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Journal Articles

A Plan of Proton Irradiation Facility at J-PARC and possibilities of application to nuclear data research

Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.7 - 13, 2022/11

The partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technology has promising potential for volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. JAEA is developing the P-T technology combined with accelerator driven systems (ADS). One of critical issues affecting the feasibility of ADS is the proton beam window (PBW) which functions as a boundary between the accelerator and the sub-critical reactor core. The PBW is damaged by a high-intensity proton beam and spallation neutrons produced in the target, and also by flowing high-temperature liquid lead bismuth eutectic alloy which is corrosive to steel materials. To study the materials damage under the ADS environment, J-PARC is proposing a plan of proton irradiation facility which equips with a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target bombarded by a 400 MeV - 250 kW proton beam. The facility is also open for versatile purposes such as soft error testing of semi-conductor devises, RI production, materials irradiation for fission and fusion reactors, and so on. Application to nuclear data research with using the proton beam and spallation neutrons is also one of such versatile purposes, and we welcome unique ideas from the nuclear data community.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 1; Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS)

Maekawa, Fujio

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.201 - 205, 2022/05

The nuclear transmutation technology is a powerful solution to the "nuclear waste" problem that accompanies nuclear power generation. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which combines a high-intensity accelerator and a subcritical core, is a promising tool for nuclear transmutation. In this paper, we will explain the significance and principle of nuclear transmutation by ADS, design examples of ADS, partitioning and transmutation technology and its effects, required performance of high-intensity accelerators, overseas trends, etc.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 2; Transmutation Experimental Facility at J-PARC

Maekawa, Fujio; Takei, Hayanori

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.206 - 210, 2022/05

In developing an accelerator-driven nuclear transmutation system (ADS), it is necessary to solve technical issues related to proton beams, such as the development of materials that can withstand high-intensity proton beams and the characterization of subcritical cores driven by proton beams. Therefore, at the high-intensity proton accelerator facility J-PARC, a transmutation experimental facility that actually conducts various tests using a high-intensity proton beam is being planned. This paper introduces the outline and future direction of the transmutation experimental facility.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 3; Lead-bismuth target technology

Sasa, Toshinobu

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.211 - 215, 2022/05

Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy is promising as a spallation target for next-generation reactor coolants and accelerator drive systems (ADS) due to its nuclear and chemical properties. LBE is a heavy metal, and it has good properties both as a spallation target and as a coolant for nuclear transmutation systems of long-lived radioactive nuclei. On the other hand, to improve compatibility with structural materials is one of the major issues in its utilization. The latest research results such as high-temperature operation of LBE and oxygen concentration control to ensure corrosion resistance with the aim of early commercialization of nuclear conversion technology by ADS is introduced.

JAEA Reports

Measurement of nuclide production cross-sections in high-energy proton-induced spallation reactions at J-PARC

Nakano, Keita; Matsuda, Hiroki*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Takeshita, Hayato*; Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Research 2021-014, 25 Pages, 2022/03


For the development of accelerator-driven transmutation system (ADS), measurement of nuclide production cross-sections in proton-induced reactions on $$^9$$Be, C, $$^{27}$$Al, $$^{45}$$Sc, and V have been performed. The measured data are compared with the calculations by the latest nuclear reaction models and with the nuclear data library to investigate the reproducibilities.

Journal Articles

Concepts and basic designs of various nuclear fuels, 5; Fuels for high temperature gas-cooled reactor and molten salt reactor

Ueta, Shohei; Sasaki, Koei; Arita, Yuji*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(8), p.615 - 620, 2021/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Measurement of cesium isotopic ratio by thermal ionization mass spectrometry for neutron capture reaction studies on $$^{135}$$Cs

Shibahara, Yuji*; Nakamura, Shoji; Uehara, Akihiro*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*; Fukutani, Satoshi*; Kimura, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Osamu

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 325(1), p.155 - 165, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:67.23(Chemistry, Analytical)

The measurements of isotopic ratios of Cs samples by thermal ionization mass spectrometry were performed for the analysis of their samples used to evaluate nuclear data obtained for $$^{135}$$Cs. To obtain a high intensity and stable ion beam, the effects of additive agents on the ionization of Cs were examined. The effect of silicotungstic acid on the ionization of Cs was the largest among the additive agents studied in the present study, while the silicotungstic acid also showed the largest isobaric interference of polyatomic ions. It was demonstrated that as small as 2$$times$$10$$^{-13}$$ g of a Cs sample was sufficient to achieve the analytical precision required to measure the $$^{135}$$Cs/$$^{137}$$Cs ratio in the case where an additive agent of TaO/glucose was employed. After examining of the analytical conditions, such as the interference effect due to Ba, the measurements of the isotopic ratios of two Cs samples used in our study using TIMS were conducted, and it was discussed how much the ratios contributed to evaluation of the neutron capture cross-section of $$^{135}$$Cs.

