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Journal Articles

Evaluation of acoustic anisotropy of granite by surface wave measurements

Okano, Aoi*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Matsui, Hiroya

Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.633 - 636, 2021/01

This study evaluates the acoustic anisotropy of granite using surface waves. It is well-known that granite shows acoustic anisotropy due to preferentially oriented microcracks. Therefore it may be possible to gain information on the microcracks from the measurement of the acoustic anisotropy. In the conventional rock core elastic wave test, acoustic anisotropy has been evaluated by the ultrasonic transmission test. However, it is difficult to apply this method to field measurement and irregularly-shaped specimens. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to evaluate the acoustic anisotropy of granite using surface waves. By this method, the acoustic anisotropy was evaluated based on the changes in the surface wave amplitude, velocity, and frequency when the transmission direction was varied stepwise at a constant angle. As a result, the proposed surface wave technique evaluated acoustic anisotropy successfully. Furthermore, it was found that the acoustic anisotropy emerges because the microcracks change the apparent rigidity of the granite specimen.

JAEA Reports

Review and evaluation on the surface area of vitrified products of high-level waste; Surface area increase factors due to fracturing and their bases for the performance assessment of geological disposal

Igarashi, Hiroshi

JAEA-Review 2020-006, 261 Pages, 2020/09

JAEA-Review-2020-006.pdf:4.42MB

A literature review was conducted on the increase in surface area of vitrified products of HLW due to the fracturing caused by cooling during glass pouring process and by mechanical impact, from the perspective of a parameter of the radionuclide release model in the performance assessment of geological disposal system studied overseas. The review was focused on the value of surface area increase factor set as a parameter in the model, the experimental work to evaluate an increase in surface area, and how the parameters on surface area were determined based on the experimental results. The surface area obtained from the experiments executed in Japan was also discussed in comparison with the overseas studies. On the basis of the investigation, the effects of various conditions on the surface area were studied, such as a diameter of vitrified product, cooling condition during and after the glass pouring, impact on vitrified products during their handling, environment after the closure of disposal facility, and others. The causes of fracturing are associated with the phenomena or events in the waste management process such as production, transport, storage, and disposal. The surface area increase factors set in the nuclide release model of the glass and their bases were reviewed. In addition, the measured values and the experimental methods for surface increase factors published so far were compared. Accordingly, the methods for measuring surface area as the bases were identified for these factors set in the models. The causes of fracturing and features of these factors were studied with respect to the relation with the waste management process. The results from the review and assessment can contribute to the expanding the knowledge for the conservative and realistic application of these factors to performance assessment, and to the developing and upgrading of safety case as a consequence.

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock in fiscal year 2017 and 2018 (Joint research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Matsui, Hiroya

JAEA-Research 2019-005, 32 Pages, 2019/10

JAEA-Research-2019-005.pdf:6.13MB

It is important to evaluate the mechanical stability around the geological repository for high-level radioactive waste, during not only the design, construction and operation phases, but also the post-closure period over several millennia. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed in response to time dependent behaviors such as creep and stress relaxation. Therefore, this study has started as a joint research with Okayama University from 2016. This report summarize the results of the joint research performed in fiscal year 2017 and 2018. Based on the research results obtained in fiscal year 2016, automatic measurement system was developed, which can collect very large data on surface elastic wave propagation in a short time, also the applicability of various kinds of parameters derived from measured elastic wave data was examined.

Journal Articles

Development of stress intensity factors for surface cracks with large aspect ratio in plates

Li, Y.; Hasegawa, Kunio; Katsumata, Genshichiro; Osakabe, Kazuya*; Okada, Hiroshi*

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 137(5), p.051207_1 - 051207_8, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:32.73(Engineering, Mechanical)

A number of surface cracks with large aspect ratio have been detected in components of nuclear power plants in recent years. The depths of these cracks are even larger than the half of crack lengths. However, the solutions of the stress intensity factor were not provided for semi-elliptical surface cracks with large aspect ratio in the current fitness-for-service codes. In this study, in order to conduct integrity assessment for cracked components, the solutions of the stress intensity factor were calculated using finite element analysis for semi-elliptical surface cracks with large aspect ratio in plates. Solutions were provided at both the deepest and the surface points of the surface cracks. Some of solutions were compared with the available existing results. As the result, it was concluded that the solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in engineering applications.

Journal Articles

Development of Stress intensity factor coefficients database for a surface crack of an RPV considering the stress discontinuity between cladding and base metal

Onizawa, Kunio; Shibata, Katsuyuki*; Suzuki, Masahide

Proceedings of 2005 ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference (PVP 2005), 12 Pages, 2005/07

Under a transient loading like pressurized thermal shock (PTS), the stress discontinuity near the interface between cladding and base metal of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is caused by the difference in their thermal expansion factors. So the stress intensity factor (SIF) of a surface crack which the deepest point exceeds the interface should be calculated by taking account of the stress discontinuity. Many SIF calculations are performed in Monte Carlo simulation of the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis. To avoid the time consuming process from the SIF calculation in the PFM analysis, the non-dimensional SIF coefficients corresponding to the stress distributions in the cladding and base metal were developed. The non-dimensional SIF coefficients database were obtained from 3D FEM analyses. The SIF value at the surface was determined by linear extrapolation of SIF value near the surface. Using the SIF coefficients database, the SIF values at both surface and deepest points of a surface crack can be evaluated precisely and in a reasonable time.

