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Journal Articles

Self-organization of zonal flows and isotropic eddies in toroidal electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi*; Yamada, Hiroshi*

Physics of Plasmas, 27(8), p.082302_1 - 082302_11, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Self-organization in the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on a global gyrokinetic model in a weak magnetic shear configuration. Because of global profile effects, toroidal ETG modes with higher toroidal mode number n are excited at the outer magnetic surfaces, leading to strong linear wave dispersion. The resulting anisotropic wave turbulence boundary and the inverse energy cascade generate the self-organization of zonal flows, which is the unique mechanism in the global gyrokinetic model. The self-organization is confirmed both in the decaying turbulence initialized by random noises and in the toroidal ETG turbulence. It is also shown that the self-organization process generates zonal flows and isotropic eddies depending on a criterion parameter, which is determined by the ion to electron temperature ratio and the turbulence intensity.

Journal Articles

Analysis of maximum voltage transient of JT-60SA toroidal field coils in case of fast discharge

Novello, L.*; Cara, P.*; Coletti, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Maistrello, A.*; Matsukawa, Makoto; Philipps, G.*; Tomarchio, V.*; Yamauchi, Kunihito

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 26(2), p.4700507_1 - 4700507_7, 2016/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:63.72(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Journal Articles

Fabrication of 8Cr-2W ferritic steel tile for reduction in toroidal magnetic field ripple on JT-60U

Kudo, Yusuke; Sawai, Tomotsugu; Sakurai, Shinji; Masaki, Kei; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sasajima, Tadayuki; Hayashi, Takao; Takahashi, Ryukichi*; Honda, Masao; Jitsukawa, Shiro; et al.

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 49(96), p.S297 - S301, 2006/12

Installation of ferritic steel tiles was proposed in JT-60U to reduce the toroidal magnetic field ripple and to improve the fast ion loss, which degrades heating efficiency and increases heat load on plasma facing component under large volume plasma operations. We selected a 8Cr-2W-0.2V ferritic steel with the cost-effectiveness, in which concentration limits of activation elements in F82H were relaxed because of the less number of neutron generations from deuterium operations on JT-60U. The fabricated ferritic steel has clear tempered martensitic microstructure, and sufficient magnetic and mechanical properties. The saturated magnetization was estimated to 1.7 Tesla at 573 K, lower than expected, but effectiveness in JT-60U was confirmed by numerical analyses. To research the effect of material conditions, such as microstructure and heat treatment, on saturated magnetization of the ferritic steel based on 8-9Cr is important for the future fusion reactors which will be planned to install the ferritic steel as the in-vessel components.

Journal Articles

The Roles of plasma rotation and toroidal field ripple on the H-mode pedestal structure in JT-60U

Urano, Hajime; Kamiya, Kensaku; Koide, Yoshihiko; Takizuka, Tomonori; Oyama, Naoyuki; Kamada, Yutaka; JT-60 Team

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(5A), p.A193 - A199, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:62.46(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The characteristics of the H-mode pedestal structure were investigated by conducting the power scans for a variation of the toroidal momentum sources at different toroidal field ripple in JT-60U. It was found that the pedestal pressure is increased by reduced loss power of fast ions, independently of toroidal rotation. However, the energy confinement is improved with the CO-directed toroidal momentum source at H-mode plasmas with small ripple loss.

