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Journal Articles

Behaviors of high-burnup LWR fuels with improved materials under design-basis accident conditions

Amaya, Masaki; Udagawa, Yutaka; Narukawa, Takafumi; Mihara, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Yoshinori

Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on Reactor Fuel Performance (TopFuel 2018) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2018/10

Journal Articles

Discussion about sodium-concrete reaction in presence of internal heater

Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Miyahara, Shinya; Uno, Masayoshi*

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07

Sodium-concrete reaction (SCR) is one of the important phenomena during severe accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) owing to the presence of large sources of hydrogen and aerosols in the containment vessel. In this study, SCR experiments with an internal heater (800$$^{circ}$$C) were performed to investigate the chemical reaction under the internal heater. Furthermore, the effects of the internal heater on the self-termination mechanism were discussed. Because the internal heater hindered the transport of Na, the moisture in the concrete, and reaction products, Na could permeate and react with the surface concrete at the periphery of the internal heater. As the SCR proceeded, the reaction products accumulated under the internal heater and disturbed the Na diffusion. Therefore, the Na concentration under the internal heater decreased relatively lower, and the concrete ablation depth under the internal heater decreased compared to that under the periphery of the internal heater. However, the Na concentration around the reaction front was about 30 wt.% despite the position of the internal heater. The Na concentration was similar to that of Na$$_2$$SiO$$_3$$, which was almost same as that in our past study. It was found that the Na concentration condition was one of the dominant parameters for the self-termination of SCR, even in the presence of the internal heater.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of feedback reactivity coefficients by inverse kinetics in Monju

Kitano, Akihiro; Nakajima, Ken*

Proceedings of 2018 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2018) (CD-ROM), p.1205 - 1210, 2018/04

The feedback reactivity is taken into account in fast reactor core design especially in order to make the power coefficient negative, which is required to be confirmed in the operation. In the feedback reactivity experiment, the positive reactivity was inserted in the critical state at zero power, and the thermal data, such as reactor power and the R/V inlet temperature, was acquired until the power got stable by the feedback reactivity. In the conventional study, only two critical points in an experiment are available for evaluation of the feedback reactivity coefficients. This method needs three days for evaluation. The advanced method based on the inverse kinetics is newly applied in this work using the more extensive data. It is confirmed that this approach can evaluate the feedback reactivity coefficients in one experiment.

Journal Articles

Lead void reactivity worth in two critical assembly cores with differing uranium enrichments

Fukushima, Masahiro; Goda, J.*; Bounds, J.*; Cutler, T.*; Grove, T.*; Hutchinson, J.*; James, M.*; McKenzie, G.*; Sanchez, R.*; Oizumi, Akito; et al.

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 189, p.93 - 99, 2018/01

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:38.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To validate lead (Pb) nuclear cross sections, a series of integral experiments to measure lead void reactivity worths was conducted in a high-enriched uranium (HEU)/Pb system and a low enriched uranium (LEU)/Pb system using the Comet Critical Assembly at NCERC. The critical experiments were designed to provide complementary data sets having different sensitivities to scattering cross sections of lead. The larger amount of the $$^{238}$$U present in the LEU/Pb core increases the neutron importance above 1 MeV compared with the HEU/Pb core. Since removal of lead from the core shifts the neutron spectrum to the higher energy region, positive lead void reactivity worths were observed in the LEU/Pb core while negative values were observed in the HEU/Pb core. Experimental analyses for the lead void reactivity worths were performed with the Monte Carlo calculation code MCNP6.1 together with nuclear data libraries, JENDL 4.0 and ENDF/B VII.1. The calculation values were found to overestimate the experimental ones for the HEU/Pb core while being consistent for the LEU/Pb core.

