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Journal Articles

Simulation of the self-propagating hydrogen-air premixed flame in a closed-vessel by an open-source CFD code

Thwe, T. A.; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kadowaki, Satoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(5), p.573 - 579, 2022/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The simulations of the combustion of self-propagating hydrogen-air premixed flame are performed by an open-source CFD code. The flame propagation behavior, flame radius, temperature and pressure are analyzed by varying the initial laminar flame speed and grid size. When the initial laminar speed increases, the thermal expansion effects become strong which leads the increase of flame radius along with the increase of flame surface area, flame temperature and pressure. A new laminar flame speed model derived previously from the results of experiment is also introduced to the code and the obtained flame radii are compared with those from the experiments. The formation of cellular flame fronts is captured by simulation and the cell separation on the flame surface vividly appears when the gird resolution becomes sufficiently higher. The propagation behavior of cellular flame front and the flame radius obtained from the simulations have the reasonable agreement with the previous experiments.

Journal Articles

The Effects of steam addition on the unstable behavior of hydrogen-air lean premixed flames under the adiabatic and non-adiabatic conditions

Furuyama, Taisei*; Thwe, T. A.; Katsumi, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Hideaki*; Kadowaki, Satoshi

Nihon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 87(898), p.21-00107_1 - 21-00107_12, 2021/06

The effects of steam addition on the unstable behavior of hydrogen-air lean premixed flames under adiabatic and non-adiabatic conditions were investigated by numerical calculations. Adopting a detailed chemical reaction mechanism of hydrogen-oxyfuel combustion modeled by 17 reversible reactions of 8 active species and diluents, a two-dimensional unsteady reaction flow was treated based on the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. As the steam addition and heat loss increased, the burning velocity of a planar flame decreased and the normalized burning velocity increased. The addition of water vapor promotes the unstable behavior of the hydrogen-air lean premixed flame. This is because the thermal diffusivity of the gas decreases and the diffusion-thermal instability increases. The effect of adding water vapor on the instability of hydrogen premixed flames is a new finding, and it is expected to connect with hydrogen explosion-prevention measures as in NPP.

Journal Articles

Effects of pressure and heat loss on the unstable motion of cellular-flame fronts caused by intrinsic instability in hydrogen-air lean premixed flames

Kadowaki, Satoshi; Thwe, T. A.; Furuyama, Taisei*; Kawata, Kazumasa*; Katsumi, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Hideaki*

Journal of Thermal Science and Technology (Internet), 16(2), p.20-00491_1 - 20-00491_12, 2021/00

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:51.09(Thermodynamics)

Effects of pressure and heat loss on the unstable motion of cellular-flame fronts in hydrogen-air lean premixed flames were numerically investigated. The reaction mechanism for hydrogen-oxygen combustion was modeled with seventeen reversible reactions of eight reactive species and a diluent. Two-dimensional unsteady reactive flow was treated, and the compressibility, viscosity, heat conduction, molecular diffusion and heat loss were taken into account. As the pressure became higher, the maximum growth rate increased and the unstable range widened. These were due mainly to the decrease of flame thickness. The burning velocity of a cellular flame normalized by that of a planar flame increased as the pressure became higher and the heat loss became larger. This indicated that the pressure and heat loss affected strongly the unstable motion of cellular-flame fronts. In addition, the fractal dimension became larger, which denoted that the flame shape became more complicated.

Journal Articles

The Effects of addition of carbon dioxide and water vapor on the dynamic behavior of spherically expanding hydrogen/air premixed flames

Katsumi, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Yasuhito*; Nakagawa, Ryo*; Yazawa, Shinya*; Kumada, Masashi*; Sato, Daisuke*; Thwe, T. A.; Chaumeix, N.*; Kadowaki, Satoshi

Journal of Thermal Science and Technology (Internet), 16(2), p.21-00044_1 - 21-00044_13, 2021/00

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:51.09(Thermodynamics)

The effects of addition of CO$$_{2}$$ and water vapor on characteristics of dynamic behavior of hydrogen/air premixed flames were elucidated experimentally. By Schlieren photography, wrinkles on the flame surface were clearly observed in low equivalence ratios. The propagation velocity increased monotonically as the flame radius became larger and flame acceleration was found. Increasing the addition of inert gas, the propagation velocity decreased, especially in the case of CO$$_{2}$$ addition. Moreover, the Markstein length and the wrinkling factor decreased. This indicated that the addition of Co$$_{2}$$ or H$$_{2}$$O promoted the unstable motion of hydrogen flames, which could be due to the enhancement of the diffusive-thermal effect. Based on the characteristics of dynamic behavior of hydrogen flames, the parameters used in the mathematical model on propagation velocity including flame acceleration was obtained, and then the flame propagation velocity under various conditions was predicted.

