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Journal Articles

Developing accelerator mass spectrometry capabilities for anthropogenic radionuclide analysis to extend the set of oceanographic tracers

Hain, K.*; Martschini, M.*; G$"u$lce, F.*; Honda, Maki; Lachner, J.*; Kern, M.*; Pitters, J.*; Quinto, F.*; Sakaguchi, Aya*; Steier, P.*; et al.

Frontiers in Marine Science (Internet), 9, p.837515_1 - 837515_17, 2022/03

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:98.89(Environmental Sciences)

Recent major advances in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) regarding detection efficiency and isobar suppression have opened possibilities for the analysis of additional long-lived radionuclides at ultra-low environmental concentrations. These radionuclides, including $$^{233}$$U, $$^{135}$$Cs, $$^{99}$$Tc and $$^{90}$$Sr, will become important for oceanographic tracer application due to their generally conservative behavior in ocean water. In particular, the isotope ratios $$^{233}$$U/$$^{236}$$U and $$^{137}$$Cs/$$^{135}$$Cs have proven to be powerful fingerprints for emission source identification as they are not affected by elemental fractionation. Improved detection efficiencies allowed us to analyze all major long-lived actinides, i.e. $$^{236}$$U, $$^{237}$$Np, $$^{239, 240}$$Pu, $$^{241}$$Am as well as the very rare $$^{233}$$U, in the same 10 L water samples of an exemplary depth profile from the northwest Pacific Ocean. Especially for $$^{90}$$Sr analysis, our new approach has already been validated for selected reference materials (e.g. IAEA-A-12) and is ready for application in oceanographic studies. We estimate that a sample volume of only (1-3) L ocean water is sufficient for $$^{90}$$Sr as well as $$^{135}$$Cs analysis, respectively.

JAEA Reports

Ocean current data obtained by Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler across the Tsugaru Strait (Joint research)

Kawamura, Hideyuki; Hirose, Naoki*; Nakayama, Tomoharu*; Ito, Toshimichi

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-004, 34 Pages, 2021/05


The Japan Atomic Energy Agency measured the ocean current across the Tsugaru Strait using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler attached on a ferryboat from October 1999 to January 2008. The characteristics of the ocean current in the Tsugaru Strait must be understood for predicting oceanic dispersion of radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities around the strait. Furthermore, it is critical to elucidate the mechanism of the Tsugaru Warm Current from an oceanography viewpoint. The dataset obtained in this investigation consists of daily ocean current data files that record the components of the current speed in the east-west and north-south directions from the surface layer to the bottom layer. The dataset stores 2,211 daily ocean current data files, despite some data periods missing from October 1999 to January 2008. In this study, information on the dataset is described for users to analyze the dataset properly for their purposes. Section 1 provides the background and purpose of the ocean current measurement, Section 2 explains the methodology of measurement using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, and Section 3 explains the record format of the daily ocean current data files and data acquisition rate and presents analysis results. Finally, Section 4 concludes this study.

Journal Articles

Development of Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of Marine Environmental Radioactivity

Kobayashi, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kamidaira, Yuki

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 62(11), p.635 - 639, 2020/11

It is important to predict the dispersion of radioactive materials released into the ocean due to nuclear accidents in the surrounding ocean of the east Asian countries. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency developed a Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) based on an oceanic dispersion model. STEAMER quickly predicts the oceanic dispersion of radioactive materials in the surrounding ocean of the east Asian countries using the online prediction data of oceanic condition. We validated the predictability of the oceanic dispersion and demonstrated the improvement of the predictability using an ensemble prediction method. Moreover, we developed a high resolution model in the coastal region using a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

Journal Articles

Vertical distributions of Iodine-129 and iodide in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea

Miwa, Kazuji; Obata, Hajime*; Suzuki, Takashi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.537 - 545, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:14.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This study investigated the vertical distribution of Iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) which is mainly produced by European nuclear reprocessing plants in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea. $$^{129}$$I was found to be distributed almost uniformly in fallout level, and an increasing in $$^{129}$$I concentration levels caused by high $$^{129}$$I water inflow from the Atlantic Ocean was not observed. Additionally, we revealed the vertical distribution of iodide, one chemical form of iodine, from the Bering Shelf area to the Chukchi Sea for the first time. The increasing tendency of iodide near sea bottom was observed.

