Task Force on Maintenance Optimization of Nuclear Facilities
JAEA-Technology 2022-006, 80 Pages, 2022/06
The Task force on maintenance optimization of nuclear facilities was organized in the Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) since November 2020, in order to adequately respond to "the New nuclear regulatory inspection system since FY 2020" and to continuously improve the facility maintenance activities. In 2021, the task force has studied (1) optimization of the importance classification on maintenance and inspection of nuclear facilities, and (2) improvement in setting and evaluation of the performance indicators on safety, maintenance and quality management activities, considering "the Graded approach" that is one of the basic methodologies in the new nuclear regulatory inspection system. Each nuclear facility (research reactors, nuclear fuel material usage facilities, others) in the NSRI will steadily improve their respective safety, maintenance and quality management activities, referring the review results suggested by the task force.
Kato, Takuma*; Nagaoka, Mika; Guo, H.*; Fujita, Hiroki; Aida, Taku*; Smith, R. L. Jr.*
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(39), p.55725 - 55735, 2021/10
In this work, hydrothermal leaching was applied to simulated soils (clay minerals vermiculite, montmorillonite, kaolinite) and actual soils (Terunuma, Japan) to generate organic acids with the objective to develop an additive-free screening method for determination of Sr in soil. Stable strontium (SrCl) was adsorbed onto soils for study and ten organic acids were evaluated for leaching Sr from simulated soils under hydrothermal conditions (120 to 200C) at concentrations up to 0.3 M. For strontium-adsorbed vermiculite (Sr-V), 0.1 M citric acid was found to be effective for leaching Sr at 150C and 1 h treatment time. Based on these results, the formation of organic acids from organic matter in Terunuma soil was studied. Hydrothermal treatment of Terunuma soil produced a maximum amount of organic acids at 200C and 0.5 h reaction time. To confirm the possibility for leaching of Sr from Terunuma soil, strontium-adsorbed Terunuma soil (Sr-S) was studied. For Sr-S, hydrothermal treatment at 200C for 0.5 h reaction time allowed 40% of the Sr to be leached at room temperature, thus demonstrating an additive-free method for screening of Sr in soil. The additive-free hydrothermal leaching method avoids calcination of solids in the first step of chemical analysis and has application to both routine monitoring of metals in soils and to emergency situations.
Im, S.*; Jee, H.*; Suh, H.*; Kanematsu, Manabu*; Morooka, Satoshi; Koyama, Taku*; Nishio, Yuhei*; Machida, Akihiko*; Kim, J.*; Bae, S.*
Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 104(9), p.4803 - 4818, 2021/09
Nagaoka, Mika; Fujita, Hiroki; Aida, Taku*; Guo, H.*; Smith, R. L. Jr.*
Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 168, p.109465_1 - 109465_6, 2021/02
The radioactivities in the environmental samples are analyzed to monitor the nuclear power facilities. The pretreatment of radioactive nuclides of alpha and beta emitters in the environmental samples is performed with acid to decompose organic matter and extract object nuclide such as Sr, U and Pu. However, the pretreatment methods are time-consuming and used many concentrated acid solutions that are unsafe and hazardous. Therefore, we develop to the new pretreatment method using supercritical water instead of acid. Hydrothermal pretreatment of soils (Andosols) from Ibaraki prefecture (Japan) was used to improve methods for monitoring radioactive Sr and U. Calcined samples were pretreated with subcritical or supercritical water (SCW) followed by extraction with 0.5 M HNO solutions. With SCW pretreatment, recoveries of Sr and U were 70% and 40%, respectively. Experimental recoveries obtained can be described by a linear relationship in water density. The proposed method is robust and can lower environmental burden of routine analytical protocols.
