{3}$$Sn strand on periodic bending strain. A distributed constant circuit model is applied to simulate current transfer among the filaments in the strand. The simulation results show relatively good agreement with the experiment results but some modification in modeling is required for more accurate simulation.

Journal Articles

Analysis on split failure of cladding of high burnup BWR rods in reactivity-initiated accident conditions by RANNS code

Suzuki, Motoe; Saito, Hiroaki*; Fuketa, Toyoshi

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 236(2), p.128 - 139, 2006/01

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:48.03(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A computer code RANNS was developed to analyze fuel rod behaviors in the RIA conditions. The code performs thermal and FEM-mechanical calculation for a single rod in axis-symmetric geometry to predict temperature profile, PCMI contact pressure, stress-strain distribution and their interactions. An experimental analysis by RANNS begins with pre-test conditions of irradiated rod which are given by FEMAXI-6. Analysis was performed on the simulated RIA experiments in NSRR, FK-10 and FK-12, of high burnup BWR rods in a cold start-up conditions, and PCMI process was discussed extensively. It was revealed that pellet thermal expansion dominates cladding deformation and subjects the cladding to bi-axial stress state, and thermal expansion in the cladding makes the stress in the inner region significantly lower than that in the outer region. Simulation calculations with wider pulses were carried out and the resulted cladding hoop stress was compared with the failure stress estimated in the NSRR experiments.

Journal Articles

Effective bending strain estimated from $$I$$$$_{c}$$ test results of a D-shaped Nb$$_{3}$$Al CICC coil fabricated with a react-and-wind process for the National Centralized Tokamak

Ando, Toshinari*; Kizu, Kaname; Miura, Yushi*; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Matsukawa, Makoto; Tamai, Hiroshi; Ishida, Shinichi; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Okuno, Kiyoshi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 75-79, p.99 - 103, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:11.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Stress analysis of two-dimensional C/C composite components for HTGR's core restraint mechanism

Hanawa, Satoshi; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Ishihara, Masahiro; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro

Transactions of 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT-18), p.600 - 605, 2005/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Behavior of pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding under simulated LOCA conditions

Nagase, Fumihisa; Fuketa, Toyoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(2), p.209 - 218, 2005/02

 Times Cited Count:41 Percentile:93.27(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Regarding high burn-up fuel behavior under LOCA conditions, LOCA-simulated experiments were performed with unirradiated Zircaloy-4 claddings. Claddings containig 100 to 1450 ppm were isothermally oxidized at at 1220 to 1500 K in steam flow, and quenched by flooding water. Axial shrinkage of the rods during the quench was restrained controlling the maximum restraint load at four different levels. Primarily depending on fraction of the cladding thickness oxidized, the claddings fractured into two pieces during the quench, with circumferential cracking. The fracture/non-fracture threshold as for the oxidized fraction decreases as both initial hydrogen concentration and axial restraint load increase. Consequently, it was shown that the threshold is higher than 20% cladding oxidation, e.g. sufficiently higher than the limit in the Japanese ECCS acceptance criteria, irrespective of hydrogen concentration, when the restraint load is below 535 N.

Journal Articles

Investigation of hydride rim effect on failure of Zircaloy-4 cladding with tube burst test

Nagase, Fumihisa; Fuketa, Toyoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(1), p.58 - 65, 2005/01

 Times Cited Count:37 Percentile:92.04(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Tube burst tests have been performed with artificially hydrided Zircaloy-4 specimens at room temperature and at 620 K. Pressurization rate was increased to a maximum of 3.4 GPa/s in order to simulate rapid PCMI that occurs in high burnup fuel rods during a pulse-irradiation in the NSRR. Hydrogen content in the specimens ranged from 150 to 1050 ppm. Hydrides were accumulated in the cladding periphery and formed "hydride rim" as observed in high burnup PWR fuel claddings. The hydrided cladding tubes failed with an axial crack at the room temperature tests. Brittle fracture appeared in the hydride rim, and failure morphology was similar to that observed in the NSRR experiments. The hydrides rim obviously reduced burst pressure and residual hoop strain at the tests. The residual hoop strain was very small even at 620 K when thickness of the hydride rim exceeded 18% of cladding thickness. The present result accordingly indicates an important role of the hydrides layer in high burnup fuel rod failure under RIA conditions.