Journal Articles

Assessments of crack length-water leak correlation on ITER vacuum vessel and inherent safety of Tokamak-type fusion machine

Nakahira, Masataka; Shibui, Masanao*

Nihon Kikai Gakkai Dai-9-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu, No.04-2, p.267 - 272, 2004/06

A small water leak can cause a plasma disruption in a tokamak-type fusion machine. This plasma disruption will induce electromagnetic (EM) force acting in the vacuum vessel that is a physical barrier of tritium and activated dust. If the VV can sustain an unstable fracture by the EM force, the structural safety will be assured and the inherent safety will be demonstrated. Therefore, a new analytical model to evaluate the through crack and leak rate of cooling water is proposed, with verification by experimental leak measurements. Based on the analysis, the critical crack length to terminate plasma in ITER is evaluated as about 2 mm. On the other hand, the critical crack length for unstable fracture is obtained as about 400 mm. It is concluded that EM forces induced by the small leak to terminate plasma will not cause unstable fracture of the VV; thus the inherent safety is demonstrated.

Journal Articles

Structural safety assessment of a tokamak-type fusion facility for a through crack to cause cooling water leakage and plasma disruption

Nakahira, Masataka

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(2), p.226 - 234, 2004/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:10.51(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A tokamak-type fusion machine is said to have inherent safety associated with plasma shutdown. A small leak of water can terminate the plasma safely and can cause a plasma disruption which will induce electromagnetic(EM) forces in the vacuum vessel (VV). From a radiological safety view point, the VV forms the physical barrier that encloses tritium and activated dust. If the VV can sustain an unstable fracture by EM forces from a through crack to cause the leak, the structural safety will be assured and the inherent safety will be demonstrated. Therefore, a systematic approach to assure the structural safety is developed. A new analytical model to evaluate the through crack and leak is proposed, with verification by experiment. Based on the analyses, the critical crack length to terminate plasma is evaluated as about 2 mm, and the critical crack length for unstable fracture is obtained as about 400 mm. It is therefore concluded that EM forces induced by small leak to terminate plasma will not cause the unstable fracture of VV, and then the inherent safety is demonstrated.

JAEA Reports

Applicability of LBB concept to tokamak-type fusion machine

Nakahira, Masataka

JAERI-Tech 2003-087, 28 Pages, 2003/12

JAERI-Tech-2003-087.pdf:1.74MB

A tokamak-type fusion machine has been characterized as having inherent plasma shutdown safety. An extremely small leakage of cooling water will cause a plasma disruption. This plasma disruption will induce electromagnetic forces (EM forces) acting in the vacuum vessel (VV) which forms the physical barrier enclosing tritium and activated dust. If the VV has the possibility of sustaining an unstable fracture from a penetrating crack caused by EM forces, the structural safety will be assured and the inherent safety will be demonstrated. This paper analytically assures the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept as applied to the VV and is based on experimental leak rate data of a through crack having a very small opening. Based on the analysis, the critical crack length to terminate plasma is evaluated as about 2 mm. On the other hand, the critical crack length for unstable fracture is obtained as about 400 mm. It is therefore concluded that EM forces induced by small leak to terminate plasma will not cause the unstable fracture of VV, and then the inherent safety is demonstrated.

JAEA Reports

Study on the stress corrosion cracking of zirconium in nuclear fuel reprocessing environment

Kato, Chiaki

JAERI-Research 2003-013, 143 Pages, 2003/08

JAERI-Research-2003-013.pdf:22.12MB

This study is investigation about stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of zirconium in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Chapter 1 is described background. Chapter 2 is explained experimental apparates. Chapter 3 is described the increased oxidization potential on the heat-transfer surface and suggested the initiation of SCC on a boiling heat-transfer surface. Chapter 4 is described that the SCC susceptibility increased with increasing nitric acid concentration and solution temperature on notched specimen by SSRT. In addition, the SCC susceptibility effected by the crystal anisotropy by the hot rolling direction and increased on a parallel face to the rolling direction. Chapter 5 is described that the SCC susceptibility increased in HAZ/base metal boundary in order to the preferential orientation of cleavage plane (0002). Chapter 6 is described that the increased oxidization potential on the heat-transfer surface is attributed to the reduction of nitrous acid concentration by the thermal decomposition on the surface and the removal of the decomposition product from solution by boiling bubbles.

Journal Articles

Study on growth evaluation for surface cracks, I; Fatigue behavior of flat plate specimen with surface cracks and Evaluation of crack growth behavior

; ; *; ;

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 27(3), p.250 - 261, 1985/00

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:82.41(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Stress Intensity Factor Analyses of Surface Cracks in Three-Dimensional Structures

*; ; *; *

JAERI-M 83-189, 44 Pages, 1983/11

JAERI-M-83-189.pdf:1.05MB

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Surface erosion and re-emission behaviour of various types of carbon under helium-ion bombardment

; ;

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 102, p.97 - 118, 1981/00

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:83.47(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Fatigue crack growth behaviour for adjacent two surface flaws in accordance with combination rules

Lu, K.; Li, Y.; Hasegawa, Kunio*; Lacroix, V.*

no journal, , 

When multiple flaws are found in a structural components, fitness-for-service (FFS) codes such as ASME Code Section XI, BS 7910 and FKM Guideline provide flaw combination rules. However, the specific criteria are different among FFS codes. In this paper, fatigue flaw growth for adjacent surface flaws in a pipe subjected to cyclic tensile stress were obtained by numerical calculations using different combination rules. In addition, fatigue lives taking into account interaction effect between the two flaws were conducted by extended finite element method (X-FEM). As the calculation results, it is found that the fatigue lives calculated by the X-FEM are close to those by the ASME Code. Finally, it is worth noticing that the combination rule provided by the ASME Code is appropriate for fatigue flaw growth calculations.

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