Journal Articles

Measurements of thermal-neutron capture cross-section of cesium-135 by applying mass spectrometry

Nakamura, Shoji; Shibahara, Yuji*; Kimura, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Uehara, Akihiro*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.388 - 400, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The thermal-neutron capture cross-section ($$sigma_{0}$$) and resonance integral(I$$_{0}$$) were measured for the $$^{135}$$Cs(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{136}$$Cs reaction by an activation method and mass spectrometry. We used $$^{135}$$Cs contained as an impurity in a normally available $$^{137}$$Cs standard solution. An isotope ratio of $$^{135}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs in a standard $$^{137}$$Cs solution was measured by mass spectrometry to quantify $$^{135}$$Cs. The analyzed $$^{137}$$Cs samples were irradiated at the hydraulic conveyer of the research reactor in Institute for Integral Radiation and Nuclear Science, Kyoto University. Wires of Co/Al and Au/Al alloys were used as neutron monitors to measure thermal-neutron fluxes and epi-thermal Westcott's indices at an irradiation position. A gadolinium filter was used to measure the $$sigma_{0}$$, and a value of 0.133 eV was taken as the cut-off energy. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to measure induced activities of $$^{137}$$Cs, $$^{136}$$Cs and monitor wires. On the basis of Westcott's convention, the $$sigma_{0}$$ and I$$_{0}$$ values were derived as 8.57$$pm$$0.25 barn, and 45.3$$pm$$3.2 barn, respectively. The $$sigma_{0}$$ obtained in the present study agreed within the limits of uncertainties with the past reported value of 8.3$$pm$$0.3 barn.

Journal Articles

A Design study on a mixed oxide fuel sodium-cooled fast reactor core partially loading highly concentrated MA-containing metal fuel

Ohgama, Kazuya; Ota, Hirokazu*; Oki, Shigeo; Iizuka, Masatoshi*

Proceedings of 2019 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2019) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/05

JAEA Reports

Measurement experiment of oxygen concentration in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic; Basic Tests and estimation of gamma-ray irradiation effect

Sugawara, Takanori; Kita, Satoshi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu*; Okubo, Nariaki

JAEA-Technology 2018-008, 26 Pages, 2018/09


The oxygen sensors to measure the oxygen concentration in liquid LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) were fabricated and tested for future use in LBE-cooled ADS (accelerator-driven system) or LBE test loops. The following tests were performed; estimation of catalyst application range, freeze seal structure and estimation of gamma-ray irradiation effect. For the estimation of the catalyst application range, it was confirmed that the measurement accuracy became worse in low LBE temperature as the application range became small. For the freeze seal structure, we realized the structure to prevent the LBE leakage with 0.5 MPa pressure condition. For the estimation of gamma-ray irradiation effect, the ex-situ test was carried out and it was observed that there was little effect by 4 MGy gamma-ray irradiation.

Journal Articles

Accelerator Driven nuclear transmutation System (ADS)

Maekawa, Fujio

Koenerugi Kasokuki Semina, OHO '18 Jukoyo Tekisuto, 11 Pages, 2018/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of heat removal during the failure of the core cooling for new critical assembly

Eguchi, Yuta; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07

In order to investigate the basic neutronics characteristics of the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS), JAEA has a plan to construct a new critical assembly in the J-PARC project, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). This study aims to evaluate the natural cooling characteristics of TEF-P core which has large decay heat by minor actinide (MA) fuel, and to achieve a design that does not damage the core and the fuels during the failure of the core cooling system. In the evaluation of the TEF-P core temperature, empty rectangular lattice tube outer of the core has a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The experiments by using the mockup device were performed to validate the heat transfer coefficient and experimental results were obtained. By using the obtained experimental results, the three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of TEF-P core were performed, and the maximum core temperature was obtained, 294$$^{circ}$$C. This result shows TEF-P core temperature would be less than 327$$^{circ}$$C that the design criterion of temperature.

Journal Articles

J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility Program

Maekawa, Fujio; Transmutation Expeimental Facility Design Team

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 13(Sp.1), p.2505045_1 - 2505045_4, 2018/05

The partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technology has promising potential for volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. JAEA is promoting development of the P-T technology by using an accelerator driven system (ADS). To facilitate the development, we have a plan to construct the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) as one of experimental facilities of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). TEF consists of two facilities: the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) and the Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). Recent progress in design and R&D efforts toward construction of J-PARC TEF will be presented.

JAEA Reports

Safety design report on J-PARC Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P)

Partitioning and Transmutation Technology Division, Nuclear Science and Engineering Center

JAEA-Technology 2017-033, 383 Pages, 2018/02


JAEA is pursuing research and development (R&D) on volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. Construction of Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is under planning as one of the second phase facilities in the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) program to promote R&D on the transmutation technology with using accelerator driven systems (ADS). The TEF consists of two facilities: ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) and Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). Development of spallation target technology and study on target materials are to be conducted in TEF-T with impinging a high intensity proton beam on a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic target. Whereas in TEF-P, by introducing a proton beam to minor actinide loaded cores, reactor physical properties of the cores are to be studied, and operation experiences of ADS are to be acquired. This report summarizes results of safety design for establishment permit of one of two TEF facilities, TEF-P.

