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Journal Articles

Soil dust and bioaerosols as potential sources for resuspended $$^{137}$$Cs occurring near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

Ota, Masakazu; Takahara, Shogo; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nagakubo, Azusa; Hirouchi, Jun; Hayashi, Naho; Abe, Tomohisa; Funaki, Hironori; Nagai, Haruyasu

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 264, p.107198_1 - 107198_15, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

One of the current major radiation exposure pathways from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident-fallout is inhalation of the re-suspended $$^{137}$$Cs occurring in air. While wind-induced soil particle resuspension has been recognized as a primary mechanism of $$^{137}$$Cs resuspension, studies following the FDNPP accident suggested that fungal spores can be a significant source of the atmospheric $$^{137}$$Cs particularly in the rural areas such as difficult-to-return zone (DRZ). To elucidate the relative importance of the two resuspension phenomena, we propose a model simulating resuspension of $$^{137}$$Cs as soil particles and fungal spores, and applied it to DRZ. Our model's calculation showed that soil particle resuspension was responsible for the surface-air $$^{137}$$Cs observed during winter-spring, but could not account for the higher $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations observed in summer-autumn. The higher concentrations in the summer-autumn were in general reproduced by implementing fungal spore $$^{137}$$Cs emission, that replenished low soil particle $$^{137}$$Cs resuspension in that period. According to our model's concept, $$^{137}$$Cs accumulation in fungal spores and high spore emission rate characterized by the rural environment were likely responsible for the abundance of spore $$^{137}$$Cs in the air. It was inferred that the influence of the fungal spores on the atmospheric $$^{137}$$Cs would last longer since un-decontaminated forests still exist in DRZ.

Journal Articles

Occurrence of radioactive cesium-rich micro-particles (CsMPs) in a school building located 2.8 km south-west of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Fueda, Kazuki*; Komiya, Tatsuki*; Minomo, Kenta*; Horie, Kenji*; Takehara, Mami*; Yamasaki, Shinya*; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Toshihiko*; Grambow, B.*; Law, G. T. W.*; et al.

Chemosphere, 328, p.138566_1 - 138566_12, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Establishing an evaluation method for the aging phenomenon by physical force in fuel debris

Suzuki, Seiya; Arai, Yoichi; Okamura, Nobuo; Watanabe, Masayuki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.839 - 848, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The fuel debris, consisting of nuclear fuel materials and reactor structural materials, generated in the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant can become deteriorated like rocks under the changes of environmental temperature. Although the fuel debris have been cooled by water for 10 years, they are affected by seasonal and/or day-and-night temperature changes. Therefore, in evaluating the aging behavior of the fuel debris, it is essential to consider the changes in environmental temperature. Assuming that the fuel debris are deteriorated, radioactive substances that have recently undergone micronization could be eluted into the cooling water, and such condition may affect defueling methods. We focused on the effect of repeated changes in environmental temperature on the occurrence of cracks, and an accelerated test using simulated fuel debris was carried out. The length of the crack increases with increasing number of heat cycle; therefore, the fuel debris become brittle by stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction. In conclusion, it was confirmed that the mechanical deterioration of the fuel debris is similar to that of rocks or minerals, and it became possible to predict changes in the length of the crack in the simulated fuel debris and environmental model.

Journal Articles

Accident sequence precursor analysis of an incident in a Japanese nuclear power plant based on dynamic probabilistic risk assessment

Kubo, Kotaro

Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2023, p.7402217_1 - 7402217_12, 2023/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Development of analytical approach of source term for accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of reprocessed high level liquid waste

Yoshida, Kazuo; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Hiyama, Mina*