Journal Articles

Fatigue assessment of the ITER TF coil case based on JJ1 fatigue tests

Hamada, Kazuya; Nakajima, Hideo; Takano, Katsutoshi*; Kudo, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki*; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Jong, C.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 75-79, p.87 - 91, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:47.19(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Effective bending strain estimated from $$I$$$$_{c}$$ test results of a D-shaped Nb$$_{3}$$Al CICC coil fabricated with a react-and-wind process for the National Centralized Tokamak

Ando, Toshinari*; Kizu, Kaname; Miura, Yushi*; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Matsukawa, Makoto; Tamai, Hiroshi; Ishida, Shinichi; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Okuno, Kiyoshi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 75-79, p.99 - 103, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:88.6(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Compact antenna for two-dimensional beam scan in the JT-60U electron cyclotron heating/current drive system

Moriyama, Shinichi; Kajiwara, Ken*; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Seki, Masami; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; JT-60 Team

Review of Scientific Instruments, 76(11), p.113504_1 - 113504_6, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:68.41(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A compact antenna has been designed and fabricated to enable millimeter wave beam scan in the toroidal and the poloidal directions of the JT-60U Tokamak, for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) experiments. It consists of fast movable flat mirror mounted on the Tokamak vacuum vessel, and rotary focusing mirror attached at the end of the waveguide supported from outside of the vacuum vessel. This separate support concept enables compact structure in the shallow port (0.68 m $$times$$ 0.54 m $$times$$ 0.2m) sharing with a sub-port for an independent diagnostic system. The flat mirror is driven during a shot by a servo-motor with a 3 m long drive shaft to refuse influence of the high magnetic field to the motor. The focusing mirror is rotated by a simple mechanism with a push rod and an air cylinder. The antenna has been operated reliably for 3 years after small improvement in the rotary mechanism. It has been contributing ECH and ECCD experiments especially current profile control, in JT-60U.

Journal Articles

Stabilization mechanism of ballooning modes by toroidal rotation shear in tokamaks

Furukawa, Masaru; Tokuda, Shinji

Nuclear Fusion, 45(5), p.377 - 383, 2005/05

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:63.24(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

A ballooning perturbation in a toroidally rotating tokamak is expanded by square-integrable eigenfunctions of an eigenvalue problem associated with ballooning modes in a static plasma. Especially a weight function is chosen such that the eigenvalue problem has only the discrete spectrum. The eigenvalues evolve in time owing to toroidal rotation shear, resulting in countably infinite number of crossings among them. The crossings cause energy transfer from an unstable mode to the infinite number of stable modes; such transfer works as the stabilization mechanism of the ballooning mode. A simple analytic formula is derived for estimating the toroidal rotation shear required to stabilize the ballooning mode.

Journal Articles

Mechanism of stabilization of ballooning modes by toroidal rotation shear in tokamaks

Furukawa, Masaru; Tokuda, Shinji

Physical Review Letters, 94(17), p.175001_1 - 175001_4, 2005/05

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:38.82(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

A ballooning perturbation in a toroidally rotating tokamaks is expanded by square-integrable eigenfunctions of an eigenvalue problem associated with ballooning modes in a static plasma. Especially a weight function is chosen such that the eigenvalue problem has only the discrete spectrum. The eigenvalues evolve in time owing to toroidal rotation shear, resulting in countably infinite number of crossings among them. The crossings cause energy transfer from an unstable mode to the infinite number of stable modes; such transfer works as the stabilization mechanism of the ballooning mode.

Journal Articles

Confinement of alpha particles in a low aspect ratio tokamak reactor

Tani, Keiji; Tobita, Kenji; Nishio, Satoshi; Iio, Shunji*; Tsutsui, Hiroaki*; Aoki, Takayuki*

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 80(11), p.931 - 934, 2004/11

Studies were made on ripple losses of fusion produced alpha particles in a low-aspect-ratio tokamak reactor (VECTOR) by using an orbit-following Monte-Carlo code. Alpha particles are well confined in VECTOR. In a low-aspect-ratio tokamak, the dependence of ripple losses on the number of toroidal-field (TF) coils N is very weak. Assuming a toroidal peaking factor of 2 for the heat load due to loss particles, about 1.5% and 1.0% of TF ripple at the outer edge of plasma might be allowable for the first wall with and without cooling system, respectively. In both cases, the number of TF-coils can be reduced to about 4.

Journal Articles

On the poloidal localization and stability of multi-faceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE)

Chankin, A. V.

