Wakui, Takashi; Ishii, Hideaki*; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakai, Eiichi; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Materials Transactions, 60(6), p.1026 - 1033, 2019/06
The mercury target has large size as 18.104.22.168 m. In view of reducing the amount of wastes, we studied the structure so that the fore part could be separated. The flange is required to have high seal performance less than 110 Pa m/s. Invar with low thermal expansion is a candidate. Due to its low stiffness, however, the flange may deform when it is fastened by bolts. Practically invar is reinforced with stainless steel where all interface between them has to be bonded completely with the HIP bonding. In this study, we made specimens at four temperatures and conducted tensile tests. The specimen bonded at 973 K had little diffusion layer, and so fractured at the interface. The tensile strength reduced with increasing the temperature, and the reduced amount was about 10% at 1473 K. The analyzed residual stresses near the interface increased by 50% at maximum. Then, we concluded that the optimum temperature was 1173 K.
Kai, Tetsuya; Uchida, Toshitsugu; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Seki, Masakazu; Oi, Motoki; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi
Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1021(1), p.012042_1 - 012042_4, 2018/06
Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 13(Sp.1), p.2505013_1 - 2505013_8, 2018/03
The pulsed spallation neutron source of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) has been supplying users with high intensity and sharp pulse cold neutrons using the moderators with following distinctive features; (1) 100% para-hydrogen for increasing pulse peak intensity with decreasing pulse tail, (2) cylindrical shape with 14 cm diam.12 cm long for providing high intensity neutrons to wide neutron extraction angles of 50.8, (3) neutron absorber made from Ag-In-Cd alloy to make pulse width narrower and pulse tails lower. Actually, it was measured at a low power operation that high neutron intensity of 4.510 n/cm/s/sr could be emitted from the coupled moderator surface for 1-MW operation, and a superior resolution of d/d = 0.035% was achieved at a beamline (BL8) with a poisoned moderator, where d is the d-spacing of reflection. Towards the goal to achieve the target operation at 1-MW for 5000 h in a year, technical developments to mitigate cavitation damages on the target vessel with injecting gas micro-bubbles into mercury target and design improvement of target vessel structure to reducing welds and bolt connections as much as possible are under way.
Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Takada, Hiroshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(2), p.160 - 168, 2018/02
The mercury target vessel used for the spallation neutron source in J-PARC has multi-walled structure made of stainless steel type 316L, which comprises a mercury vessel and a water shroud. In 2015, water leak incidents from the water shroud occurred while the mercury target was operated with a proton beam power of 500 kW. Several investigations were conducted to identify the cause of failure. The results of the visual inspections, mockup tests, and analytical evaluations suggested that the water leak was caused by the combination of two factors. One was the diffusion bonding failure due to the large thermal stress induced by welding of the bolt head, which fixes the mercury vessel and the water shroud, during the fabrication process. The other was the thermal fatigue failure of the seal weld due to the repetitive beam trip during the operating period. These target failures point to the importance of eliminating initial defects from welding lines and to secure the rigidity and reliability of welded structures. The next mercury target was fabricated with an improved design which adopted parts of monolithic structure machined by wire EDM to reduce welding lines, and intensified inspections to eliminate the initial defects. The operation with the improved target is planned to be started in October 2017.
Iwamoto, Hiroki; Maekawa, Fujio; Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro
JAEA-Technology 2017-029, 39 Pages, 2018/01
Under an assumption that an incident of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) leak from an LBE circulation system occurred during a 250-kW beam operation, an estimation of radiation dose at the site boundary for the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) in Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) of J-PARC was conducted using various conservative assumptions. As a result, the radiation dose at the site boundary was estimated to be about 660 Sv, which were dominated by mercury, noble gas, and iodine produced as spallation products from the LBE. Even though the incident scenario was made conservatively, it was shown that the estimated total dose was lower than the annual radiation dose due to natural sources, and the TEF-T has sufficient safety margin for the leak of radioactivity.
Takada, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Aso, Tomokazu; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Oi, Motoki; Harada, Masahide; et al.
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.8_1 - 8_26, 2017/09
At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), a pulsed spallation neutron source provides neutrons with high intensity and narrow pulse width to promote researches on a variety of science in the Materials and life science experimental facility. It was designed to be driven by the proton beam with an energy of 3 GeV, a power of 1 MW at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, that is world's highest power level. A mercury target and three types of liquid para-hydrogen moderators are core components of the spallation neutron source. It is still on the way towards the goal to accomplish the operation with a 1 MW proton beam. In this paper, distinctive features of the target-moderator-reflector system of the pulsed spallation neutron source are reviewed.
