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Journal Articles

First demonstration experiment of the neutron rotation method for detecting nuclear material

Komeda, Masao; Toh, Yosuke; Tanabe, Kosuke*; Kitamura, Yasunori*; Misawa, Tsuyoshi*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 159, p.108300_1 - 108300_8, 2021/09

Journal Articles

Development and implementation of online trainings at ISCN/JAEA

Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Sekine, Megumi; Okuda, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Nobuhiko*; Naoi, Yosuke

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) celebrated its 10th anniversary in December 2020. One of its pillars is capacity building support mainly to Asian countries. 183 trainings were implemented with more than 4,600 participants since its establishment, however, the COVID-19 pandemic impacted in the implementation of the trainings. ISCN/JAEA has started to develop the online trainings since April 2020, and implemented two regional trainings, Physical Protection and State System of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) for IAEA Safeguards in October and November 2020, respectively. The efforts continue in further development of trainings/workshops, including the regional training on Additional Protocol for IAEA Safeguards Agreement Commodity Identification Training, and other two national workshops with foreign instructors. Online training can provide not only training opportunities for those who have difficulty in traveling for security and safety reasons including under the travel restriction by COVID-19 pandemic, but also could serve in making them more effective and efficient, especially by the combination with in-person trainings. The pandemic, as a result, accelerate ISCN/JAEA to develop and implement the online trainings, which key is the international collaboration with the partners including IAEA, DOE/NNSA and Sandia National Laboratories and International Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security Academy (INSA) of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). This paper will provide the efforts of ISCN/JAEA how to address the online training development and implementation, current status, lesson learned, and future plan.

Journal Articles

A Prospect of development and use of the virtual tour of the physical protection exercise field

Nakagawa, Yosuke; Sukegawa, Hidetoshi; Naoi, Yosuke; Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Okuda, Masahiro

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/11

The physical protection exercise field, a facility equipped with various types of equipment such as sensors, cameras and fences that are used at nuclear facilities, is an effective tool for training on nuclear security at ISCN/JAEA, if it is carried out in-person. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the virtual tour of the facility is developed for the online training courses so that they could be more effective. The article explains the initial development of the virtual tour with some improvement inspired by using it on some occasions as well as a prospect of effective use of the virtual tour based on its characteristics.

Journal Articles

Introduction to nuclear security, 2; Efforts to strengthen nuclear security

Suda, Kazunori; Kimura, Takashi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 62(6), p.334 - 338, 2020/06

Amid growing concerns about potential nuclear terrorism, discussions have been conducted internationally to strengthen the nuclear security. In this series, we will explain the efforts of the international community to strengthen the nuclear security and the reflection of the treaty for the nuclear security and the IAEA nuclear security recommendations in the domestic laws.

Journal Articles

Conceptual study on a novel method for detecting nuclear material using a neutron source

Komeda, Masao; Toh, Yosuke

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 135, p.106993_1 - 106993_6, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:39.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This paper presents a conceptual study of a novel active method using a neutron source. The main feature of this new method is the fast rotation of a neutron source in order to derive the fission neutron counts and applying the counts to detect the nuclear material. Irradiating neutrons to a container that involves nuclear material, the measurement data include both neutrons from the neutron source and fission neutrons. However, if the neutron source is rotated quite fast, the components of the irradiation neutrons and fission neutrons are separated. Since this novel method does not require an expensive D-T tube, this new system is expected to be affordable and easy to assemble.

Journal Articles

Introduction and implementation of physical protection measures including trustworthiness program at Tokai Reprocessing Facilities

Nakamura, Hironobu; Kimura, Takashi; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki; Kitao, Takahiko; Tasaki, Takashi; Iida, Toru

Proceedings of International Conference on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/09

After the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to develop effective security measures based on the lesson learned from such crisis and to meet the IAEA Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5), NRA in Japan made a partial amendment of the regulations concerning the reprocessing activity in 2012. The Tokai reprocessing facility implemented all of those security measures by the end of March 2014. Those new measures help us to keep high degree of security level and contributed to our planned operations to reduce the potential risk of the plant. On the other hand, the trustworthiness program was newly introduced in 2016, based on the trustworthiness policy determined by NRA. The implementing entity of the program is JAEA for the Tokai Reprocessing Facility and is required for both the persons afford unescorted access to Category I and II, CAS/SAS, and the persons afford access to the sensitive information. Those who are involved this program will be judged before engaging the work whether they might act as insider to cause or assist radiological sabotage or unauthorized removal of nuclear material, or leak sensitive information. The program is expected as a measure against insider at reprocessing facilities, and is expected to be enforced around the autumn of 2017. As well as the establishment of security measures, the promoting nuclear security culture for all employees was a big challenge. The Tokai reprocessing facility have introduced several security culture activities, such as case study education of security events done by a small group and putting up the security culture poster and so on. This paper presents introduction and implementation with effectiveness of security measures in the Tokai reprocessing facilities and the future security measures applied to the reprocessing facilities are discussed.