Physics of Plasmas, 11(4), p.1484 - 1492, 2004/04

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:71.29(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Fast ion loss calculation in the ripple compensation magnetic field by ferritic steel insertion using the FEMAG/OFMC code

Urata, Kazuhiro*; Shinohara, Koji; Suzuki, Masanobu*; Kamata, Isao*

JAERI-Data/Code 2004-007, 45 Pages, 2004/03


As the toroidal magnetic field generated by discrete TF coils involves magnetic field ripple, the fast ion loss is induced to damage vacuum vessel in tokamaks. An idea of ripple compensation using ferromagnetic is proposed. Since low activation ferritic steel have low activation and thermal conduction properties, the ferritic steel is planned to install in tokamak reactors. Installation of ferritic steel plates with toroidal symmetry is effective to compensate ripple, however in the actual devices it is difficult for interference with other components. Besides the first wall shapes are often asymmetric. So it is better to treat toroidal asymmetry to evaluate the ripple induced loss in the actual devices. For the purpose, magnetic field calculation code considering ferritic steel; FEMAG(FErrite generating MAGnetic field)has been speeded up. On the basis of this magnetic field data, OFMC (Orbit Following Monte Carlo) has been upgraded to treat toroidal asymmetry. The use of FEMAG/OFMC, applications to the JFT-2M experiments, and the national centralized tokamak facility are reported.

Journal Articles

Stability of ideal MHD ballooning modes and its stabilization by toroidal rotation shear near separatrix

Furukawa, Masaru; Tokuda, Shinji; Wakatani, Masahiro*

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 46(2), p.409 - 421, 2004/02

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:74.75(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

In the H-mode (high-confinement mode) pedestal region of a static or a toroidally rotating D-shaped tokamak plasma, the separatrix or the X-point affects the high-n ballooning stability (n: toroidal mode number) only in a thin layer in the pedestal region. Therefore, D-shaping effectively stabilizes the ballooning modes even for a toroidally rotating plasma with a separatrix.

Journal Articles

A Model equation for ballooning modes in toroidally rotating tokamaks

Furukawa, Masaru; Tokuda, Shinji

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.6, p.210 - 213, 2004/00

A model equation for ballooning modes in toroidally rotating tokamaks is derived. It is confirmed that the model equation is appropriate for analyzing the stabilization mechanism of the ballooning modes by comparing the numerical solutions of the model equation with those of the original ballooning equations.

Journal Articles

A New intelligent coil current control system combined with a synchronous generator and a diode rectifier

Shimada, Katsuhiro; Omori, Yoshikazu; Furukawa, Hiroshi*; Terakado, Tsunehisa; Matsukawa, Makoto; Kurihara, Kenichi

Proceedings of International Conference on Electrical Engineering 2004 (ICEE 2004), p.777 - 781, 2004/00

We developed a new coil current control system for a power supply that consists of a synchronous generator and diode rectifiers. Test results are reported for the toroidal field coil power supply of JT-60, a world-class tokamak-type fusion device. This coil current control system has been designed to improve the control flexibility of the plasma discharge, and to introduce new functions. A state feedback control method is adopted to control coil current. Limit functions for the generator field current, the generator output voltage, and the toroidal field coil voltage have been added to the original coil current control system. Moreover, the abnormal state detection function of a coil is implemented for safety. The developed new intelligent control system has been tested and its performance was confirmed.

Journal Articles

Development of a Nb$$_{3}$$Al conductor for toroidal field coils

Koizumi, Norikiyo; Ando, Toshinari*; Nakajima, Hideo; Matsui, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Kizu, Kaname; Miura, Yushi; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; et al.

