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Journal Articles

Recent status of the pulsed spallation neutron source at J-PARC

Takada, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.081003_1 - 081003_7, 2020/02

At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), the pulsed spallation neutron source has been in operation with a redesigned mercury target vessel from October 2017 to July 2018, during which the operational beam power was restored to 500 kW and the operation with a 1-MW equivalent beam was demonstrated for one hour. The target vessel includes a gas-micro-bubbles injector and a 2-mm-wide narrow mercury flow channel at the front end as measures to suppress the cavitation damage. After the operating period, it was observed that the cavitation damage at the 3-mm-thick front end of the target vessel could be suppressed less than 17.5 $$mu$$m.

Journal Articles

Seawater effects on the soundness of spent fuel cladding tube

Motooka, Takafumi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

Proceedings of 2016 EFCOG Nuclear & Facility Safety Workshop (Internet), 6 Pages, 2016/09

At the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, seawater was injected into spent fuel pools of Unit 2-4 for the emergency cooling. Seawater might cause localized corrosion of spent fuel cladding. This would lead to leakage of not only fissile materials but also fission products from fuel cladding. The behavior, however, is not understood well. In this paper, the effects of seawater on corrosion behavior and mechanical property of were studied by using a spent fuel cladding from a BWR. We immersed the spent cladding tubes in diluted artificial seawater for 300h at 353 K, and conducted their visual, cross-sectional and strength examinations. As a localized corrosion index, the pitting potentials of specimens fabricated from the cladding were measured as functions of chloride ion concentration ranging from 20 to 2500 ppm. The visual examination showed that localized corrosion has not occurred, and cross-sectional examination showed no cracks. The strength of immersed tubes was comparable to that of non-immersed tubes. Additionally, pitting potential could not be measured over 1.0 V; pitting corrosion was hardly occurred. These results suggested that the specimens from the spent fuel cladding tube was very resistant to localized corrosion.

Journal Articles

Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on spontaneous potential of stainless steel in zeolite-containing diluted artificial seawater

Kato, Chiaki; Sato, Tomonori; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Yamagishi, Isao

Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, Vol.2, p.1357 - 1374, 2016/05

With respect to the long-term storage of the zeolite-containing spent Cs adsorption vessels used at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the corrosion of the vessel material is one of the most important issues. In this study, we performed electrochemical tests on stainless steel specimens in zeolite-containing artificial seawater under gamma-ray irradiation. The spontaneous potential ESP and critical pitting potential VC of the type 316L steel in systems in contact with various zeolites were measured in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the steel. In addition, the water sample was analyzed after being irradiated, in order to determine the concentrations of various dissolved oxidants such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, which can accelerate the corrosion process. The steady-state rest potential increased with an increase in the dose rate; however, the increase was suppressed in contact with the zeolites. The VC value of the steel when in contact with the zeolites was slightly smaller than the VC value in bulk water; however, the choice of the zeolite used as herschelite, IE96 and IE911 hardly affect the VC value. The concentration of H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ in the bulk water under irradiation also increased with the increase in the dose rate. This increase was suppressed in the systems in contact with the zeolites, owing to the decomposition of the H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ by the zeolites. A clear relationship was observed between ESP and the H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ concentration. As contact with the zeolites caused the increase in ESP under irradiation to be suppressed, it can be concluded that the presence of zeolites in the spent Cs adsorption vessels can reduce the probability of the localized corrosion of the stainless steel in the vessels.

Journal Articles

Effect of oxide film formed during $$gamma$$-ray irradiation on pitting corrosion of fuel cladding in water containing sea salt

Motooka, Takafumi; Tsukada, Takashi

Proceedings of 2014 Nuclear Plant Chemistry Conference (NPC 2014) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2014/10

In Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), seawater was injected into spent fuel pools in March 2011. Zircaloy-2 is adopted for the fuel cladding at 1F. Zirconium alloys including Zircaloy-2 are susceptible to pitting corrosion in oxidizing chloride solutions. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxide film formed during $$gamma$$-ray irradiation on pitting corrosion of fuel cladding in water containing sea salt. The pitting potentials of Zircaloy-2 were measured using the water containing artificial sea salt. Changes in the composition of water containing sea salt were analyzed before and after $$gamma$$-ray irradiation. The characteristics of the oxide films formed on Zircaloy-2 were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Solution analyses for water containing sea salt showed that hydrogen peroxide was generated by the irradiation. The pitting potential of Ziracloy-2 with oxide film formed under $$gamma$$-ray irradiation was higher than that with oxide film formed without irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the oxide film was composed of zirconium oxide and the growth of oxide film was enhanced during the irradiation. It could thus be explained that the enhanced growth of oxide film under $$gamma$$-ray irradiation caused the higher pitting potential.