Journal Articles

Predictability of a short-term emergency assessment system of the marine environmental radioactivity

Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kamidaira, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takuya

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.472 - 485, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:27.54(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency developed a Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of the Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) to predict the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides in the ocean around Japan. The purpose of this study is to validate the predictability of STEAMER using oceanographic forecast and reanalysis data, which were saved for past several years. Results of oceanic dispersion simulations that are driven by oceanographic reanalysis data are assumed to be true solutions. Oceanic dispersion simulations are conducted for Cs-137 released hypothetically from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The predictability of STEAMER is quantitatively examined for the length of the forecast period. Ensemble forecast simulations are also conducted to successfully improve the predictability of STEAMER.

Journal Articles

Development of dose estimation system integrating sediment model for recycling radiocesium-contaminated soil to coastal reclamation

Miwa, Kazuji; Takeda, Seiji; Iimoto, Takeshi*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.372 - 375, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

The Ministry of the Environment has indicated the policy of recycling the contaminated soil generated by decontamination activity after the Fukushima accident. By recycling to coastal reclamation which is one of effective recycling application, dissolved radiocesium and absorbed radiocesium on soil particles will flow out to the ocean by construction, therefore evaluating radiocesium transition in ocean considering the both types of radiocesium is important for safety assessment. In this study, the radiocesium outflow during constructing and after constructing is modeled, and radiocesium transition in ocean is evaluated by Sediment model suggested in OECD/NEA. The adaptability of sediment model is confirmed by reproducing evaluation of the coastal area of Fukushima. We incorporate the sediment model to PASCLR2 code system to evaluate the doses from radiocesium in ocean.

Journal Articles

Current state of atmospheric and oceanic environmental researches on the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident; What is known about/from the accident

Aoyama, Michio*; Yamazawa, Hiromi*; Nagai, Haruyasu

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 60(1), p.46 - 50, 2018/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Oceanic dispersion of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 simulated by multiple oceanic general circulation models

Kawamura, Hideyuki; Furuno, Akiko; Kobayashi, Takuya; In, Teiji*; Nakayama, Tomoharu*; Ishikawa, Yoichi*; Miyazawa, Yasumasa*; Usui, Norihisa*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 180, p.36 - 58, 2017/12

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:40.96(Environmental Sciences)

This study simulates the oceanic dispersion of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 by an oceanic dispersion model and multiple oceanic general circulation models. The models relatively well reproduced the observed Cs-137 concentrations in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans. Multiple simulations in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans consistently suggested that Cs-137 dispersed along the coast in the north-south direction during the first few months post-disaster, and were subsequently dispersed offshore by the Kuroshio Current and Kuroshio Extension. Quantification of the Cs-137 amounts suggested that Cs-137 actively dispersed from the coastal and offshore oceans to the open ocean, and from the surface layer to the deeper layers in the North Pacific.

Journal Articles

Development of a short-term emergency assessment system of the marine environmental radioactivity around Japan

Kobayashi, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Fujii, Katsuji*; Kamidaira, Yuki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(5), p.609 - 616, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:74.53(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has, for many years, been developing a radionuclide dispersion model for the ocean, and has validated the model through application in many sea areas using oceanic flow fields calculated by the ocean model. The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident caused marine pollution by artificial radioactive materials to the North Pacific, especially to coastal waters northeast of mainland Japan. In order to investigate the migration of radionuclides in the ocean caused by this severe accident, studies using marine dispersion simulations have been carried out by JAEA. Based on these as well as the previous studies, JAEA has developed the Short-Term Emergency Assessment system of Marine Environmental Radioactivity (STEAMER) to immediately predict the radionuclide concentration around Japan in case of a nuclear accident.

Journal Articles

Development of ocean dispersion concentration maps of the contaminated water released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

Kobayashi, Takuya; In, Teiji*; Ishikawa, Yoichi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(6), p.769 - 772, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:10.43(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Ocean diffusion concentration maps were developed to gain an understanding of the migration behavior of contaminated water leaking from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We used ensemble mean values to define the semi-climatological seasonal field in our calculations of the trajectories of the contaminated water. The maps were validated by conducting actual release events in two different seasons. The results showed that despite their simplicity, the proposed methods yield relatively good results.

Journal Articles

Non-volcanic seismic swarm and fluid transportation driven by subduction of the Philippine Sea slab beneath the Kii Peninsula, Japan

Kato, Aitaro*; Saiga, Atsushi; Takeda, Tetsuya*; Iwasaki, Takaya*; Matsuzawa, Toru*

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 66, p.86_1 - 86_8, 2014/08

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:52.28(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

