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Journal Articles

Simulation-based dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of an internal flooding-initiated accident in nuclear power plant using THALES2 and RAPID

Kubo, Kotaro; Zheng, X.; Tanaka, Yoichi; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Jang, S.*; Takata, Takashi*; Yamaguchi, Akira*

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O; Journal of Risk and Reliability, 237(5), p.947 - 957, 2023/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:65.59(Engineering, Multidisciplinary)

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a method used to assess the risks associated with large and complex systems. However, the timing at which nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components are damaged is difficult to estimate if the risk of an external event is evaluated using conventional PRA based on event trees and fault trees. A methodology coupling thermal-hydraulic analysis with external event simulations using Risk Assessment with Plant Interactive Dynamics (RAPID) is therefore proposed to overcome this limitation. A flood propagation model based on Bernoulli's theorem was applied to represent internal flooding in the turbine building of the pressurized water reactor. Uncertainties were also taken into account, including the flow rate of the floodwater source and the failure criteria for the mitigation systems. The simulated recovery actions included the operator isolating the floodwater source and using a drainage pump; these actions were modeled using several simplifications. Overall, the results indicate that combining isolation and drainage can reduce the conditional core damage probability upon the occurrence of flooding by approximately 90%.

Journal Articles

Optimization of dissolved hydrogen concentration for mitigating corrosive conditions of pressurised water reactor primary coolant under irradiation, 2; Evaluation of electrochemical corrosion potential

Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Shunsuke; Lister, D. H.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(8), p.867 - 880, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:48.47(Nuclear Science & Technology)

One of the major subjects for evaluating the corrosive conditions in the PWR primary coolant was to determine the optimal hydrogen concentration for mitigating PWSCC without any adverse effects on major structural materials. As suitable procedures for evaluating the corrosive conditions in PWR primary coolant, a couple of procedures, i.e., water radiolysis and ECP analyses, were proposed. The previous article showed the radiolysis calculation in the PWR primary coolant, which was followed by an ECP study here. The ECP analysis, a couple of a mixed potential model and an oxide layer growth model, was developed originally for BWR conditions, which was extended to PWR conditions with adding Li$$^{+}$$ (Na$$^{+}$$) and H$$^{+}$$ effects on the anodic polarization curves. As a result of comparison of the calculated results with INCA in-pile-loop experiment data as well as other experimental data, it was confirmed that the ECPs calculated with the coupled analyses agreed with the measured within $$pm$$100mV discrepancies.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of bubble hydrodynamics for pool scrubbing

Okagaki, Yuria; Shibamoto, Yasuteru; Wada, Yuki; Abe, Satoshi; Hibiki, Takashi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(8), p.955 - 968, 2023/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:63.33(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Verification of probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis code PASCAL for reactor pressure vessel

Lu, K.; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Li, Y.; Masaki, Koichi*; Takagoshi, Daiki*; Nagai, Masaki*; Nannichi, Takashi*; Murakami, Kenta*; Kanto, Yasuhiro*; Yashirodai, Kenji*; et al.

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 10(4), p.22-00484_1 - 22-00484_13, 2023/08

Journal Articles

Estimation for mass transfer coefficient under two-phase flow conditions using two gas components

Nanjo, Kotaro; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Yu; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Koji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.816 - 823, 2023/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Development of analytical approach of source term for accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of reprocessed high level liquid waste

Yoshida, Kazuo; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Hiyama, Mina*

JAEA-Research 2023-001, 26 Pages, 2023/05


An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) is postulated as one of the severe accidents caused by the loss of cooling function at a fuel reprocessing plant. In this case, volatile radioactive materials, such as ruthenium (Ru) are released from the tanks with water and nitric-acid mixed vapor into the atmosphere. Accurate quantitative estimation of released Ru is one of the important issues for risk assessment of those facilities. To resolve this issue, an analytical approach has been developed using computer simulation programs to assess the radioactive source term from those facilities. The proposed approach consists analyses with three computer programs. At first, the simulation of boiling behavior in the HLLW tank is conducted with SHAWED code. Next step, the thermal-hydraulic behavior in the facility building is simulated with MELCOR code based on the results at the first step simulation such as flowed out mixed steam flow rate, temperature and volatilized Ru from the tank. The final analysis step is carried out for estimating amount of released radioactive materials with SCHERN computer code which simulates chemical behaviors of nitric acid, nitrogen oxide and Ru based on the condition also simulated MELCOR. Series of sample simulations of the accident at a hypothetical typical facility are presented with the data transfer between those codes in this report.