Journal Articles

Discussion of effective insider threat mitigation method at reprocessing plant

Nakamura, Hironobu; Kitao, Takahiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Kono, Soma; Kimura, Takashi; Tasaki, Takashi

Proceedings of INMM 59th Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/07

Journal Articles

Security by facility design for sabotage protection

Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Demachi, Kazuyuki*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(5), p.559 - 567, 2018/05

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:33.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Facility design of nuclear power plant for a sabotage protection is investigated and an effect of the design change for damage control on reduction of sabotage risk is shown using the vital area identification methodology. The loss of offsite power leading to the station blackout is assumed to be a typical example for further evaluation. In this study, the vulnerability of target set is defined as the multiplication of the accessibility, the distribution of target and the degree of adversary's interference. The built-in measures for damage control are of vital importance in case of the existence of adversary's interference until neutralization. It is confirmed that not only the physical protection system but also the facility design play an important role in the effective and efficient sabotage protection. It is very important to introduce a security by design approach in an initial stage of the NPP construction while considering the interface between safety and security.

Journal Articles

Integrated risk assessment of safety, security, and safeguards

Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

Risk Assessment, p.133 - 151, 2018/02

A integrated risk assessment could be developed to promote synergism between safety, security, and safeguards (3S). One of the synergies of the integrated 3S risk assessment is a 3S by Design approach for new nuclear facilities. In safety, the classical probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been developed to estimate the frequency of severe accident using the basic event frequency. Because of recent concern about nuclear security, a vital area identification method based on the ETs/FTs has been explored to protect vital areas of nuclear power plants against sabotage. The different difficulty in applying risk assessment to safeguards is determining the initiation of diversion of nuclear material and misuse, because the diversion of nuclear material and misuse of technology are induced by the motivation of states and intentional acts of facility operation. In this chapter, a balance among 3S risk would be explored to pursue an optimal and a cost-effective management.

Journal Articles

Delayed $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy combined with active neutron interrogation for nuclear security and safeguards

Koizumi, Mitsuo; Rossi, F.; Rodriguez, D.; Takamine, Jun; Seya, Michio; Bogucarska, T.*; Crochemore, J.-M.*; Varasano, G.*; Abbas, K.*; Pedersen, B.*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 146, p.09018_1 - 09018_4, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:92.06

Journal Articles

Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture; Resemblances and differences

Kawata, Norio

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nihon Shibu Dai-36-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 7 Pages, 2015/12

Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th,2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since The Great East Japan Earthquake in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture.

Journal Articles

Utilizing delayed $$gamma$$ rays for fissionable material measurement in NDA

Rodriguez, D.; Takamine, Jun; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of 37th ESARDA Annual Meeting (Internet), p.831 - 836, 2015/08

A non-destructive analysis system using a pulsed neutron source is under design by researchers of the JAEA, and JRC-ITU (Ispra) and JRC-IRMM. The system will utilize a combination of neutron resonance transmission analysis and differential die-away and both prompt and Delayed Gamma-ray (DG) Spectroscopy (DGS) techniques. This system will be applied toward safeguards applications by effectively determining Nuclear Material (NM) compositions within MOX fuel samples and NM samples with high neutron or $$gamma$$-ray emissions (including the melted fuel). Additionally, this system can be applied toward nuclear security by detecting the high-energy DGs that can more efficiently pass through shielding materials. This presentation will describe the initial status of the DG portion of this system and how it will be used in conjunction with the other techniques to provide both high accuracy and high precision of the composition of the NM of interest.

Journal Articles

Current activities and future challenges of FNCA's nuclear security and safeguards project

Senzaki, Masao

Proceedings of INMM 56th Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2015/07

The presentation outlines the role and objectives of Nuclear Security and Safeguards Project (NSSP) as well as FNCA framework and provides activity examples of how NSSP member countries work together to strengthen nuclear security and enhance safeguards effectiveness and raise awareness.

