Kawamura, Hideyuki; Hirose, Naoki*; Nakayama, Tomoharu*; Ito, Toshimichi
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-004, 34 Pages, 2021/05
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency measured the ocean current across the Tsugaru Strait using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler attached on a ferryboat from October 1999 to January 2008. The characteristics of the ocean current in the Tsugaru Strait must be understood for predicting oceanic dispersion of radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities around the strait. Furthermore, it is critical to elucidate the mechanism of the Tsugaru Warm Current from an oceanography viewpoint. The dataset obtained in this investigation consists of daily ocean current data files that record the components of the current speed in the east-west and north-south directions from the surface layer to the bottom layer. The dataset stores 2,211 daily ocean current data files, despite some data periods missing from October 1999 to January 2008. In this study, information on the dataset is described for users to analyze the dataset properly for their purposes. Section 1 provides the background and purpose of the ocean current measurement, Section 2 explains the methodology of measurement using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, and Section 3 explains the record format of the daily ocean current data files and data acquisition rate and presents analysis results. Finally, Section 4 concludes this study.
Kobayashi, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kamidaira, Yuki
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO, 62(11), p.635 - 639, 2020/11
It is important to predict the dispersion of radioactive materials released into the ocean due to nuclear accidents in the surrounding ocean of the east Asian countries. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency developed a Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) based on an oceanic dispersion model. STEAMER quickly predicts the oceanic dispersion of radioactive materials in the surrounding ocean of the east Asian countries using the online prediction data of oceanic condition. We validated the predictability of the oceanic dispersion and demonstrated the improvement of the predictability using an ensemble prediction method. Moreover, we developed a high resolution model in the coastal region using a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).
Miwa, Kazuji; Obata, Hajime*; Suzuki, Takashi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.537 - 545, 2020/05
This study investigated the vertical distribution of Iodine-129 (I) which is mainly produced by European nuclear reprocessing plants in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea. I was found to be distributed almost uniformly in fallout level, and an increasing in I concentration levels caused by high I water inflow from the Atlantic Ocean was not observed. Additionally, we revealed the vertical distribution of iodide, one chemical form of iodine, from the Bering Shelf area to the Chukchi Sea for the first time. The increasing tendency of iodide near sea bottom was observed.
Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kamidaira, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takuya
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.472 - 485, 2020/04
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency developed a Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of the Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) to predict the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides in the ocean around Japan. The purpose of this study is to validate the predictability of STEAMER using oceanographic forecast and reanalysis data, which were saved for past several years. Results of oceanic dispersion simulations that are driven by oceanographic reanalysis data are assumed to be true solutions. Oceanic dispersion simulations are conducted for Cs-137 released hypothetically from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The predictability of STEAMER is quantitatively examined for the length of the forecast period. Ensemble forecast simulations are also conducted to successfully improve the predictability of STEAMER.
Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji; Iimoto, Takeshi*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.372 - 375, 2019/10
The Ministry of the Environment has indicated the policy of recycling the contaminated soil generated by decontamination activity after the Fukushima accident. By recycling to coastal reclamation which is one of effective recycling application, dissolved radiocesium and absorbed radiocesium on soil particles will flow out to the ocean by construction, therefore evaluating radiocesium transition in ocean considering the both types of radiocesium is important for safety assessment. In this study, the radiocesium outflow during constructing and after constructing is modeled, and radiocesium transition in ocean is evaluated by Sediment model suggested in OECD/NEA. The adaptability of sediment model is confirmed by reproducing evaluation of the coastal area of Fukushima. We incorporate the sediment model to PASCLR2 code system to evaluate the doses from radiocesium in ocean.