To understand the mechanism of an intensive non-volcanic seismic swarm in the Kii Peninsula, Japan, we used a dense seismic linear array to measure fine-scale variations of seismic velocities and converted teleseismic waves. A low-velocity anomaly confined to just beneath the seismic swarm area is clearly imaged, which spatially correlates with an uplifted surface area, and a highly conductive and strong attenuative body. These results suggest that fluids such as partial melt or water are present beneath this non-volcanic seismic swarm area. It is notable that the island arc Moho below the seismic swarm area is at depths of ca. 32 km in the northern part of the seismic swarm area, and shallows to ca. 20 km towards the south, due to an upwardly raised structure of serpentinized mantle wedge. In addition, we show that hydrated oceanic crust of the subducting Philippine Sea slab is characterized by low-velocities with a high Poisson's ratio at depths shallower than 40 km. Water released from the subducting oceanic crust could cause serpentinization of the mantle wedge and infiltration into the forearc base of the overlying plate. The interaction between dehydration of the subducting oceanic crust and hydration of the mantle wedge and overlying plate exerts an important role in driving the non-volcanic seismic swarm activity in the Kii Peninsula.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulations of short-term migration processes of dissolved Cesium-137 due to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine in the Japan Sea

Kobayashi, Takuya; Chino, Masamichi; Togawa, Orihiko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 43(5), p.569 - 575, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:24.8(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A dissolved radionuclide migration code system that consists of a ocean circulation model, Princeton Ocean Model, and a particle random-walk model, SEA-GEARN, has been developed. The oceanic migration of $$^{137}$$Cs discharged from a nuclear submarine in a hypothetical accident at the Tsushima Strait was calculated in the southwestern area of the Japan Sea as a model application. The calculations for instantaneous releases every 10 days were carried out for one year to study the seasonal differences of migration process of the dissolved radionuclides. The migration tendencies of dissolved radionuclides were divided into two patterns. For the releases started from January to September, all of the high concentration areas migrated to the northeast along the coastline of the Main Island of Japan from the release point. As for the releases from October to December, some high concentrations areas migrated to the west from the release point and the concentrations of $$^{137}$$Cs along the coastline of the Main Island of Japan were comparatively low.

Journal Articles

Radiocarbon in the water column of the Southwestern North Pacific Ocean; 24 years after GEOSECS

Povinec, P. P.*; Aramaki, Takafumi*; Burr, G. S.*; Jull, A. J. T.*; Liong Wee Kwong, L.*; Togawa, Orihiko

Radiocarbon, 46(2), p.583 - 594, 2004/09

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:33.28(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Aquaculture of uranium in seawater by a fabric-adsorbent submerged system

Seko, Noriaki; Katakai, Akio; Hasegawa, Shin; Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Takeda, Hayato*; Sugo, Takanobu; Saito, Kyoichi*

Nuclear Technology, 144(2), p.274 - 278, 2003/11

 Times Cited Count:117 Percentile:98.64(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The total amount of uranium dissolved in seawater at a uniform concentration of 3 mg-U/m$$^{3}$$ in the world's oceans is 4.5 billion tons. An adsorption method using polymeric adsorbents capable of specifically recovering uranium from seawater is reported to be economically feasible. A uranium-specific non-woven fabric was used as the adsorbent packed in an adsorption cage. We submerged adsorption cages, 16 m$$^{2}$$ in cross-sectional area and 16 cm in height, in the Pacific Ocean at a depth of 20 m at 7 km offshore of Japan. The cage consisted of stacks of 52,000 sheets of the uranium-specific non-woven fabric with a total mass of 350 kg. The total amount of uranium recovered by the non-woven fabric was more than one kg in terms of yellow cake during a total submersion time of 240 days in the ocean.

Journal Articles

IAEA'97 expedition to the NW Pacific Ocean; Results of oceanographic and radionuclide investigations of the water column

Povinec, P. P.*; Livingston, H. D.*; Shima, Shigeki*; Aoyama, Michio*; Gastaud, J.*; Goroncy, I.*; Hirose, Katsumi*; Huynh-Ngoc, L.*; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro*; Ito, Toshimichi; et al.

Deep Sea Research Part 2: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 50(17-21), p.2607 - 2637, 2003/09

 Times Cited Count:96 Percentile:89.4(Oceanography)

An international sampling cruise, IAEA'97, was carried out in 1997 in the NW Pacif1c Ocean. The main results of this study are following: (1) The levels of oceanographic parameter showed differences from the historical data, (2) Transuranics water profiles showed typical sub-surface concentration maxima with decrease in concentration by about a factor of 4 from the historical results, deepening their positions by about a factor of 2 and declining the water column inventory by about 20% over 24 years, (3) Sr-90 and Cs-137 data confirmed that the observed changes in concentration profiles have been resulting from the regional water masses circulation, and (4) The concentrations of these radionuclides in surface water after 40 years of their main introduction to the NW Pacific are still showing a latitudinal dependence. The results present the most comprehensive recent study on the distribution of radionuclides in the NW Pacific Ocean with the implications for behaviour of these radionuclides in the water column and physical forcing of water mass circulation over the last 24 years.