Journal Articles

Behavior of high-burnup advanced LWR fuels under design-basis accident conditions

Amaya, Masaki; Udagawa, Yutaka; Narukawa, Takafumi; Mihara, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Yoshinori

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

Journal Articles

Determination of reactivity and neutron flux using modified neural network for HTGR

Subekti, M.*; Kudo, Kazuhiko*; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi

Atom Indonesia, 43(2), p.93 - 102, 2017/08

Reactor kinetics based on point kinetic model have been generally applied as the standard method for neutronics codes. As the central control rod (C-CR) withdrawal test has demonstrated in a prismatic core of HTTR, the transient calculation of kinetic parameter, such as reactivity and neutron fluxes, requires a new method to shorten calculation-process time. Development of neural network method was applied to point kinetic model as the necessity of real-time calculation that could work in parallel with the digital reactivity meter. The combination of TDNN and Jordan RNN, such as TD-Jordan RNN, was the result of the modeling approach. The application of TD-Jordan RNN with adequate learning, tested offline, determined results accurately even when signal inputs were noisy. Furthermore, the preprocessing for neural network input utilized noise reduction as one of the equations to transform two of twelve time-delayed inputs into power corrected inputs.

Journal Articles

A Simple and practical correction technique for reactivity worth of short-sized samples measured by critical-water-level method

Kitamura, Yasunori*; Fukushima, Masahiro

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 186(2), p.168 - 179, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:64.68(Nuclear Science & Technology)

An inconsistency between the reactivity worth of short-size samples measured by the critical-water-level (CWL) method and that conventionally analysed for validating the nuclear data and the nuclear calculation methods has been known. The present study investigated this inconsistency in terms of a simple theoretical framework and proposed a simple and practical technique for correcting the measured sample reactivity worth without making supplementary experiments. A series of Monte Carlo calculations that simulated typical sample reactivity worth measurement by the CWL method showed that this inconsistency is effectively reduced by the present correction technique.

Journal Articles

A Study on self-terminating behavior of sodium-concrete reaction

Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Doi, Daisuke; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(12), p.2098 - 2107, 2016/12

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:42.29(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A sodium concrete reaction (SCR) is one of the important phenomena to cause the structural concrete ablation and the release of H$$_2$$ gas in the case of sever accident of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this study, the long-time SCR test had been carried out to investigate the self-termination mechanism. The results showed the SCR terminated even if the enough amount of Na remained on the concrete. The quantitative data were collected on the SCR terminating such as temperature and H$$_2$$ generation. The reaction products, which became the small solids in liquid Na were transferred with slurry state by generated H$$_2$$ bubbles. Though the Na transfers actively and ablated the concrete surface with the high H$$_2$$ generation rate, the mass exchange coefficient defined as $$E_p$$ decreased and the reaction products settled gradually with decreasing the H$$_2$$ generation rate. Therefore, the Na concentration decreased at the reaction front and resulted in the SCR terminating naturally.

Journal Articles

Recent research activities using NSRR on safety related issues

Udagawa, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki*; Amaya, Masaki

Proceedings of 2016 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2016) (CD-ROM), p.1183 - 1189, 2016/04

Journal Articles

Void reactivity evaluation by modified conversion ratio measurements in LWR critical experiments

Yoshioka, Kenichi*; Kikuchi, Tsukasa*; Gunji, Satoshi*; Kumanomido, Hironori*; Mitsuhashi, Ishi*; Umano, Takuya*; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki*; Okajima, Shigeaki; Fukushima, Masahiro; Nagaya, Yasunobu; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(2), p.282 - 293, 2015/02

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have developed a void reactivity evaluation method by using modified conversion ratio measurements in a light water reactor (LWR) critical lattice. Assembly-wise void reactivity is evaluated from the "finite neutron multiplication factor", $$k^ast$$, deduced from the modified conversion ratio of each fuel rod. The distributions of modified conversion ratio and $$k^ast$$ on a reduced-moderation LWR lattice, for which the improvement of negative void reactivity is a serious issue, were measured. Measured values were analyzed with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo method. The measurements and analyses agreed within the measurement uncertainty. The developed method is useful for validating the nuclear design methodology concerning void reactivity.

JAEA Reports

The Evaluation of the influence of hydride rim and biaxial stress condition on the cladding failure under a reactivity-initiated-accident by using EDC test method

Shinozaki, Takashi; Mihara, Takeshi; Udagawa, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Amaya, Masaki

JAEA-Research 2014-025, 34 Pages, 2014/12

JAEA-Research-2014-025.pdf:6.05MB

EDC test is a test method on the mechanical property of fuel cladding tube, and it focuses on the stress condition generated by PCMI under a RIA. We conducted EDC tests which simulate the mechanical conditions during a RIA by using the unirradiated cladding tubes which simulate hydride rim. Circumferential residual strains observed in post-test specimens tended to decrease with increasing the hydrogen concentration in the test cladding tubes and the thickness of the hydride rim. We also prepared RAG tube and performed EDC tests on it. It was observed that circumferential total strains at failure tended to decrease with increasing pre-crack depth on the outer surface of RAG tube specimen. We conducted biaxial stress tests by applying longitudinal tensile load onto RAG tube specimens. It was observed that circumferential total strains at failure under biaxial stress conditions tended to decrease compared to the results under uniaxial tensile condition.