Journal Articles

Corrosion of the stainless steel in the zeolite containing diluted artificial seawater under $$gamma$$-ray irradiation

Kato, Chiaki; Sato, Tomonori; Nakano, Junichi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Yamagishi, Isao

Proceedings of 2014 Nuclear Plant Chemistry Conference (NPC 2014) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2014/10

As a part of consideration for long-term storage of spent zeolite adsorption vessels in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, corrosion of vessel material in the spent zeolite adsorption vessel is one of important issue. We performed electrochemical tests of stainless steel (type 316L) in the zeolite containing artificial seawater under $$gamma$$-ray irradiation. Steady spontaneous potential (Esp) and pitting potential (VC), of type 316L was measurement. $$^{60}$$Co $$gamma$$-rays source was used under irradiation. Dose rate of $$gamma$$-ray irradiation was controlled for 5 kGy/h and 400 Gy/h. In anode polarization curves, there was no clear difference under irradiation and non-irradiation. The corrosion potential of type 316L increased with increasing time after $$gamma$$-ray irradiation. The Esp was shifted to nobler by $$gamma$$-rays irradiation, while increasing Esp was suppressed by contacted with zeolite.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of the 3-Gev proton beam profile at the spallation target of the JSNS

Meigo, Shinichiro; Noda, Fumiaki*; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Ikeda, Yujiro

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 562(2), p.569 - 572, 2006/06

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:73.49(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Pitting damage evaluation by liquid/solid interface impact analysis

Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Oi, Toshiyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Ikeda, Yujiro

Zairyo, 54(11), p.1184 - 1190, 2005/11

High power spallation targets for neutron sources are being developed in the world. Mercury target will be installed at the material science and life facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target is subject to the pressure wave caused by the proton bombarding in the mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of the target. The electro Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine, MIMTM, was developed to reproduce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Additionally, droplet impact analysis was carried out to investigate the correlation between isolate pit profile and micro-jet velocity. We confirmed that value of depth/radius was able to estimate micro jet-velocity. And the velocity at 560W in MIMTM was estimated to be 225$$sim$$325 m/s. Furthermore, surface-hardening treatments were inhibited pit formation in plastic deformation.

Journal Articles

Micro-impact damage caused by mercury bubble collapse

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Date, Hidefumi*; Ikeda, Yujiro

JSME International Journal, Series A, 48(4), p.234 - 239, 2005/10

Mercury target will be installed at the material science and life facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target will be subjected to the pressure wave caused by proton bombarding in the mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of target. An electromagnetic impact testing machine, MIMTM, was developed to reproduce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Additionally, droplet impact analyses were carried out to investigate the correlation between isolate pit profile and micro-jet velocity. We confirmed that the value of depth/radius was applicable to estimate micro-jet velocity, and the velocity at 560 W in MIMTM equivalent to 1MW proton beam injection was 300 m/s approximately.

Journal Articles

Erosion damage evaluation using acoustic vibration induced by micro-bubble collapse

Naoe, Takashi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

Jikken Rikigaku, 5(3), p.280 - 285, 2005/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Pitting damage by pressure waves in a mercury target

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Tsai, C.-C.*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Ikeda, Yujiro; Soyama, Hitoshi*; Date, Hidefumi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.70 - 80, 2005/08

 Times Cited Count:54 Percentile:95.91(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Estimation of pitting damage induced by cavitation impacts

Soyama, Hitoshi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Homma, Kana*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.116 - 122, 2005/08

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:59.05(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In order to estimate life time of the mercury target vessel of spallation neutron source which will be subjected to cavitation impacts, prediction methods of pitting damage induced by the cavitation impact were proposed. It is very important to estimate incubation time, in which plastic deformation occurs without mass loss, because the thickness of vessel is very thin. In the present paper, two estimation methods were proposed. One of them is estimatiion from erosion test of severely damaged specimen by plotting the mass loss as a function of exposure time to cavitation on the logarithmic scales. Another method is the observation method of plastic deformation pits on damaged surface at very early period in incubation stage.