Journal Articles

Development of SPEEDI-MP and its application to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine in the Japan Sea

Kobayashi, Takuya; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Togawa, Orihiko

Proceedings of International Symposium on Radioecology and Environmental Dosimetry, p.500 - 504, 2003/00

The possibility of radionuclide release to the environment is on the increase due to a growth of nuclear facilities in Asia, military problems, nuclear terrorism, etc. The released radionuclides circulate among the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environment, influencing human and natural environment through complex processes. In order to reduce the damage from these pollutants, it is necessary to estimate their migration behavior in detail. A software system SPEEDI-MP (SPEEDI Multi-model Package) is under development to resolve such environmental problems by simulating the 'inclusive and successive' behavior of pollutants in the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environment. As code verification, the system has been applied to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine if it sinks in an offshore region around Japan. The predicted results are examined, and the applicability and validity of the system are discussed.

Journal Articles

Marine environmental assessment system of radionuclides around Japan

Kobayashi, Takuya; Togawa, Orihiko

Proceedings from the International Conference on Radioactivity in the Environment (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2002/09

A marine environmental assessment system STEAMER is developing for predicting the short-term (30days) dispersion and assessing the collective dose to the Japanese population due to radionuclides released to the ocean. The computer code system for short-term predictions of radionuclide dispersion is a combination of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) for predicting ocean currents and a particle random walk model SEA-GEARN for oceanic dispersion of dissolved radionuclides. The system has been applied to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine if it sinks in an offshore region around Japan, by using measured currents, temperature, salinity and meteorological regional objective analysis data (RANAL). Another computer code system DSOCEAN is also applied to the same hypothetical accident in order to compare the results of radionuclide dispersion in the ocean and the collective dose to the Japanese population. An equidistant-grid compartment model combined with a model of the geostrophic current analysis is used in DSOCEAN.

Journal Articles

Development of ocean pollution prediction system for Shimokita region; Model development and verification

Kobayashi, Takuya; Lee, S.; Chino, Masamichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 39(2), p.171 - 179, 2002/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:23.88(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A three-dimensional model system was developed to predict oceanic dispersions of radionuclides released into the eastern area of Shimokita Peninsula. This system is a combination of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) for predicting ocean currents and a particle random walk model for oceanic dispersion of radionuclides. The model was verified by using measured currents, temperature and salinity at the coastal area of Shimokita, Aomori-ken, Japan, where a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is under construction. The results obtained from simulations area as follows; (1) Wind and the Tsugaru Warm Current entering into the objective region through the Tsugaru Strait significantly affect the structure of current over the region. (2) POM can represent seasonal variations of the Tsugaru Warm Current well with hypothetical oceanographic data. The calculation succeeded to reproduce the coastal mode from winter to spring and the gyre mode from summer to autumn.

Journal Articles

The Okhotsk-Pacific seawater exchange in the viewpoint of vertical profiles of radiocarbon around the Bussol' Strait

Aramaki, Takafumi; Watanabe, Shuichi*; Kuji, Tomoyuki*; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki*

Geophysical Research Letters, 28(20), p.3971 - 3974, 2001/10

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:38.13(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

Vertical profiles for radiocarbon were described around the Bussol' Strait for the first time. The uniformity of radiocarbon concentration at 0-400 m depth in the Bussol' Strait was observed, and expected that diapycnal mixing occurs by tide between the sub-surface water around the Bussol' Strait and the surface water in the Bussol' Strait. The Okhotsk-Pacific cross-sections through the Bussol' Strait of radiocarbon concentration and density suggested the intermediate water in the Sea of Okhotsk has the role of the Okhotsk-Pacific water exchange, and the deep water between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific Ocean is mixed well rapidly through the Bussol' Strait. Using estimation of bomb produced C-14 inventories in each water column, it was suggested the quantities of the Okhotsk-Pacific water exchange may be essentially small.

Journal Articles

Estimates of collective doses from a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine

Kobayashi, Takuya; Togawa, Orihiko; Odano, Naoteru; Ishida, Toshihisa

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 38(8), p.658 - 663, 2001/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:20.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The collective dose to the Japanese population has been estimated from a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine if it sinks in an offshore region around Japan. A computer code system DSOCEAN has been used for assessing the collective dose due to radionuclides released to the ocean from a sunken nuclear submarine. The maximum of the estimated collective effective dose equivalent by the annual intake of marine products after radionuclide releases for one year is approximately 0.5% of the annual average dose by the natural radiation that is reported by UNSCEAR.

28 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)