Suzuki, Tamaki*; Okawa, Teppei*; Harjo, S.; Sasaki, Toshihiko*
Nihon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 87(894), p.20-00377_1 - 20-00377_15, 2021/02
Niwa, Masakazu; Ueki, Tadamasa*; Hoshi, Hiroyuki*; Sugisaki, Yuichi*
JAEA-Research 2020-003, 33 Pages, 2020/07
Ages of volcanic rocks are helpful information to understand the impact of volcanism concerning a site characterization and a safety assessment for geological disposal. In this study, mineralogical and geochemical data of altered volcanic rocks were collected using a polarizing microscope, X-ray diffractometer, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, X-ray analytical microscope, and electron probe microanalyzer, to select targets suitable for reliable K-Ar dating. In addition, sample preparation procedures such as freeze-thawing and HCl treatment were examined to concentrate unaltered plagioclase which is one of major phenocrysts in volcanic rocks. These data and procedures were compiled in this report.
Nomura, Kazunori; Ogi, Hiromichi*; Nakahara, Masaumi; Watanabe, So; Shibata, Atsuhiro
International Journal of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering (Internet), 13(5), p.209 - 212, 2019/00
Hayashi, Hirokazu; Sato, Takumi; Shibata, Hiroki; Tsubata, Yasuhiro
NEA/NSC/R(2017)3, p.427 - 432, 2017/11
Transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides including minor actinides (MA: Np, Am, Cm) has been studied in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Pb-Bi cooled sub-critical accelerator-driven system (ADS) is regarded as one of the powerful tools for transmutation of MA under the double strata fuel cycle concept. Uranium-free MA-Pu nitride fuel was chosen as the first candidate for MA transmutation. Reprocessing of spent ADS fuel and reusing MA recovered from the spent ADS fuels is necessary to improve the transmutation ratio. A pyrochemical process has been proposed as the first candidate for reprocessing of the spent nitride fuel for MA transmutation, because this technique has some advantages over aqueous process, such as the resistance to radiation damage, which is an important issue for the fuels containing large amounts of highly radioactive MA, and feasibility for recovering expensive N-15 in the spent fuels to be reused. This paper overviews the current status of the technology development, including our recent study. Development of the anode suitable for electro-refining of nitride fuels and that of the apparatus for renitridation of the metals recovered in Cd cathode for 100g-Cd scale cold tests are main topics. Evaluation of the batch sizes of each process, which is necessary for estimating the scale of the engineering-apparatus, with considering the decay heat of MA and FP, will also be introduced.
Irisawa, Keita; Taniguchi, Takumi; Namiki, Masahiro; Garca-Lodeiro, I.*; Osugi, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Nakazawa, Osamu; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Hajime*
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2017/04
A solidification technique with minimized water content is being developed using phosphate cements for the safe storage of secondary radioactive wastes in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Conventional cement systems become solidified via hydration reactions, and need a certain water content. Phosphate cement systems, however, become solidified via an acid-base reaction, and so they only require water mainly for reasons of workability. A reduced water content of phosphate cement systems is beneficial for the immobilization of the radioactive wastes from mitigating the potential to generate hydrogen gas by the radiolysis of water by radioactive wastes. The current study investigated the water content and mineralogy of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and phosphate-modified CAC (CAP) cured in open systems at 60, 90 and 120 C and in a closed system at 20 C as a reference case. Water contents in both the CAC and the CAP were seen to decrease as curing progressed. For 90 C, the CAP contained less water than CAC. Free water in CAC converted to structural water by heat treatment, but this was not the case for CAP. An orthophosphate hydrate salt, a precursor phase of hydroxyapatite, was found in CAP when cured at 20 and 60 C, and a mixture of the orthophosphate hydrate salt and hydroxyapatite, Ca(PO)(OH), were formed in the CAP when cured at 90 C. Phosphate products in CAP cured at 120 C appears to consist of a different phosphate phase compared with the CAP cured at 20, 60 and 90 C.
Shibata, Atsuhiro; Koma, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(12), p.1933 - 1942, 2016/12
Oka, Hiroshi; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Onuma, Masato*
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 9, p.346 - 352, 2016/12
Morita, Kenji; Morimoto, Makoto; Hisada, Masaki; Fukui, Yasutaka
JAEA-Technology 2015-038, 30 Pages, 2016/02
The Old Waste Treatment Facility for JOYO (Old JWTF) has been operated to treat radioactive liquid waste from the experimental fast reactor JOYO and post irradiation examination facilities. Operation of Old JWTF stopped in 1995, and dismantling & decontamination method has discussed. As a response to discussion results of remote and dismantling method in high dose environment on 2013, its concept examination was discussed on 2014. Results are follows. As a cutting tool for Old JWTF equipment, wire saw is selected from cutting ability (speed and thickness of objects). Discussed the component technology of wire saw remote operation system (handling, monitoring, collection method of secondary waste, else).
