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Journal Articles

Atomistic modeling of hardening in spinodally-decomposed Fe-Cr binary alloys

Suzudo, Tomoaki; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Caro, A.*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 540, p.152306_1 - 152306_10, 2020/11

Spinodal decomposition in thermally aged Fe-Cr alloys leads to significant hardening, which is the direct cause of the so-called 475C-embrittlement. To illustrate how spinodal decomposition induces hardening by atomistic interactions, we conducted a series of numerical simulations as well as reference experiments. The numerical results indicated that the hardness scales linearly with the short-range order (SRO) parameter, while the experimental result reproduced this relationship within statistical error. Both seemingly suggest that neighboring Cr-Cr atomic pairs essentially cause hardening, because SRO is by definition uniquely dependent on the appearance probability of such pairs. A further numerical investigation supported this notion, as it suggests that the dominant cause of hardening is the pinning effect of dislocations passing over such Cr-Cr pairs.

Journal Articles

A Model intercomparison of atmospheric $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, phase III; Simulation with an identical source term and meteorological field at 1-km resolution

Sato, Yosuke*; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi*; Fang, S.*; Kajino, Mizuo*; Qu$'e$rel, A.*; Qu$'e$lo, D.*; Kondo, Hiroaki*; Terada, Hiroaki; Kadowaki, Masanao; Takigawa, Masayuki*; et al.

Atmospheric Environment; X (Internet), 7, p.100086_1 - 100086_12, 2020/10

The third model intercomparison project for investigating the atmospheric behavior of $$^{137}$$Cs emitted during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident (FDNPP-MIP) was conducted. A finer horizontal grid spacing (1 km) was used than in the previous FDNPP-MIP. Nine of the models used in the previous FDNPP-MIP were also used, and all models used identical source terms and meteorological fields. Our analyses indicated that most of the observed high atmospheric $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations were well simulated, and the good performance of some models improved the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The analyses also confirmed that the use of a finer grid resolution resulted in the meteorological field near FDNPP being better reproduced. The good representation of the wind field resulted in the reasonable simulation of the narrow distribution of high deposition amount to the northwest of FDNPP and the reduction of the overestimation over the area to the south of FDNPP. In contrast, the performance of the models in simulating plumes observed over the Nakadori area, the northern part of Gunma, and the Tokyo metropolitan area was slightly worse.

JAEA Reports

Critical mass evaluation of minor actinides in aqueous solution; Data for criticality safety assessment of separation process

Morita, Yasuji; Fukushima, Masahiro; Kashima, Takao*; Tsubata, Yasuhiro

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-013, 38 Pages, 2020/09

JAEA-Data-Code-2020-013.pdf:1.94MB

Critical Masses of Cm, Am and the mixture were calculated in metal-water mixtures with water reflector as a basic data for criticality safety assessment of minor actinide separation process. In the mixture of Cm-244 and Cm-245, higher ratio of Cm-245 gives smaller critical mass, but the amount of Cm-245 in the critical mass can be obtained by concentration of Cm-245 in the Cm mixture without depending on the Cm-245 ratio. Critical mass of Cm isotope mixture with 30% Cm-245 was smaller than that of Pu isotope mixture in the practical reprocessing (71% Pu-239 + 17% Pu-240 + 12% Pu-241). When Cm is separated from other element including Am and the solution is concentrated, measure for the critical accident has to be taken. Critical mass of Am-242m is smaller than that of Cm-245, but the ratio of Am-242m in the Am contained in practical spent fuel is small enough, about several percent, and therefore the critical accident by Am does not have to be considered. That by the mixture of Am and Cm does not either.

Journal Articles

Estimation of reliable displacements-per-atom based on athermal-recombination-corrected model in radiation environments at nuclear fission, fusion, and accelerator facilities

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Meigo, Shinichiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 538, p.152261_1 - 152261_9, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0

The displacements-per-atom (dpa) is widely used as an exposure unit to predict the operating lifetime of materials in radiation environments. Because the athermal-recombination-corrected dpa (arc-dpa) model is a more realistic model than the standard Norgertt-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model, new evaluation of radiation damage will be performed using the arc-dpa model as a standard. In this work, the recent arc-dpa model of various materials are incorporated in PHITS, and the rescaling factors (NRT-dpa/arc-dpa) over a wide energy range are reported. For neutron incidences with the energy spectrum determined in selected nuclear facilities and proton incidences with energies of 600 MeV-50 GeV, the rescaling factor for each material is independent of these irradiation conditions with almost the same value for each material. Our findings will be beneficial for rescaling the NRT-dpa model used for radiation damage applications over a wide energy region.