Takada, Hiroshi; Naoe, Takashi; Kai, Tetsuya; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro
Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Applications of Accelerators (AccApp '15), p.297 - 304, 2016/00
In J-PARC, we have continuously been making efforts to operate a mercury target of a pulsed spallation neutron source with rated power of 1-MW. One of technical progresses is to mitigate cavitation damages at the target vessel front induced by the 3-GeV proton beam injection at 25 Hz. We have improved the performance of a gas micro-bubbles injection into the mercury target, resulting that no significant cavitation damages was observed on the inner surface of target vessel after operation for 2050 MWh with the 300-kW proton beam. Another progress is to suppress the release of gaseous radioactive isotopes, especially tritium, during the target vessel replacement. We have introduced a procedure to evacuate the target system by an off-gas processing apparatus when it is opened during the replacement operation, achieving to suppress the tritium release through the stack. For example, the amount of released tritium was 12.5 GBq, only 5.4% of the estimated amount, after the 2050 MWh operation. After these progresses, the operating beam power for the pulsed spallation neutron source was ramped up to 500-kW in April, 2015.
Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Oi, Toshiyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Ikeda, Yujiro
Zairyo, 54(11), p.1184 - 1190, 2005/11
High power spallation targets for neutron sources are being developed in the world. Mercury target will be installed at the material science and life facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target is subject to the pressure wave caused by the proton bombarding in the mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of the target. The electro Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine, MIMTM, was developed to reproduce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Additionally, droplet impact analysis was carried out to investigate the correlation between isolate pit profile and micro-jet velocity. We confirmed that value of depth/radius was able to estimate micro jet-velocity. And the velocity at 560W in MIMTM was estimated to be 225325 m/s. Furthermore, surface-hardening treatments were inhibited pit formation in plastic deformation.
Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Date, Hidefumi*; Ikeda, Yujiro
JSME International Journal, Series A, 48(4), p.234 - 239, 2005/10
Mercury target will be installed at the material science and life facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target will be subjected to the pressure wave caused by proton bombarding in the mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of target. An electromagnetic impact testing machine, MIMTM, was developed to reproduce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Additionally, droplet impact analyses were carried out to investigate the correlation between isolate pit profile and micro-jet velocity. We confirmed that the value of depth/radius was applicable to estimate micro-jet velocity, and the velocity at 560 W in MIMTM equivalent to 1MW proton beam injection was 300 m/s approximately.
Naoe, Takashi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro
Jikken Rikigaku, 5(3), p.280 - 285, 2005/09
no abstracts in English
Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Tsai, C.-C.*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Ikeda, Yujiro; Soyama, Hitoshi*; Date, Hidefumi*
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.70 - 80, 2005/08
no abstracts in English
Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Sato, Hiroshi; Harada, Masahide; Takatama, Shunichi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.178 - 183, 2005/08
A cross-flow type (CFT) mercury target with flow guide blades, which has been developed for JSNS, can suppress the generation of stagnant flow region especially near the beam window where the peak heat density is generated due to spallation reaction. Then, a flat type beam window has been applied to the CFT target from the viewpoint of suppressing dynamic stress caused by a pressure wave, which has been estimated with a mercury model of the linear equation of state. The recent experimental results obtained by using a proton beam incidents to mercury led that a cutoff pressure model in the equation of state of mercury caused a suitable dynamic stress with experimental results. Dynamic stress analyses were carried out with the cutoff pressure model, in which the negative pressure less than 0.15 MPa was not generated. The generated dynamic stress in the flat beam window became much larger than that in a semi-cylindrical type window. However, the generated stress in the semi-cylindrical type beam window was over the allowable stress of SS316L under the peak heat density of 668 W/cc. In order to decrease the dynamic stress in the semi-cylindrical beam window, the incident proton beam was defocused to decrease the peak heat density down to 218 W/cm. As a result, the dynamic stress could be suppressed less than the allowable stress. On the other hand, due to defocus of the proton beam, high heat density was generated on the end of the flow guide blades, which caused high thermal stress exceeding the allowable stress. To decrease the thermal stress, several shapes of the blade ends were studied analytically, which were selected so as not to affect the mercury flow distribution. A simple thin-end blade showed low thermal stress below the allowable stress.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.7 - 13, 2005/08
This paper reports the current status of The Materials and Life Experimental Facility construction under the high intensity proton accelerator projet(J-PARC), which has been conducted by JAERI and KEK collaboratively.Alng with designs and schedule of the neutron source, critical technical issues, e.g., mercury target material and moderator materials, which are still remained to be settled, and activities for development are shown.