JAEA-Research 2023-001, 26 Pages, 2023/05


An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) is postulated as one of the severe accidents caused by the loss of cooling function at a fuel reprocessing plant. In this case, volatile radioactive materials, such as ruthenium (Ru) are released from the tanks with water and nitric-acid mixed vapor into the atmosphere. Accurate quantitative estimation of released Ru is one of the important issues for risk assessment of those facilities. To resolve this issue, an analytical approach has been developed using computer simulation programs to assess the radioactive source term from those facilities. The proposed approach consists analyses with three computer programs. At first, the simulation of boiling behavior in the HLLW tank is conducted with SHAWED code. Next step, the thermal-hydraulic behavior in the facility building is simulated with MELCOR code based on the results at the first step simulation such as flowed out mixed steam flow rate, temperature and volatilized Ru from the tank. The final analysis step is carried out for estimating amount of released radioactive materials with SCHERN computer code which simulates chemical behaviors of nitric acid, nitrogen oxide and Ru based on the condition also simulated MELCOR. Series of sample simulations of the accident at a hypothetical typical facility are presented with the data transfer between those codes in this report.

Journal Articles

Aging of fuel-containing materials (fuel debris) in the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) Nuclear Power Plant and its implication for the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Kitagaki, Toru; Krasnov, V.*; Ikeda, Atsushi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 576, p.154224_1 - 154224_14, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.85(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Applicability of differential die-away self-interrogation technique for quantification of spontaneous fission nuclides for fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants

Nagatani, Taketeru; Sagara, Hiroshi*; Kosuge, Yoshihiro*; Nomi, Takayoshi; Okumura, Keisuke

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(4), p.460 - 472, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Attention-based time series analysis for data-driven anomaly detection in nuclear power plants

Dong, F.*; Chen, S.*; Demachi, Kazuyuki*; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Seki, Akiyuki; Takaya, Shigeru

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 404, p.112161_1 - 112161_15, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Origin of Cs-bearing silicate glass microparticles observed during Fukushima accident and recommendations on nuclear safety

Hidaka, Akihide

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 332, p.1607 - 1623, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Chemistry, Analytical)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Mental health measures for the staff of nuclear research and development institution mobilized in dealing with residents during the nuclear disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

Tomotsune, Yusuke; Yajima, Mayumi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya

Rodo Anzen Eisei Kenkyu, 16(1), p.29 - 43, 2023/02

During the first year of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, a total of about 45,000 employees of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) left their original workplaces to engage in telephone counseling, assistance of temporary return, and environmental monitoring. In particular, the staff who worked on the telephone counseling service, which directly contacted the residents, suffered from the stress associated with emotional labor. Systematic mental health care to the staff who engaged in these tasks was provided them in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of the JAEA. This paper considers this activity as a concrete example of "support for supporters" and discusses the mental health of the staff who provide support to the residents in a nuclear disaster.

JAEA Reports

Consideration on roles and relationship between observations/measurements and model predictions for environmental consequence assessments for nuclear facilities

Togawa, Orihiko; Okura, Takehisa; Kimura, Masanori

JAEA-Review 2022-049, 76 Pages, 2023/01


Before construction and after operation of nuclear facilities, environmental consequence assessments are conducted for normal operation and an emergency. These assessments mainly aim at confirming safety for the public around the facilities and producing relief for them. Environmental consequence assessments are carried out using observations/ measurements by environmental monitoring and/or model predictions by calculation models, sometimes using either of which and at other times using both them, according to the situations and necessities. First, this report investigates methods, roles, merits/demerits and relationship between observations/measurements and model predictions which are used for environmental consequence assessments of nuclear facilities, especially holding up a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Rokkasho, Aomori as an example. Next, it explains representative examples of utilization of data on observations/measurements and results on model predictions, and considers points of attention at using them. Finally, the report describes future direction, for example, improvements of observations/measurements and model predictions, and fusion of both them.

JAEA Reports

Development of simulation program; SHAWED for analysis of accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of reprocessed high level liquid waste in tank

Yoshida, Kazuo; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Hiyama, Mina*