Journal Articles

Application of photoluminescence microspectroscopy; A Study on transfer of uranyl and europium ions on dry silica gel plate

Kusaka, Ryoji; Watanabe, Masayuki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(9), p.1046 - 1050, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Japanese population dose from natural radiation

Omori, Yasutaka*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sanada, Tetsuya*; Hirao, Shigekazu*; Ono, Koji*; Furukawa, Masahide*

Journal of Radiological Protection, 40(3), p.R99 - R140, 2020/09

UNSCEAR and the Nuclear Safety Research Association report the annual effective doses from cosmic rays, terrestrial radiation, inhalation and ingestion from natural sources. In this study, radiation doses from natural radiation sources in Japan were reviewed with the latest knowledge and data. Total annual effective dose from cosmic-ray exposure can be evaluated as 0.29 mSv. The annual effective dose from external exposure to terrestrial radiation for Japanese population can be evaluated as 0.33 mSv using the data of nationwide survey by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) performed the nationwide radon survey using a unified method for radon measurements in indoor, outdoor and workplace. The annual effective dose for radon inhalation was estimated using a current dose conversion factor, and the values were estimated to be 0.50 mSv. The annual effective dose from thoron was reported as 0.09 mSv by UNSCEAR and then the annual effective dose from inhalation can be described as 0.59 mSv. According to the report of large scale survey of foodstuff by JCAC, the effective dose from main radionuclides due to dietary intake can be evaluated to be 0.99 mSv. Finally, Japanese population dose from natural radiation can be assessed as 2.2 mSv which is near to the world average value of 2.4 mSv.

Journal Articles

Neutronic Design of Neutron Moderator on a Reentrant-hole Configuration for Kyoto University Accelerator-based Neutron Source (KUANS)

Okita, Shoichiro; Tasaki, Seiji*; Abe, Yutaka*

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 19(3), p.178 - 184, 2020/09

The Kyoto University Accelerator-based Neutron Source (KUANS) is a compact neutron source that is mainly used for spectrometer and detector development. In addition, it is also suited for experiments to study the neutronic design of moderators owing to the relatively low neutron generation yield by $$^{9}$$Be(p,n). We present a neutronic design of the neutron moderator on a reentrant-hole configuration for KUANS to enhance the neutron emission, and some experiments are conducted at KUANS for verification. A polyethylene moderator on a reentrant-hole configuration is designed by PHITS calculation and is introduced to KUANS to obtain intense oblong neutron beams. The intensity of the pulsed neutron beam is experimentally measured. The results reveal that the intensity becomes approximately 1.9 times stronger than that of the conventional rectangular design. In addition, the ratio of its intensity to the conventional intensity increases to approximately threefold as the neutron wavelength increases. It is interesting to note that the longer the neutron wavelength, the more efficiently they are extracted from the inside of the moderator owing to the existence of the reentrant-hole configuration.

Journal Articles

Analysis of ion-irradiation induced lattice expansion and ferromagnetic state in CeO$$_{2}$$ by using Poisson distribution function

Yamamoto, Yuki*; Ishikawa, Norito; Hori, Fuminobu*; Iwase, Akihiro*

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 4(3), p.26_1 - 26_13, 2020/09

The lattice constant and the magnetic state of CeO$$_{2}$$ are modified by the irradiation with 200 MeV Xe ions. Under the assumption that these modifications are induced in the narrow one-dimensional region (the ion track) along the ion beam path, the dependence of the lattice constant and the saturation magnetization of CeO$$_{2}$$ on the Xe ion fluence can be analyzed by using the Poisson distribution function. The analysis reveals that the lattice constant inside the ion track, which is larger than outside the ion track is not affected by the overlapping of the ion track. The present result implies that the Poisson distribution function is useful for describing the effect of ion track overlapping on the ion irradiation induced ferromagnetic state in CeO$$_{2}$$.