JAEA Reports

Failure probability analysis on mercury target vessel

Ishikura, Shuichi*; Shiga, Akio*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro

JAERI-Tech 2005-026, 65 Pages, 2005/03

JAERI-Tech-2005-026.pdf:2.86MB

Failure probability analysis was carried out to estimate the lifetime of the mercury target which will be installed into the JSNS (Japan spallation neutron source) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The lifetime was estimated as taking loading condition and materials degradation into account. Considered loads imposed on the target vessel were the static stresses due to thermal expansion and static pre-pressure on He-gas and mercury and the dynamic stresses due to the thermally shocked pressure waves generated repeatedly at 25 Hz. Materials used in target vessel will be degraded by the fatigue, neutron and proton irradiation, mercury immersion and pitting damages, etc. The imposed stresses were evaluated through static and dynamic structural analyses. The material-degradations were deduced based on published experimental data. As results, it was quantitatively confirmed that the failure probability for the lifetime expected in the design is very much lower, 10$$^{-11}$$ in the safety hull, meaning that it will be hardly failed during the design lifetime. On the other hand, the beam window of mercury vessel suffered with high-pressure waves exhibits the failure probability of 12%. It was concluded, therefore, that the leaked mercury from the failed area at the beam window is adequately kept in the space between the safety hull and the mercury vessel to detect mercury-leakage sensors.

Journal Articles

Damage diagnostic of localized impact erosion by measuring acoustic vibration

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(11), p.1059 - 1064, 2004/11

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:61.05(Nuclear Science & Technology)

High power spallation targets for neutron sources are developing in the world. Mercury target will be installed at the material and life science facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target is subject to the pressure wave caused by the proton bombarding mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of the target. The electric Magnetic Impact Testing Machine, MIMTM, was developed to produce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Acoustic vibration measurement was carried out to investigate the correlation between damage and acoustic vibration. It was confirmed that the acoustic vibration is useful to predict the damage due to the localized impact erosion and to diagnose the structural integrity.

Journal Articles

Estimation of incubation time of cavitation erosion for various cavitating conditions

Soyama, Hitoshi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Tribology Letters, 17(1), p.27 - 30, 2004/07

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:58.85(Engineering, Chemical)

Estimation have been made, resulting in a general method for the prediction of the incubation time for cavitation erosion using various cavitating conditions and materials. From a single erosion test, the incubation time can be estimated for various conditions and materials by plotting the mass loss as a function of exposure time to cavitation on a log-log scale.

JAEA Reports

Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Tsai, C.-C.*; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Ikeda, Yujiro

JAERI-Research 2003-005, 70 Pages, 2003/03

JAERI-Research-2003-005.pdf:12.08MB

A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the pitting damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures.

Journal Articles

Effect of hardening treatment on impact erosion of liquid/solid metal interface

Koyama, Tomofumi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi*

Nihon Kikai Gakkai Kanto Shibu Ibaraki Koenkai (2002) Koen Rombunshu, p.5 - 6, 2002/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Stochastic analysis of initiation process on pitting corrosion of stainless steels in chloride environments

; *

Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Material Chemistry in Nuclear Environment, p.497 - 506, 1992/00

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Current status of pulsed spallation neutron source at J-PARC

Takada, Hiroshi

no journal, , 

At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, a pulsed spallation neutron source provides neutrons with high-intensity and narrow pulse width to promote a variety field of materials science by injecting high power proton beam of 3-GeV, 1 MW at repetition rate of 25 Hz. The core components of the spallation neutron source are a mercury target, liquid hydrogen moderators and a reflector with beryllium and iron. Their sizes and arrangement were optimized to get superior neutronics performance for 100% para-hydrogen as the moderator material. Since the lifetime of the mercury target vessel made from SS316L steel is determined by the pitting damage induced by the pressure wave generated at the pulsed proton beam injection, mitigating the pitting damage is the most critical issue to achieve 1 MW operation for long time. So far, gas micro-bubbles injection technique and a target front structure to get faster mercury flow in narrow channel were employed for mitigating the pitting damage in the mercury target vessel. A pitting damage of 25 $$mu$$m was observed on the target front after 670 MWh operation with an average power of 406 kW. In 2018, it is planned to observe the target front of the newly manufactured target after operation with a power of 300 to 500 kW. Further developments of the narrow channel structure of the target front will be carried out. It is also planned to make post irradiation examination to study radiation damage of the target vessel in other facility of Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

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