Journal Articles

Three-dimensional cellular premixed flames generated by hydrodynamic and diffusive-thermal instabilities (Effects of unburned-gas temperature and heat loss)

Kadowaki, Satoshi; Nogami, Masato*; Thwe, T. A.; Katsumi, Toshiyuki*; Yamazaki, Wataru*; Kobayashi, Hideaki*

Nihon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 85(879), p.19-00274_1 - 19-00274_13, 2019/11

We dealt with three-dimensional cellular premixed flames generated by hydrodynamic and diffusive-thermal instabilities to elucidate the effects of unburned-gas temperature and heat loss by adopting the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation. As the unburned-gas temperature became lower and the heat loss became larger, the growth rate decreased and the unstable range narrowed. With a decrease of unburned-gas temperature, the normalized growth rate increased and the normalized unstable range widened, which was because the temperature ratio of burned and unburned gases became larger. The obtained hexagonal cellular fronts were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. As the heat loss became larger, the burning velocity of a cellular flame normalized by that of a planar flame increased. This was because diffusive-thermal effects became stronger owing to the increase of apparent Zeldovich number caused by the decrease of flame temperature.

Journal Articles

Numerical investigation on unstable behaviors of cellular premixed flames at low Lewis numbers based on the diffusive-thermal model and compressible Navier-Stokes equations

Thwe, T. A.; Kadowaki, Satoshi; Hino, Ryutaro

Journal of Thermal Science and Technology (Internet), 13(2), p.18-00457_1 - 18-00457_12, 2018/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Thermodynamics)

Two dimensional unsteady calculations of reactive flows were performed in large domain to investigate the unstable behaviors of cellular premixed flames at low Lewis numbers based on the diffusive-thermal (D-T) model and compressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. The growth rates obtained by the compressible N-S equations were large and the unstable ranges were wide compared with those obtained by the D-T model equations. When the length of computational domain increased, the number of small cells separated from large cells of the cellular flame increased drastically. The stronger unstable behaviors and the larger average burning velocities were observed especially in the numerical results based on the compressible N-S equations. In addition, the fractal dimension obtained by the compressible N-S equations was larger than that by the D-T model equations. Moreover, we confirmed that the radiative heat loss promoted the instability of premixed flames at low Lewis numbers.

Oral presentation

Effects of propane addition on the instability of lean hydrogen-air premixed flames

Thwe, T. A.; Hino, Ryutaro; Kadowaki, Satoshi*

no journal, , 

Oral presentation

Simulation of the behavior of spherically expanding H$$_{2}$$-air premixed flame

Thwe, T. A.; Hino, Ryutaro; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kadowaki, Satoshi

no journal, , 

We performed the two- and three-dimensional simulations to investigate the behavior of spherically expanding H$$_{2}$$-air premixed flame by using XiFoam. The equivalence ratio was set to unity. The ignition started from the center of domain, and the flame expanded spherically and became wrinkle. The obtained flame radius has the agreement with the experimental result.

Oral presentation

Effects of mesh size on wrinkle behavior of H$$_{2}$$-air premixed flame inside of a vessel; Numerical simulations by using XiFoam

Thwe, T. A.; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro; Kadowaki, Satoshi

no journal, , 

For the risk reduction on hydrogen combustion and explosion due to hydrogen generated by radiolysis of water inside of high-level radioactive waste vessels, understanding the phenomena and characteristics of hydrogen combustion is necessary, and CFD approaches are of important role. In this numerical simulation, XiFoam solver was modified by adding a new laminar flame speed model deduced from experiment by Katsumi et al. (Nagaoka University of Technology). It reproduced the propagation of H$$_{2}$$-air premixed flame and we clarified the effects of mesh size (2 mm to 0.625 mm) on wrinkle behavior. The results showed that the mesh size should be equal to or less than 1.0mm to observe the wrinkle behavior of flame in which the flame temperature and radius for each mesh size were almost same at 0.003s to 0.006s, and then the former increased and the later became large due to intrinsic instabilities. The wrinkle flame shape from the simulation was similar to that from the experiment when the mesh size became small.

Oral presentation

Propagation phenomena of spherically expanding hydrogen-air premixed flames; Simulation by a public open source code

Thwe, T. A.; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kadowaki, Satoshi

no journal, , 

For long-term safe storage of fuel debris from hydrogen (H$$_{2}$$) explosion, the development of simulation codes for H$$_{2}$$ behaviors is important. In this simulation, propagation of H$$_{2}$$-air premixed flames was reproduced by using a public open source code OpenFOAM. Not only default solver but also modified one based on a new laminar flame speed model derived from the experiments at Nagaoka University of Technology were applied. Three-dimensional 1/8 of cubic shaped vessels with two sizes of 0.21m and 0.13m in length were modeled with mesh sizes of 0.625mm and 0.5mm, respectively. H$$_{2}$$-air mixture with a unity equivalence ratio, temperature 298K and pressure 101,325Pa was used. The flames propagated spherically and the propagation phenomena had good agreement with the experimental results within 0.005s. The wrinkle flame shape appeared in the smaller model was more likely with that observed in the experiments. This is because mesh size has influence on the wrinkle shape formation in the simulations.

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