JAEA Reports

Production of the minor actinide sources using the electrodeposition method

Nakamura, Satoshi; Kimura, Takahiro; Ban, Yasutoshi; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Tatsuro

JAEA-Technology 2020-009, 22 Pages, 2020/08

JAEA-Technology-2020-009.pdf:2.92MB

Partitioning and transmutation technology division is planning to measure fission rate ratios that contribute to validate nuclear data of minor actinides (MA). For this purpose, MA sources for fission chambers were prepared using electrodeposition method. The radioactivity of each MA source was quantified, and its uncertainty was evaluated. Seven types of MA sources with different radioactivity were prepared using four nuclides of $$^{237}$$Np, $$^{241}$$Am, $$^{243}$$Am, and $$^{244}$$Cm. A $$^{244}$$Cm source solution of which radioactivity was quantified by isotope dilution method was used to prepare working standard sources of $$^{244}$$Cm. The radioactivities were quantified as 1461 Bq, 2179 Bq, and 2938 Bq for $$^{237}$$Np sources, 1.428 MBq for $$^{241}$$Am source, 370.5 kBq and 89.57 kBq for $$^{243}$$Am sources, and 2.327 MBq for $$^{244}$$Cm source with, the uncertainty of 0.35% (1$$sigma$$). This report summarizes the method for preparation and quantification of MA sources, and uncertainty evaluation.

Journal Articles

Visualizing cation vacancies in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ scintillators by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.

Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0

To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:Y$$_{3}$$Al$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Journal Articles

Generation of nuclear data using Gaussian process regression

Iwamoto, Hiroki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.932 - 938, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We present a new approach to generate nuclear data from experimental cross section data by Gaussian process regression. This paper focuses on generating proton-induced nuclide production cross sections for nickel target. Our results provide reasonable fitting curves together with their uncertainties and suggest that this approach appears to be effective in generating or evaluating the nuclear data. Besides, our results suggest that our approach could be available for experimental design in terms of reducing the generated nuclear data uncertainty.

Journal Articles

A New convention for the epithermal neutron spectrum for improving accuracy of resonance integrals

Harada, Hideo; Takayama, Naoki; Komeda, Masao

Journal of Physics Communications (Internet), 4(8), p.085004_1 - 085004_17, 2020/08

A new convention of epithermal neutron spectrum is formulated for improving accuracy of resonance integrals. The new type function is proposed as an approximating function of epithermal neutron spectrum based on calculations by the state-of-art Monte Carlo code MVP-3. Bias effects on determination of resonance integrals due to utilizing approximating functions of the traditional types and the new type are compared. The other bias effect is also investigated, which is caused by neglecting position dependence of a neutron spectrum inside an irradiation capsule. For demonstrating the bias effects due to these assumptions on neutron spectrum quantitatively in a practical case, the thermal neutron-capture cross section and resonance integral of $$^{135}$$Cs measured at a research reactor JRR-3 are re-evaluated. A superior property of the proposed new convention is discussed. The experimental method is proposed to determine the new shape factor $$beta$$ introduced in the convention by a combinational use of triple flux monitors ($$^{197}$$Au, $$^{59}$$Co and $$^{94}$$Zr), and its analytical methodology is formulated.

Journal Articles

Measurement for thermal neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of the $$^{243}$$Am(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{rm 244g}$$Am, $$^{rm 244m+g}$$Am reactions

Nakamura, Shoji; Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Shibahara, Yuji*

KURNS Progress Report 2019, P. 132, 2020/08

Research and development were made for accuracy improvement of neutron capture cross section data on $$^{243}$$Am among minor actinides. First, the emission probabilities of decay $$gamma$$ rays were obtained with high accuracy, and the amount of the ground state of $$^{244}$$Am produced by reactor neutron irradiation of $$^{243}$$Am was examinded by $$gamma$$-ray measurement. Next, the total amount of isomer and ground states was examoned by $$alpha$$-ray measurement.

Journal Articles

Radiochemical research for the advancement of $$^{99}$$Mo/$$^{rm 99m}$$Tc generator by (n,$$gamma$$) method, 2

Fujita, Yoshitaka; Seki, Misaki; Namekawa, Yoji*; Nishikata, Kaori; Kato, Yoshiaki; Sayato, Natsuki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Sano, Tadafumi*; Fujihara, Yasuyuki*; Hori, Junichi*; et al.

KURNS Progress Report 2019, P. 157, 2020/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

${it In situ}$ WB-STEM observation of dislocation loop behavior in reactor pressure vessel steel during post-irradiation annealing

Du, Y.*; Yoshida, Kenta*; Shimada, Yusuke*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Inoue, Koji*; Arakawa, Kazuto*; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Milan, K. J.*; Gerard, R.*; Onuki, Somei*; et al.