Journal Articles

Post irradiation plastic properties of F82H derived from the instrumented tensile tests

Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Sato, Michitaka*; Matsukawa, Shingo*; Wakai, Eiichi; Shiba, Kiyoyuki

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 335(3), p.457 - 461, 2004/12

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:58.07(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

F82H (Fe-8Cr-2W) and its variant doped with 2%Ni were irradiated up to 20 dpa at 300$$^{circ}$$C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Post irradiation tensile testing was performed at room temperature. During testing, the images of the specimens including the necked region were continuously recorded. Tests on cold worked material were also carried out for comparison. From the load-displacement curves and the strain distributions obtained from the images, flow stress levels and strain hardening behavior was evaluated. A preliminary constitutive equation for the plastic deformation of irradiated F82H is presented. The results suggest that the irradiation mainly causes defect-induced hardening while it did not strongly affect strain hardening at the same flow stress level for F82H irradiated at 300$$^{circ}$$C. The strain hardening of Ni doped specimens was, however, strongly affected by irradiation. Results provide basics to determine allowable stress levels at temperatures below 400$$^{circ}$$C.

Journal Articles

Influence of hydride re-orientation on BWR cladding rupture under accidental conditions

Nagase, Fumihisa; Fuketa, Toyoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(12), p.1211 - 1217, 2004/12

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:66.18(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Hydride precipitation along the radial-axial plane increases in high burn-up BWR fuel claddings. The radial hydrides may have an important role during fuel behavior in a RIA and may reduce ductility of the cladding under PCMI conditions. In order to promote a better understanding of the influence of the radial hydrides on cladding failure behavior under the PCMI conditions, tube burst tests were conducted for unirradiated BWR claddings charged with 200 to 650 ppm of hydrogen. About 20 to 30% of hydrides were re-oriented and precipitated along the radial-axial plane. The claddings exhibited large burst openings with an axial crack at room temperature and 373 K. However, the influence of the radial hydrides on both burst pressure and residual hoop strain was very small. It is accordingly expected that ductility of high burn-up BWR cladding is significantly reduced not only by precipitation of radial hydrides as far as hydrogen concentration and radial hydride fraction range in the present study.

Journal Articles

Effects of irradiation and water temperatures on IASCC susceptibility of stainless steels

Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi

Proceedings of 8th Japan-China Symposium on Materials for Advanced Energy Systems and Fission & Fusion Engineering, p.161 - 168, 2004/10

Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the environmental degradation problems of in-core structural materials for light water reactors. The effects of irradiation and water temperatures on the IASCC were studied using type 316(LN) stainless steels irradiated at 333-673 K to 1.1-16 dpa. IASCC did not occur at 513 K in oxygenated water for specimens irradiated below 573 K to 1.1-16 dpa, but IASCC occurred above 533 K in oxygenated water for all specimens. The irradiation temperature had a strong influence on IASCC susceptibility at 513 K in oxygenated water, so that the irradiation temperature dependence was compared with the temperature dependence of other radiation-induced phenomena.

Journal Articles

Elastic-plastic FEM analysis on low cycle fatigue behavior for alumina dispersion-strengthened copper/stainless steel joint

Nishi, Hiroshi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 329-333(Part2), p.1567 - 1570, 2004/08

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:54.8(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Elastic-plastic finite element analysis was performed for low cycle fatigue behavior of stainless steel/alumina-dispersion-strengthened copper (DS Cu) joint in order to investigate the fatigue life and the fracture behavior of the joint. As the results, a strain concentration was occurred near the interface of DS Cu for small strain range, however, in the DS Cu for large strain range. The fatigue life and fracture point were evaluated taking account for the strain concentration. The fatigue life and fracture point were consistent with those of the low cycle fatigue test.

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