Proceedings of 20th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering (SOFE 2003), p.419 - 422, 2003/10

Nb$$_{3}$$Sn cConductors have already been developed for the TF coils operating at 13 T. However, the critical current of Nb$$_{3}$$Sn degrades due to a strain, and the amount of degradation becomes larger when the magnetic field increases, which set a limit of the Nb$$_{3}$$Sn application to a large coil at around 13 T. Nb$$_{3}$$Al is considered, therefore, to be a next generation superconductor, since the critical current of Nb$$_{3}$$Al is superior to that of Nb$$_{3}$$Sn and less sensitive against strains. JAERI has been developing Nb$$_{3}$$Al conductor since 80s. As the first step, mass production technique of Nb$$_{3}$$Al strands was established. In the second step, coil fabrication technique was developed and could successfully be charged to the nominal point of 13 T and 46 kA. From these advantages, JAERI is also promoting R&D activities to develop Nb$$_{3}$$Al TF coils for JT-60SC. The prototype Nb$$_{3}$$Al conductor has already been made. A D-shaped coil was fabricated and successfully tested. These activities constitute the basic approaches to develop TF coils whose operating field is expected to be around 16 T.

Journal Articles

Current point formation and magnetic reconnection process in nonlinearly destabilized double tearing modes

Ishii, Yasutomo; Azumi, Masafumi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

Physics of Plasmas, 10(9), p.3512 - 3520, 2003/09

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:72.24(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Progress of electron cyclotron heating/current drive technology in JT-60U

Moriyama, Shinichi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Seki, Masami; Sakamoto, Keishi; Kasugai, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koji; Kajiwara, Ken*; Isayama, Akihiko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Fukuda, Takeshi*; et al.

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 79(9), p.935 - 944, 2003/09

An optimization of current profile is a key issue for attaining higher plasma performance in Tokamak, such as stabilization of neo-classical tearing mode (NTM) and control of internal transport barrier (ITB). In JT-60U, a high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system at 110 GHz has been developed for local plasma heating and current drive. We have demonstrated the technical feasibility of the antenna which can scan EC beam in both toroidal and poloidal directions. The toroidal scan enabled co- and counter- current drive and also pure plasma heating. An automatic stabilization of the NTM was demonstrated by means of current drive at the location of magnetic island using a feedback control of poloidal beam angle. The total injected power has been extended to 2.8 MW for 3.6 sec and each gyrotron delivers ~ 1 MW for 5 sec. This world record of the injection energy was attained by an upgrade of the gyrotron using RF absorber in the beam tunnel to suppress the parasitic oscillation and improvement of the transmission efficiency of the waveguide system.

Journal Articles

Development of a Nb$$_{3}$$Al conductor to be applied to a fusion reactor and its application to a large superconducting coil

Koizumi, Norikiyo; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Hideo; Ando, Toshinari*; Tsuji, Hiroshi

Teion Kogaku, 38(8), p.391 - 398, 2003/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of the critical current performance of a Nb$$_{3}$$Al insert

Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Takayasu, Makoto*; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Oshikiri, Masayuki*; CS Model Coil Test Group

Teion Kogaku, 38(8), p.399 - 409, 2003/08

A Nb$$_{3}$$Al insert was developed to demonstrate the applicability of a Nb$$_{3}$$Al conductor and wind-and-react method to a TF coil of a fusion reactor by artificially applying 0.4% bending strain to the conductor after its heat treatment. The critical current test results show that the effective strains applied to the strands is almost zero. Then, the validity of the react-and-wind method was demonstrated. In addition, while an unexpected strain, which was proportional to electromagnetic force, was observed in the same scale Nb$$_{3}$$Sn conductor, such strain did not exist in the Nb$$_{3}$$Al conductor. This shows a Nb$$_{3}$$Al conductor is suitable to the application to large magnets, such as the TF coil. Furthermore, the effect of the current transfer among the strands on the critical current evaluation is studied by developing a numerical analysis code, KORO. The results figure out that the critical current of a large cable-in-conduit conductor can be easily evaluated assuming the uniform current distribution if the conductance among the strands is 10E5 S/m or less.

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