Journal Articles

Development of environment for remote participation in fusion research on JT-60

Oshima, Takayuki; Naito, Osamu; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Iba, Katsuyuki; Sato, Minoru; Sakata, Shinya; Tsugita, Tomonori; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Iwasaki, Keita*; Karube, Yukihiro*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 71(1-4), p.239 - 244, 2004/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:36.97(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the JT-60 tokamak at JAERI, environment for remote participation is planned to be developed by concentrating experts of nuclear fusion research of another research organizations and universities distributed all over the country. We are constructing a hierarchical remote research system, which consists of remote experiment, remote analysis, and remote diagnostic. In a remote collaboration, it is important to maintain the security of the system, as well as to share the information, atmosphere and presence between the participants. For the latter purpose, we developed a video conferencing system, and a video streaming system that can deliver the images of the JT-60 control room. Furthermore, a development of the remote analysis system called "VizAnalysis" has been started. And to assist the remote analysis, we developed a web based software system called "VizSquare". In the JT-60 tokamak at JAERI, security and authentication methods on a computer network and a new communication tool are developed, and probably they will be applied to the remote participation of ITER.

Oral presentation

Anticipations of NRF-based NDA of nuclear material using monochromatic $$gamma$$-ray beams

Seya, Michio; Hajima, Ryoichi*; Hayakawa, Takehito*; Koizumi, Mitsuo

no journal, , 

The NRF-base NDA using monochromatic $$gamma$$-rays would be used in nuclear security for secure detection of NM in thick shield and also for precise checking of interior structures of detected / suspicious objects. This NDA also would be used in nuclear safeguards for precise quantification of U/Pu isotopes in high radiation background, such as spent fuel assemblies / melted fuel debris in a canister. It is also useful for precise measurement of quantities of minor actinide isotopes in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System; for transmutation of long-half-life minor actinides (MA)) fuels before and after irradiation in the ADS reactor core. In this presentation, we show actual NRF-NDA methods for these objects.

Oral presentation

Conceptual study of a Pu-burner HTGR with high nuclear proliferation resistance

Goto, Minoru

no journal, , 

We conduct a quantitative evaluation of security, a design of the fuel and the reactor core, a safety evaluation and a fabrication tests of PuO$$_{2}$$-YSZ TRISO fuels with ZrC coating to establish the basic technologies of the plutonium burner HTGR with a high nuclear proliferation resistance. This study is conducted by The University of Tokyo, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., and Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. It was started in FY2014 and will be completed in FY2017. The outline of the study is explained in the presentation.

Oral presentation

Development of nondestructive assay technologies for nuclear nonproliferation and security

Koizumi, Mitsuo; Seya, Michio; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Hori, Masato; Naoi, Yosuke

no journal, , 

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is developing nondestructive assay (NDA) methods for nuclear nonproliferation and security under the support of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The project under the subsidy of "promotion and strengthening of nuclear security and the other issues" includes projects "Demonstration experiment of nuclear resonance fluorescence NDA" for detection of heavily shielded nuclear material, and "Development of active neutron NDA techniques" for analysis of a low and high radioactive objects containing nuclear materials and the other elements with a DT neutron source. This presentation overviews these projects.

Oral presentation

Operators security efforts in the testing research reactor

Nakamura, Hironobu; Kuribayashi, Toshihiro; Umeda, Hisao; Yaegashi, Masahiro

no journal, , 

In the activity to understand the nuclear security in the testing research reactor, we conduct a presentation in the international regional workshop conducting by the IAEA. In the presentation, as the efforts by the operator in the testing research reactor, we report organization of testing research reactor in JAEA, strategic physical protection measures (no including detail of measures), information control, efforts of insider threat measures (trustworthiness program and cyber security, etc.) and activity of nuclear security culture ferment. In addition, as the role to keep the nuclear security appropriately, we explain the important points to conduct nuclear security, establishment of comprehensive nuclear security system and improvement of responce skills by training, in the operator's point of view.

Oral presentation

Status of advanced reactor development in the world

Kamide, Hideki

no journal, , 

Recently, energy society is required to achieve stable and reliable energy supply and carbon free energy sorces for the Global Warming. Here complementary use of renewable energies and nuclear power and also development status of advanced reactors, i.e., SFR, including SMR and regulation in the world, for sustainable energy source are reported.

Oral presentation

Application of nuclear photonics for nuclear non-proliferation and security

Koizumi, Mitsuo; Lee, J.; Ito, Fumiaki*; Takahashi, Tone; Suzuki, Satoshi*; Omer, M.*; Seya, Michio*; Hajima, Ryoichi; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Yogo, Akifumi*; et al.

no journal, , 

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