Aoyama, Michio*; Yamazawa, Hiromi*; Nagai, Haruyasu
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO, 60(1), p.46 - 50, 2018/01
no abstracts in English
Kawamura, Hideyuki; Furuno, Akiko; Kobayashi, Takuya; In, Teiji*; Nakayama, Tomoharu*; Ishikawa, Yoichi*; Miyazawa, Yasumasa*; Usui, Norihisa*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 180, p.36 - 58, 2017/12
This study simulates the oceanic dispersion of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 by an oceanic dispersion model and multiple oceanic general circulation models. The models relatively well reproduced the observed Cs-137 concentrations in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans. Multiple simulations in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans consistently suggested that Cs-137 dispersed along the coast in the north-south direction during the first few months post-disaster, and were subsequently dispersed offshore by the Kuroshio Current and Kuroshio Extension. Quantification of the Cs-137 amounts suggested that Cs-137 actively dispersed from the coastal and offshore oceans to the open ocean, and from the surface layer to the deeper layers in the North Pacific.
Kobayashi, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Fujii, Katsuji*; Kamidaira, Yuki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(5), p.609 - 616, 2017/05
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has, for many years, been developing a radionuclide dispersion model for the ocean, and has validated the model through application in many sea areas using oceanic flow fields calculated by the ocean model. The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident caused marine pollution by artificial radioactive materials to the North Pacific, especially to coastal waters northeast of mainland Japan. In order to investigate the migration of radionuclides in the ocean caused by this severe accident, studies using marine dispersion simulations have been carried out by JAEA. Based on these as well as the previous studies, JAEA has developed the Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) to immediately predict the radionuclide concentration around Japan in case of a nuclear accident.
Kobayashi, Takuya; In, Teiji*; Ishikawa, Yoichi*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(6), p.769 - 772, 2015/06
Ocean diffusion concentration maps were developed to gain an understanding of the migration behavior of contaminated water leaking from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We used ensemble mean values to define the semi-climatological seasonal field in our calculations of the trajectories of the contaminated water. The maps were validated by conducting actual release events in two different seasons. The results showed that despite their simplicity, the proposed methods yield relatively good results.
Kato, Aitaro*; Saiga, Atsushi; Takeda, Tetsuya*; Iwasaki, Takaya*; Matsuzawa, Toru*
Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 66, p.86_1 - 86_8, 2014/08
To understand the mechanism of an intensive non-volcanic seismic swarm in the Kii Peninsula, Japan, we used a dense seismic linear array to measure fine-scale variations of seismic velocities and converted teleseismic waves. A low-velocity anomaly confined to just beneath the seismic swarm area is clearly imaged, which spatially correlates with an uplifted surface area, and a highly conductive and strong attenuative body. These results suggest that fluids such as partial melt or water are present beneath this non-volcanic seismic swarm area. It is notable that the island arc Moho below the seismic swarm area is at depths of ca. 32 km in the northern part of the seismic swarm area, and shallows to ca. 20 km towards the south, due to an upwardly raised structure of serpentinized mantle wedge. In addition, we show that hydrated oceanic crust of the subducting Philippine Sea slab is characterized by low-velocities with a high Poisson's ratio at depths shallower than 40 km. Water released from the subducting oceanic crust could cause serpentinization of the mantle wedge and infiltration into the forearc base of the overlying plate. The interaction between dehydration of the subducting oceanic crust and hydration of the mantle wedge and overlying plate exerts an important role in driving the non-volcanic seismic swarm activity in the Kii Peninsula.
Kobayashi, Takuya; Chino, Masamichi; Togawa, Orihiko
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 43(5), p.569 - 575, 2006/05
A dissolved radionuclide migration code system that consists of a ocean circulation model, Princeton Ocean Model, and a particle random-walk model, SEA-GEARN, has been developed. The oceanic migration of Cs discharged from a nuclear submarine in a hypothetical accident at the Tsushima Strait was calculated in the southwestern area of the Japan Sea as a model application. The calculations for instantaneous releases every 10 days were carried out for one year to study the seasonal differences of migration process of the dissolved radionuclides. The migration tendencies of dissolved radionuclides were divided into two patterns. For the releases started from January to September, all of the high concentration areas migrated to the northeast along the coastline of the Main Island of Japan from the release point. As for the releases from October to December, some high concentrations areas migrated to the west from the release point and the concentrations of Cs along the coastline of the Main Island of Japan were comparatively low.