Journal Articles

Assessment of calculation model for annular core on the HTTR

Nojiri, Naoki; Handa, Yuichi*; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Goto, Minoru; Kaneko, Yoshihiko*

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 5(3), p.241 - 250, 2006/09

It was shown from the annular core experiment of the HTTR that the discrepancy of excess reactivity between experiment and analysis reached about 3 % Dk/k at maximum. Sensitivity analysis for the annular core of the HTTR was performed to improve the discrepancy. The SRAC code system was used for the core analysis. As the results of the analysis, it was found clearly that the multiplication factor of the annular core is affected by (1) mesh interval in the core diffusion calculation, (2) mesh structure of graphite region in fuel lattice cell and (3) the Benoist's anisotropic diffusion coefficients. The significantly large discrepancy previously reported was reduced down to about 1 % Dk/k by the revised annular core model.

Journal Articles

Improvement of core dynamics analysis of control rod withdrawal test in HTGR

Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeaki

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 5(1), p.45 - 56, 2006/03

The HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor), which has thermal output of 30MW, coolant inlet temperature of 395$$^{circ}$$C and coolant outlet temperature of 850$$^{circ}$$C/950$$^{circ}$$C, is a first high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in Japan. The HTGR has a high inherent safety potential to accident condition. Safety demonstration tests using the HTTR are underway in order to demonstrate such excellent inherent safety features of the HTGR. A one-point core dynamics approximation with one fuel channel model had applied to this analysis. It was found that the analytical model for core dynamics couldn't simulate the reactor power behavior accurately. This report proposes an original method using temperature coefficients of some regions in the core. It is crucial to evaluate this method precisely to simulate a performance of HTGR during the test.

Journal Articles

Annular core experiments in HTTR's start-up core physics tests

Fujimoto, Nozomu; Yamashita, Kiyonobu*; Nojiri, Naoki; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Fujisaki, Shingo; Nakano, Masaaki*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 150(3), p.310 - 321, 2005/07

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:65.2(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Annular cores were formed in startup-core-physics tests of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to obtain experimental data for verification of calculation codes. The first criticality, control rod positions at critical conditions, neutron flux distribution, excess reactivity etc. were measured as representative data. These data were evaluated with Monte Carlo code MVP that can consider the heterogeneity of coated fuel particles (CFP) distributed randomly in fuel compacts directly. It was made clear that the heterogeneity effect of CFP on reactivity for annular cores is smaller than that for fully-loaded cores. Measured and calculated effective multiplication factors (k) were agreed with differences less than 1%$$Delta$$k. Measured neutron flux distributions agreed with calculated results. The revising method was applied for evaluation of excess reactivity to exclude negative shadowing effect of control rods. The revised and calculated excess reactivity agreed with differences less than 1%$$Delta$$k/k.

Journal Articles

Pre-test analysis method using a neural network for control-rod withdrawal tests of HTTR

Ono, Tomio*; Subekti, M.*; Kudo, Kazuhiko*; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Nabeshima, Kunihiko

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 4(2), p.115 - 126, 2005/06

Control-rod withdrawal tests simulating reactivity insertion are carried out in the HTTR to verify the inherent safety features of HTGRs. This paper describes pre-test analysis method using artificial neural networks to predict the changes of reactor power and reactivity. The network model applied in this study is based on recurrent neural networks. The inputs of the network are the changes of the central control rods position and other significant core parameters, and the outputs are the changes of reactor power and reactivity. Furthermore, Time Synchronizing Signal(TSS) is added to input to improve the modeling of time series data. The actual tests data, which were previously carried out in the HTTR, were used for learning the model of the plant dynamics. After the learning, the network can predict the changes of reactor power and reactivity in the following tests.