Koppitz, T.*; Jung, P.*; Mller, G.*; Weisenburger, A.*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.92 - 100, 2005/08
Cavitation damage of structural materials due to pressure waves is expected to be one of the majior life-time limiting factors in high power liquid metal spallation targets under pulsed operation. Two methods are developed for the European Spallation Source (ESS) to mitigate this damage: Introduction of gas bubbles to surpress the pressure pulse and surface-hardening of structural materials. Surface-hardening of four 8-13%Cr martenstic steels was examined by thermal treatment with pulsed or scanned electron- and laser-beams as well as by nitriding in plasma. A specimens of the 12%Cr steel were tested in liquid mercury under pulsed proton irradiation, and under mechanical pulsed-loading. Surface damage was analysed by optical, confocal-laser, or scanning-electron microscopy, showing in both tests much better resistance of the hardened material compared to standard condition.
Ishikura, Shuichi*; Shiga, Akio*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro
JAERI-Tech 2005-026, 65 Pages, 2005/03
Failure probability analysis was carried out to estimate the lifetime of the mercury target which will be installed into the JSNS (Japan spallation neutron source) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The lifetime was estimated as taking loading condition and materials degradation into account. Considered loads imposed on the target vessel were the static stresses due to thermal expansion and static pre-pressure on He-gas and mercury and the dynamic stresses due to the thermally shocked pressure waves generated repeatedly at 25 Hz. Materials used in target vessel will be degraded by the fatigue, neutron and proton irradiation, mercury immersion and pitting damages, etc. The imposed stresses were evaluated through static and dynamic structural analyses. The material-degradations were deduced based on published experimental data. As results, it was quantitatively confirmed that the failure probability for the lifetime expected in the design is very much lower, 10 in the safety hull, meaning that it will be hardly failed during the design lifetime. On the other hand, the beam window of mercury vessel suffered with high-pressure waves exhibits the failure probability of 12%. It was concluded, therefore, that the leaked mercury from the failed area at the beam window is adequately kept in the space between the safety hull and the mercury vessel to detect mercury-leakage sensors.
Neutron News, 16(1), p.20 - 24, 2005/01
This article gives an overview of the 1-MW spallation neutron source (JSNS) to be constructed as the neutorn user facility under the J-PARC project. The most updated design status is described with emphasis of the key concepts adopted in target, moderator, reflector, shielding, etc. A critical technical issue on the pitting event inthe mercury target is also highlighted because of its serious impact on the target lifetime estimation.
Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(11), p.1059 - 1064, 2004/11
High power spallation targets for neutron sources are developing in the world. Mercury target will be installed at the material and life science facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target is subject to the pressure wave caused by the proton bombarding mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of the target. The electric Magnetic Impact Testing Machine, MIMTM, was developed to produce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Acoustic vibration measurement was carried out to investigate the correlation between damage and acoustic vibration. It was confirmed that the acoustic vibration is useful to predict the damage due to the localized impact erosion and to diagnose the structural integrity.
Soyama, Hitoshi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Tribology Letters, 17(1), p.27 - 30, 2004/07
Estimation have been made, resulting in a general method for the prediction of the incubation time for cavitation erosion using various cavitating conditions and materials. From a single erosion test, the incubation time can be estimated for various conditions and materials by plotting the mass loss as a function of exposure time to cavitation on a log-log scale.
Ishikura, Shuichi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Harada, Masahide; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro
JAERI-Tech 2004-028, 123 Pages, 2004/03
This report describes the structural design concept applied to the mercury target vessel used for the spallation neutron source installed in the material and life science experiment facility of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex), and the results evaluated on the basis of the concept. The features of the design concept are as follows: (1) The target vessel design is followed to "Law concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radio-Isotopes". That is because (i) there is not the possibility in the target of the RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) generally considered in the nuclear power reactors, and (ii) the target vessel is not a permanent structure. (2) Therefore, the Class 1 Vessel of the JIS B-8270 [design code for pressure vessel] that is equivalent to a standard for nuclear power structural design is applicable as a design code for the target to sufficiently keep the safety of target system. The stresses for the design were evaluated using the linear elastic analysis based on the infinitesimal strain theory in order to confirm the safe and rational design.
Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(3), p.376 - 384, 2004/03
A construction of the spallation neutron source is being promoted under the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Project. A mercury circulation system has been designed to supply mercury to the target stably. It was necessary to make clear a mercury pump performance, erosion rate under the mercury flowing condition and an amount of remaining mercury after draining from the viewpoints of evaluating lifetime of piping and establishing remote handling scenario of mercury components. The mercury pump performance, the erosion rates and the amount of remained mercury were investigated by using a mercury experimental loop with an experimental gear pump. The discharged flow rates of the experimental gear pump are sufficient and it is increased linearly with the rotation speed. Erosion rates were found to be so small that decrease of piping wall thickness would be estimated 660 m after 30-year operation under the rated velocity of 0.7 m/s. For the amount of remaining mercury, remaining rates of weight was estimated at 50.7 g/m.