JAEA Reports

Assessment of lead-bismuth-eutectic leak at ADS Target Test Facility in Transmutation Experimental Facility of J-PARC

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Maekawa, Fujio; Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro

JAEA-Technology 2017-029, 39 Pages, 2018/01


Under an assumption that an incident of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) leak from an LBE circulation system occurred during a 250-kW beam operation, an estimation of radiation dose at the site boundary for the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) in Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) of J-PARC was conducted using various conservative assumptions. As a result, the radiation dose at the site boundary was estimated to be about 660 $$mu$$Sv, which were dominated by mercury, noble gas, and iodine produced as spallation products from the LBE. Even though the incident scenario was made conservatively, it was shown that the estimated total dose was lower than the annual radiation dose due to natural sources, and the TEF-T has sufficient safety margin for the leak of radioactivity.

Journal Articles

Impact of impurity in transmutation cycle on neutronics design of revised accelerator-driven system

Sugawara, Takanori; Katano, Ryota; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 111, p.449 - 459, 2018/01

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:80.55(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This study aims to review the ADS design based on the outcome for the last dozen years and to investigate the impact of impurities in the transmutation cycle on the ADS neutronics design. The impact of impurities in the transmutation cycle is investigated for the reviewed reference design. For the uranium from the partitioning, the accompaniment of 20 wt.% U against the Pu weight is acceptable although the MA transmutation amount will be decreased slightly. For the rare earth (RE) from the partitioning, the accompaniment of 5 wt.% RE against the MA weight is allowable. In the reprocessing, the decontamination factor, DF=10 for RE is enough from the viewpoint of the neutronics design. The impact of the fuel composition accuracy is also investigated. The uncertainty of the ZrN ratio against the MA fuel should be less than 0.2% to minimize a surplus proton beam current due to the uncertainty.

Journal Articles

Research and development on pyrochemical treatment of spent nitride fuels for MA transmutation in JAEA

Hayashi, Hirokazu; Sato, Takumi; Shibata, Hiroki; Tsubata, Yasuhiro

NEA/NSC/R(2017)3, p.427 - 432, 2017/11

Transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides including minor actinides (MA: Np, Am, Cm) has been studied in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Pb-Bi cooled sub-critical accelerator-driven system (ADS) is regarded as one of the powerful tools for transmutation of MA under the double strata fuel cycle concept. Uranium-free MA-Pu nitride fuel was chosen as the first candidate for MA transmutation. Reprocessing of spent ADS fuel and reusing MA recovered from the spent ADS fuels is necessary to improve the transmutation ratio. A pyrochemical process has been proposed as the first candidate for reprocessing of the spent nitride fuel for MA transmutation, because this technique has some advantages over aqueous process, such as the resistance to radiation damage, which is an important issue for the fuels containing large amounts of highly radioactive MA, and feasibility for recovering expensive N-15 in the spent fuels to be reused. This paper overviews the current status of the technology development, including our recent study. Development of the anode suitable for electro-refining of nitride fuels and that of the apparatus for renitridation of the metals recovered in Cd cathode for 100g-Cd scale cold tests are main topics. Evaluation of the batch sizes of each process, which is necessary for estimating the scale of the engineering-apparatus, with considering the decay heat of MA and FP, will also be introduced.

Journal Articles

Validation of PHITS spallation models from the perspective of the shielding design of transmutation experimental facility

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro

EPJ Web of Conferences, 153, p.01016_1 - 01016_9, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:80.99

Journal Articles

J-PARC transmutation experimental facility program and situation of the world

Maekawa, Fujio; Sasa, Toshinobu

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(9), p.15 - 18, 2017/08

Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation systems (ADS) are under development for reducing nuclear waste. The J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility program and situation of the world for the ADS development are introduced.

Journal Articles

Design of 250kW LBE spallation target for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)

Sasa, Toshinobu; Saito, Shigeru; Obayashi, Hironari; Sugawara, Takanori; Wan, T.; Yamaguchi, Kazushi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu

NEA/CSNI/R(2017)2 (Internet), p.111 - 116, 2017/06

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes to reduce the environmental impact caused from high-level radioactive waste by using Accelerator-driven system (ADS). To realize ADS, JAEA plans to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) within the framework of J-PARC project. For the JAEA-proposed ADS, lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is adopted as a coolant for subcritical core and spallation target. By using TEF in J-PARC, we are planning to solve technical difficulties for LBE utilization by completion of the data for the design of ADS. The 250kW LBE spallation target will be located in TEF facility to prepare material irradiation database. Various R&Ds for important technologies required to build the facilities are investigated such as oxygen content control, instruments development, remote handling techniques for target maintenance, and spallation target design. The large scale LBE loops for 250kW target mock up and material corrosion studies are also manufactured and ready for various experiments. The latest status of 250kW LBE spallation target optimization will be described in the presentation.

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