Awual, M. R.; Eldesoky, G. E.*; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Naushad, M.*; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Alothman, Z. A.*; Suzuki, Shinichi
Chemical Engineering Journal, 279, p.639 - 647, 2015/11
Kato, Jun; Meguro, Yoshihiro
E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance (Internet), 7(2), p.138 - 144, 2015/08
Concentration of Cs in radioactive wastes such as used cesium adsorption vessels and sludge generated from the cesium adsorption device, the 2nd cesium adsorption device, and the decontamination device, which have operated or been suspended as a part of the contaminated water treatment system in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations, was calculated by using analysis data of the contaminated water. The total decontamination amount of Cs from Jun 6, 2011 to Aug 12, 2014 was estimated.
Yokoseki, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Makino, Takahiro; Onoda, Shinobu; Tanaka, Yuki*; Kandori, Mikio*; Yoshie, Toru*; Hijikata, Yasuto*; Oshima, Takeshi
Materials Science Forum, 821-823, p.705 - 708, 2015/07
Washiya, Tadahiro; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Yamada, Seiya*; Kamiya, Masayoshi
Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2015/05
On March 11, 2011, a severe nuclear accident occurred at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (hereinafter called as F1). After the accident, the Council for the Decommissioning was established, mainly by the government and TEPCO, and a road map for the F1 decommissioning was drawn up. In the road map, the fuel debris removal from the reactors is scheduled to launch around 2020. In this study, the characteristics and technological issues of each potential treatment scenario were extracted, and the scenarios were prioritized in advance of formal evaluations in the future. The preliminary evaluation results show that long term storage and direct disposal have more positive aspects in terms of economic efficiency and radioactive waste generation. On the other hand, stabilizing processing, aqueous processing, and pyrochemical processing have been estimated to have more disadvantages in such aspects.
Suzuki, Satoshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Hatano, Toshihisa; Hirose, Takanori; Hayashi, Kimio; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Nishitani, Takeo; Tobita, Kenji; Akiba, Masato
Nuclear Fusion, 46(2), p.285 - 290, 2006/02
This paper presents significant progress in R&D of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER-TBM in JAERI. By the improvement of heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H, can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 C followed by normalizing at 930 C after the HIP process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armor and an F82H structural material was developed by using a uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. Also, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for ITER divertor, can be applicable for F82H first wall mock-up. As for R&D on a breeder material, LiTiO, the effect of compression loads on thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified. JAERI have extensively developed key technologies for ITER-TBM, and now steps up into an engineering R&D stage, where integrated performance of TBM structures will be demonstrated by scalable mock-ups.
Hanawa, Satoshi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Motohashi, Yoshinobu*
Key Engineering Materials, 297-300, p.40 - 46, 2005/11
no abstracts in English
Koppitz, T.*; Jung, P.*; Mller, G.*; Weisenburger, A.*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.92 - 100, 2005/08
Cavitation damage of structural materials due to pressure waves is expected to be one of the majior life-time limiting factors in high power liquid metal spallation targets under pulsed operation. Two methods are developed for the European Spallation Source (ESS) to mitigate this damage: Introduction of gas bubbles to surpress the pressure pulse and surface-hardening of structural materials. Surface-hardening of four 8-13%Cr martenstic steels was examined by thermal treatment with pulsed or scanned electron- and laser-beams as well as by nitriding in plasma. A specimens of the 12%Cr steel were tested in liquid mercury under pulsed proton irradiation, and under mechanical pulsed-loading. Surface damage was analysed by optical, confocal-laser, or scanning-electron microscopy, showing in both tests much better resistance of the hardened material compared to standard condition.
Wakai, Eiichi; Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Yamamoto, Toshio*; Tomita, Hideki*; Takada, Fumiki; Jitsukawa, Shiro
Materials Transactions, 46(3), p.481 - 486, 2005/03
no abstracts in English