Journal Articles

Impact of perturbed fission source on the effective multiplication factor in Monte Carlo perturbation calculations

Nagaya, Yasunobu; Mori, Takamasa

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 42(5), p.428 - 441, 2005/05

 Times Cited Count:41 Percentile:5.42(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A new method to estimate a change in the effective multiplication factor due to the perturbed fission source distribution has been proposed for Monte Carlo perturbation calculations with the correlated sampling and differential operator sampling techniques. The method has been implemented into the MVP code for verification. Simple benchmark problems have been set up for fast and thermal systems and the applicability of the method has been verified with the problems. In consequence, it has been confirmed that the method is very effective to estimate the change. It has been also shown that there are some cases where the perturbed source effect is significant and the change in reactivity cannot be estimated accurately without taking the effect into account. Even in such cases, the new method can estimate the perturbed source effect and the estimation of the change in reactivity has been remarkably improved.

JAEA Reports

Research and development plan for advanced high temperature gas cooled reactor fuels and graphite components (Contract research)

Sawa, Kazuhiro; Ueta, Shohei; Shibata, Taiju; Sumita, Junya; Ohashi, Jumpei; Tochio, Daisuke

JAERI-Tech 2005-024, 34 Pages, 2005/03

JAERI-Tech-2005-024.pdf:2.15MB

The Very-High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the strong candidates for the Generation IV Nuclear Energy System. JAERI has developed Zirconium carbide (ZrC)-coated fuel particle and ZrC coating layer is expected to maintain its intactness under higher temperature and burn-up comparing conventional SiC-coating layer. JAERI carries out (1) ZrC-coating process development by large-scale coater, (2) inspection method development and (3) irradiation test and post irradiation experiment of ZrC coated particles. Also, JAERI carries out reactivity insertion tests to clarify the coating failure mechanism and tries to increase allowable temperature limit in case of reactivity insertion accident. Furthermore, JAERI develops non-destructive evaluation methods for mechanical properties of graphite components by ultrasonic testing and micro-indentation technique. This report describes these research and development plan and results of FY 2004 as a MEXT contact research.

JAEA Reports

Criticality and doppler reactivity worth uncertainty due to resolved resonance parameter errors; Formula for sensitivity analysis

Zukeran, Atsushi*; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Shibata, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Makoto*; Hino, Tetsushi*

JAERI-Research 2004-026, 102 Pages, 2005/02

JAERI-Research-2004-026.pdf:7.68MB

Reactivity uncertainties such as effective multiplication factor can be estimated by the sensitivity coefficients of the infinitely diluted cross section and resonance self-shielding factor to the changes of resonance parameters of interest. In the present work, the uncertainties of the resolved resonance parameters for the evaluated nuclear data file JENDL-3.2 were estimated on the basis of Breit-Wigner Multi-level formula. The resonance self-shielding factor based on NR-approximation is analytically described. Reactivity uncertainty evaluation method for the effective multiplication factor k$$_{eff}$$, temperature coefficient $$alpha$$, and Doppler reactivity worth $$rho$$ is developed by means of the sensitivity coefficient against the resonance parameter. Final uncertainties are estimated by means of error propagation law using the level-wise uncertainties. Preliminary uncertainty of Doppler reactivity worth results about 4% at the temperature 728 K for large sodium-cooled FBR.

Journal Articles

Reactivity control system of the high temperature engineering test reactor

Tachibana, Yukio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Nakazawa, Toshio

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.89 - 101, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:45.39(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Nuclear design

Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Ando, Hiroei*; Yamashita, Kiyonobu*

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.23 - 36, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:41.7(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the nuclear design of the HTTR, the reactivity balance is planned so that the design requirements are fully satisfied. Moreover, the reactivity coefficients are evaluated to confirm the safety characteristics of the reactor. The power distribution in the core was optimized by changing the uranium enrichment to maintain the fuel temperature at less than the limit (1600$$^{circ}$$C). Deviation from the optimized distribution due to the burnup of fissile materials was avoided by flattening time-dependent changes in local reactivities. Flattening was achieved by optimizing the specifications of the burnable poisons. The original nuclear design model had to be modified based on the first critical experiments. The Monte Carlo code MVP was also used to predict criticality of the initial core. The predicted excess reactivities are now in good agreement with the experimental results.

238 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)