JAEA-Research 2022-011, 37 Pages, 2022/12


An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high level liquid waste (HLLW) is postulated as one of the severe accidents at a fuel reprocessing plant. Two major mechanisms are expected for fission products (FPs) transfer from liquid to vapor phase. One is non-volatiles FPs transfer in the form of mists to the vapor phase in the tank, the other is volatilization of such as Ruthenium. These FPs transferred to the vapor phase in the tank could be released with water and nitric-acid mixed steam and NO$$_{2}$$ gas flow to the environment. NO$$_{2}$$ is generated from denitration of nitrate fission products during dry out phase. These phenomena occurred in this accident originate from the liquid waste boiling in the tank. It is essential for the risk assessment of this accident to simulate thermo-hydraulic and chemical behaviors in the waste tank quantitatively with a versatile computer program. The SHAWED ($$underline{rm S}$$imulation of $$underline{rm H}$$igh-level radio$$underline{rm A}$$ctive $$underline{rm W}$$aste $$underline{rm E}$$vaporation and $$underline{rm D}$$ryness) has been developed to realize these requirements. In this report, detailed description of major analytical models is explained based on the features of this accident, and some simulation examples are also described for the use in an actual risk assessment.

Journal Articles

The Formation mechanism of radiocesium-bearing microparticles derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant using electron microscopy

Hagiwara, Hiroki; Kondo, Keietsu; Hidaka, Akihide

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 331(12), p.5905 - 5914, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:72.55(Chemistry, Analytical)

Journal Articles

Reactivity estimation based on the linear equation of characteristic time profile of power in subcritical quasi-steady state

Yamane, Yuichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(11), p.1331 - 1344, 2022/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The reactivity was estimated from a time profile of neutron count rate or a simulated data in a quasi-steady state after sudden change of reactivity or external neutron source strength. The estimation was based on the equation of power in subcritical quasi-steady state. The purpose of the study is to develop the method of timely reactivity estimation from complicated time profile of neutron count rate. The developed method was applied to the data simulating neutron count rate created by using one-point kinetics code, AGNES, and Poisson-distributed random noise and to the transient subcritical experiment data measured by using TRACY. The result shows that the difference of the estimated and reference value was within about 5% or less for ($$rho$$${$}$ $$>$$ -1) for simulated data and within about 7% or less for $$rho$$${$}$ $$simeq$$ -1.4 and -3.1 for the experimental data. It was also shown that the possibility of the reactivity estimation several ten seconds after the status change.

Journal Articles

The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents (WGAMA); Advances in codes and analyses to support safety demonstration of nuclear technology innovations

Nakamura, Hideo; Bentaib, A.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Ruyer, P.*; Mascari, F.*; Jacquemain, D.*; Adorni, M.*

Proceedings of International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety; Strengthening Safety of Evolutionary and Innovative Reactor Designs (TIC 2022) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/10

Journal Articles

High-temperature gaseous reaction of cesium with siliceous thermal insulation; The Potential implication to the provenance of enigmatic Fukushima cesium-bearing material

Rizaal, M.; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Saito, Takumi*; Osaka, Masahiko; Okamoto, Koji*

ACS Omega (Internet), 7(33), p.29326 - 29336, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Validation of a model for estimating individual external dose based on ambient dose equivalent and life patterns

Sato, Rina; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sanada, Yukihisa; Sato, Tetsuro*

Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 47(2), p.77 - 85, 2022/06

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident, a model was developed to estimate the external exposure doses for residents who were expected to return to their homes after evacuation orders were lifted. However, the model's accuracy and uncertainties in parameters used to estimate external doses have not been evaluated. This study validates the model's accuracy by comparing the estimated effective doses with the measured personal dose equivalents. The personal dose equivalents and life pattern data were collected for 36 adult participants who lived or worked near the FDNPS in 2019. The estimated effective doses correlated significantly with the personal dose equivalents, demonstrating the model's applicability for effective dose estimation. However, the lower value of the effective dose relative to personal dose equivalent indoors could be because the conversion factor from ambient dose equivalent to effective dose did not reflect the actual environment.