Materialia, 12, p.100778_1 - 100778_10, 2020/08

In order to ensure the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel in the long term, it is necessary to understand the effects of irradiation on the materials. In this study, irradiation-induced dislocation loops were observed in neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel specimens during annealing using our newly developed WB-STEM. It was confirmed that the proportion of $$<100>$$ loops increased with increasing annealing temperature. We also succeeded in observing the phenomenon that two $$frac{1}{2}$$$$<111>$$ loops collide into a $$<100>$$ loop. Moreover, a phenomenon in which dislocation loops decorate dislocations was also observed, and the mechanism was successfully explained by molecular dynamics simulation.

Journal Articles

Introduction to nuclear security, 3; Nuclear material detection technique for nuclear security

Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Koizumi, Mitsuo

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 62(8), p.452 - 456, 2020/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Self-organization of zonal flows and isotropic eddies in toroidal electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi*; Yamada, Hiroshi*

Physics of Plasmas, 27(8), p.082302_1 - 082302_11, 2020/08

Self-organization in the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on a global gyrokinetic model in a weak magnetic shear configuration. Because of global profile effects, toroidal ETG modes with higher toroidal mode number n are excited at the outer magnetic surfaces, leading to strong linear wave dispersion. The resulting anisotropic wave turbulence boundary and the inverse energy cascade generate the self-organization of zonal flows, which is the unique mechanism in the global gyrokinetic model. The self-organization is confirmed both in the decaying turbulence initialized by random noises and in the toroidal ETG turbulence. It is also shown that the self-organization process generates zonal flows and isotropic eddies depending on a criterion parameter, which is determined by the ion to electron temperature ratio and the turbulence intensity.

JAEA Reports

Material balance analysis for wide range of nuclear power generation scenarios

Nishihara, Kenji

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-005, 48 Pages, 2020/07

JAEA-Data-Code-2020-005.pdf:2.95MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2020-005-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:3.62MB

In order to discuss the technological development and human resource development necessary for the future nuclear fuel cycle, various quantitative analyzes were conducted assuming a wide range of future nuclear power generation scenarios. In the evaluation of quantities, the future power generation of LWR and fast reactor, the amount of spent fuel reprocessing, etc. were assumed, and the amount of uranium demand, the accumulation of spent fuel, plutonium, vitrified waste etc. were estimated.

Journal Articles

The Joint evaluated fission and fusion nuclear data library, JEFF-3.3

Plompen, A. J. M.*; Cabellos, O.*; De Saint Jean, C.*; Fleming, M.*; Algora, A.*; Angelone, M.*; Archier, P.*; Bauge, E.*; Bersillon, O.*; Blokhin, A.*; et al.

European Physical Journal A, 56(7), p.181_1 - 181_108, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:1

The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion nuclear data library 3.3 is described. New evaluations for neutron-induced interactions with the major actinides $$^{235}$$U, $$^{238}$$U and $$^{239}$$Pu, on $$^{241}$$Am and $$^{23}$$Na, $$^{59}$$Ni, Cr, Cu, Zr, Cd, Hf, W, Au, Pb and Bi are presented. It includes new fission yileds, prompt fission neutron spectra and average number of neutrons per fission. In addition, new data for radioactive decay, thermal neutron scattering, gamma-ray emission, neutron activation, delayed neutrons and displacement damage are presented. JEFF-3.3 was complemented by files from the TENDL project. The libraries for photon, proton, deuteron, triton, helion and alpha-particle induced reactions are from TENDL-2017. The demands for uncertainty quantification in modeling led to many new covariance data. A comparison between results from model calculations using the JEFF-3.3 library and those from benchmark experiments for criticality, delayed neutron yields, shielding and decay heat, reveals that JEFF-3.3 is excellent for a wide range of nuclear technology applications, in particular nuclear energy.

Journal Articles

FEMAXI-7 analysis for modeling benchmark for FeCrAl

Yamaji, Akifumi*; Susuki, Naomichi*; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

IAEA-TECDOC-1921, p.199 - 209, 2020/07

The thermo-physical models and irradiation behavior of FeCrAl as defined by the benchmark organizer have been implemented to FEMAXI-7. Analyses were carried out firstly for the specified normal operation condition. Then, some sensitivity analyses were carried out with different assumptions and model parameters. Under the normal operating condition, the predicted FeCrAl cladded fuel performance was similar to that of Zry cladded fuel with notable, but not major difference regarding late gap closure. Under the simulated LOCA conditions, the burst pressure could be evaluated. The predicted cladding creep strain at burst was mainly attributed to creep strain with negligible plastic strain. Overall, FEMAXI-7 analyses have demonstrated excellent robustness and flexibility in modeling FeCrAl-UO$$_{2}$$ system under normal and LOCA conditions.

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