Povinec, P. P.*; Aramaki, Takafumi*; Burr, G. S.*; Jull, A. J. T.*; Liong Wee Kwong, L.*; Togawa, Orihiko
Radiocarbon, 46(2), p.583 - 594, 2004/09
no abstracts in English
Seko, Noriaki; Katakai, Akio; Hasegawa, Shin; Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Takeda, Hayato*; Sugo, Takanobu; Saito, Kyoichi*
Nuclear Technology, 144(2), p.274 - 278, 2003/11
The total amount of uranium dissolved in seawater at a uniform concentration of 3 mg-U/m in the world's oceans is 4.5 billion tons. An adsorption method using polymeric adsorbents capable of specifically recovering uranium from seawater is reported to be economically feasible. A uranium-specific non-woven fabric was used as the adsorbent packed in an adsorption cage. We submerged adsorption cages, 16 m in cross-sectional area and 16 cm in height, in the Pacific Ocean at a depth of 20 m at 7 km offshore of Japan. The cage consisted of stacks of 52,000 sheets of the uranium-specific non-woven fabric with a total mass of 350 kg. The total amount of uranium recovered by the non-woven fabric was more than one kg in terms of yellow cake during a total submersion time of 240 days in the ocean.
Povinec, P. P.*; Livingston, H. D.*; Shima, Shigeki*; Aoyama, Michio*; Gastaud, J.*; Goroncy, I.*; Hirose, Katsumi*; Huynh-Ngoc, L.*; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro*; Ito, Toshimichi; et al.
Deep Sea Research Part 2: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 50(17-21), p.2607 - 2637, 2003/09
An international sampling cruise, IAEA'97, was carried out in 1997 in the NW Pacif1c Ocean. The main results of this study are following: (1) The levels of oceanographic parameter showed differences from the historical data, (2) Transuranics water profiles showed typical sub-surface concentration maxima with decrease in concentration by about a factor of 4 from the historical results, deepening their positions by about a factor of 2 and declining the water column inventory by about 20% over 24 years, (3) Sr-90 and Cs-137 data confirmed that the observed changes in concentration profiles have been resulting from the regional water masses circulation, and (4) The concentrations of these radionuclides in surface water after 40 years of their main introduction to the NW Pacific are still showing a latitudinal dependence. The results present the most comprehensive recent study on the distribution of radionuclides in the NW Pacific Ocean with the implications for behaviour of these radionuclides in the water column and physical forcing of water mass circulation over the last 24 years.
Kobayashi, Takuya; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Togawa, Orihiko
Proceedings of International Symposium on Radioecology and Environmental Dosimetry, p.500 - 504, 2003/00
The possibility of radionuclide release to the environment is on the increase due to a growth of nuclear facilities in Asia, military problems, nuclear terrorism, etc. The released radionuclides circulate among the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environment, influencing human and natural environment through complex processes. In order to reduce the damage from these pollutants, it is necessary to estimate their migration behavior in detail. A software system SPEEDI-MP (SPEEDI Multi-model Package) is under development to resolve such environmental problems by simulating the 'inclusive and successive' behavior of pollutants in the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environment. As code verification, the system has been applied to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine if it sinks in an offshore region around Japan. The predicted results are examined, and the applicability and validity of the system are discussed.