Journal Articles

Contamination processes of tree components in Japanese forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident $$^{137}$$Cs fallout

Ota, Masakazu; Koarashi, Jun

Science of the Total Environment, 816, p.151587_1 - 151587_21, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:74.58(Environmental Sciences)

In forests affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, trees became contaminated with $$^{137}$$Cs. However, $$^{137}$$Cs transfer processes determining tree contamination (particularly for stem wood, which is a prominent commercial resource in Fukushima) remain insufficiently understood. This study proposes a model for simulating the dynamic behavior of $$^{137}$$Cs in a forest tree-litter-soil system and applied it to two contaminated forests (cedar plantation and natural oak stand) in Fukushima. The model-calculated results and inter-comparison of the results with measurements elucidated the relative impact of distinct $$^{137}$$Cs transfer processes determining tree contamination. The transfer of $$^{137}$$Cs to trees occurred mostly ($$>$$ 99%) through surface uptake of $$^{137}$$Cs directly trapped by leaves or needles and bark during the fallout. By contrast, root uptake of $$^{137}$$Cs from the soil was unsubstantial and several orders of magnitude lower than the surface uptake over a 50-year period following the accident. As a result, the internal contamination of the trees proceeded through an enduring recycling (translocation) of $$^{137}$$Cs absorbed on the tree surface at the time of the accident. A significant surface uptake of $$^{137}$$Cs at the bark was identified, contributing 100% (leafless oak tree) and 30% (foliated cedar tree; the remaining surface uptake occurred at the needles) of the total $$^{137}$$Cs uptake by trees. It was suggested that the trees growing at the study sites are currently (as of 2021) in a decontamination phase; the activity concentration of $$^{137}$$Cs in the stem wood decreases by 3% per year, mainly through radioactive decay of $$^{137}$$Cs and partly through a dilution effect from tree growth.

JAEA Reports

Result of measurement of the ambient dose equivalent rates by car-borne surveys using KURAMA-II from 2012 until 2019

Ando, Masaki; Saito, Kimiaki

JAEA-Technology 2021-032, 66 Pages, 2022/03


Since the occurrence of the accident at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting a series of car-borne survey over a wide area in the eastern part of Japan using the monitoring system KURAMAII. In this report, outline of the car-borne surveys are summarized and the following characteristics of the temporal changes in each prefecture and region were investigated using the measured data obtained from 2012 to 2019; 1) Average and maximum values for each prefecture for the six years from 2014 to 2019, 2) Average values for each prefecture from 2012 to 2019, 3) Average values for each evacuation order area category, regional category, and northern Soso-area municipality in Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2019, and 4) Average and maximum values for each municipality in each prefecture for four times (at almost two-year intervals) of the measurement results from 2012 to 2018.

JAEA Reports

Development of the unified cross-section set ADJ2017R

Yokoyama, Kenji; Maruyama, Shuhei; Taninaka, Hiroshi; Oki, Shigeo

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-019, 115 Pages, 2022/03


In JAEA, several versions of unified cross-section set for fast reactors have been developed so far; we have developed a new unified cross-section set ADJ2017R, which is an improved version of the unified cross-section setADJ2017 for fast reactors. The unified cross-section set is used for reflecting information of C/E values (analysis / experiment values) obtained by integral experiment analyses in reactor core design via the cross-section adjustment methodology; the values are stored in the standard database for FBR core design. In the methodology, the cross-section set is adjusted by integrating the information such as uncertainty (covariance) of nuclear data, uncertainty of integral experiment / analysis, sensitivity of integral experiment with respect to nuclear data. ADJ2017R basically has the same performance as ADJ2017, but we conducted an additional investigation on ADJ2017 and revised the following two points. The first is to unify the evaluation method of the correlation coefficient of uncertainty caused by experiments (hereinafter referred to as the experimental correlation coefficient). Because it was found that the common uncertainty used in the evaluation of the experimental correlation coefficient was evaluated by two different methods, the experimental correlation coefficients were revised for all experimental data, and the evaluation method was unified. The second is the review of the integral experiment data used for the cross-section adjustment calculation. It was found that one of the experimental values of composition ratio after irradiation of the Am-243 sample has a problem in uncertainty evaluation because its experimental uncertainty is extremely small compared to the others. The cross-section adjustment calculation was, therefore, redone by excluding the experimental value. In the creation of ADJ2017, a total of 719 data sets were analyzed and evaluated, and eventually adopted 620 integral experimental data sets. In contrast, a total of 61

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