Kobayashi, Takuya; Togawa, Orihiko
Proceedings from the International Conference on Radioactivity in the Environment (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2002/09
A marine environmental assessment system STEAMER is developing for predicting the short-term (30days) dispersion and assessing the collective dose to the Japanese population due to radionuclides released to the ocean. The computer code system for short-term predictions of radionuclide dispersion is a combination of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) for predicting ocean currents and a particle random walk model SEA-GEARN for oceanic dispersion of dissolved radionuclides. The system has been applied to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine if it sinks in an offshore region around Japan, by using measured currents, temperature, salinity and meteorological regional objective analysis data (RANAL). Another computer code system DSOCEAN is also applied to the same hypothetical accident in order to compare the results of radionuclide dispersion in the ocean and the collective dose to the Japanese population. An equidistant-grid compartment model combined with a model of the geostrophic current analysis is used in DSOCEAN.
Kobayashi, Takuya; Lee, S.; Chino, Masamichi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 39(2), p.171 - 179, 2002/02
A three-dimensional model system was developed to predict oceanic dispersions of radionuclides released into the eastern area of Shimokita Peninsula. This system is a combination of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) for predicting ocean currents and a particle random walk model for oceanic dispersion of radionuclides. The model was verified by using measured currents, temperature and salinity at the coastal area of Shimokita, Aomori-ken, Japan, where a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is under construction. The results obtained from simulations area as follows; (1) Wind and the Tsugaru Warm Current entering into the objective region through the Tsugaru Strait significantly affect the structure of current over the region. (2) POM can represent seasonal variations of the Tsugaru Warm Current well with hypothetical oceanographic data. The calculation succeeded to reproduce the coastal mode from winter to spring and the gyre mode from summer to autumn.
Aramaki, Takafumi; Watanabe, Shuichi*; Kuji, Tomoyuki*; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki*
Geophysical Research Letters, 28(20), p.3971 - 3974, 2001/10
Vertical profiles for radiocarbon were described around the Bussol' Strait for the first time. The uniformity of radiocarbon concentration at 0-400 m depth in the Bussol' Strait was observed, and expected that diapycnal mixing occurs by tide between the sub-surface water around the Bussol' Strait and the surface water in the Bussol' Strait. The Okhotsk-Pacific cross-sections through the Bussol' Strait of radiocarbon concentration and density suggested the intermediate water in the Sea of Okhotsk has the role of the Okhotsk-Pacific water exchange, and the deep water between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific Ocean is mixed well rapidly through the Bussol' Strait. Using estimation of bomb produced C-14 inventories in each water column, it was suggested the quantities of the Okhotsk-Pacific water exchange may be essentially small.
Kobayashi, Takuya; Togawa, Orihiko; Odano, Naoteru; Ishida, Toshihisa
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 38(8), p.658 - 663, 2001/08
The collective dose to the Japanese population has been estimated from a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine if it sinks in an offshore region around Japan. A computer code system DSOCEAN has been used for assessing the collective dose due to radionuclides released to the ocean from a sunken nuclear submarine. The maximum of the estimated collective effective dose equivalent by the annual intake of marine products after radionuclide releases for one year is approximately 0.5% of the annual average dose by the natural radiation that is reported by UNSCEAR.
Ura, Tamaki*; Takamasa, Tomoji*; Nishimura, Hajime*; Aoki, Taro*; Ueno, Michio*; Maeda, Toshio*; Nakamura, Masato*; Shimazu, Shunsuke*; Tokunaga, Sango*; Shibata, Yozo*; et al.
JAERI-Tech 2001-049, 154 Pages, 2001/07
JAERI has studied on design and operation of a nuclear powered submersible research vessel, which will navigate under sea in the Arctic Ocean, as a part of the design study of advanced marine reactors. This report describes operation conditions and an operating system of the vessel those were discussed by the specialists of hull design, sound positioning, ship motions and oceanography, etc. The design conditions on ship motions for submersible vessels were surveyed considering regulations in our country, and ship motions were evaluated assuming the observation activities in the Arctic Ocean. A submarine transponder system and an on ice communication buoy system were examined as a positioning and communication system supposing the activity under ice. Procedures to secure safety of nuclear powered submersible research vessel were discussed based on the investigation of accidents. These results were reflected to the concept of the nuclear powered submersible research vessel, and subjects fto be settled in the next step were clarified.