Journal Articles

Scalability of inertial particle deposition in bubbles with internal circulation

Motegi, Kosuke; Shibamoto, Yasuteru; Kukita, Yutaka

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 184, p.109679_1 - 109679_10, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Behavior of high-burnup BWR UO$$_{2}$$ fuel with additives under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

Mihara, Takeshi; Kakiuchi, Kazuo; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Udagawa, Yutaka

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(5), p.512 - 525, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:27.23(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Effects of azimuthal temperature distribution and rod internal gas energy on ballooning deformation and rupture opening formation of a 17 $$times$$ 17 type PWR fuel cladding tube under LOCA-simulated burst conditions

Furumoto, Kenichiro; Udagawa, Yutaka

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(5), p.500 - 511, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Generalized extreme value analysis of criticality tallies in Monte Carlo calculation

Ueki, Taro

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 159, p.104630_1 - 104630_9, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In this work, the methodology of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) is applied to criticality tallies in Monte Carlo fission source cycles in order to evaluate the utility value of the distribution tail ends. Numerical results obtained under a sufficiently large number of particles per cycle show that the extreme value index (EVI) in GEV falls within the range of Weibull distribution including the EVI of Gumbel distribution as the role of a boundary value layer. GEV is also applied to a historically-challenging loosely-coupled system for demonstrating population diagnosis under an insufficient number of particles per cycle. It turns out that the transition from one equilibrium to other equilibrium makes the EVIs of upper and lower distribution tail ends depart from each other so that one of them falls in the range of Weibull distribution and the other in that of Frechet distribution.

Journal Articles

Regulatory implementation of the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye and underlying relevant efforts in Japan

Yokoyama, Sumi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Tsujimura, Norio; Kunugita, Naoki*; Nishida, Kazutaka*; Ezaki, Iwao*; Kato, Masahiro*; Okubo, Hideki*

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 99(4), p.604 - 619, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:32.94(Biology)

In April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended reducing the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens. Such a new occupational lens dose limit has thus far been implemented in many countries, and there are extensive discussions toward its regulatory implementation in other countries. In Japan, discussions in the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) began in April 2013 and in Radiation Council in July 2017, and the new occupational lens dose limit was implemented into regulation in April 2021. To share our experience, we have published a series of papers summarizing situations in Japan: the first paper based on information available by early 2017, and the second paper by early 2019. This paper (our third paper of this series) aims to review updated information available by mid-2022, such as regarding regulatory implementation of the new occupational lens dose limit, recent discussions by relevant ministries based on the opinion from the council, establishment process of safety and health management systems, the JHPS guidelines on lens dose monitoring and radiation safety, voluntary countermeasures of the licensees, development of lens dose calibration method, and recent studies on exposure of the lens in nuclear workers and biological effect on the lens.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on local damage to reinforced concrete panels subjected to oblique impact by projectiles

Okuda, Yukihiko; Nishida, Akemi; Kang, Z.; Tsubota, Haruji; Li, Y.

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 9(2), p.021801_1 - 021801_12, 2023/04

Most empirical formulas were proposed to evaluate the local damage to reinforced concrete (RC) structures based on impact tests conducted with a rigid projectile at an impact angle normal to the target structure. Only a few impact tests were performed involving a soft projectile. Therefore, in this study, we conducted a series of impact tests to evaluate the local damage to RC panels subjected to normal and oblique impacts by rigid and soft projectiles. This paper presents the test conditions, test equipment, test results, and obtained knowledge on local damage to RC panels subjected to normal and oblique impacts.

Journal Articles

Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of seismic-induced flooding in pressurized water reactor by seismic, flooding, and thermal-hydraulics simulations

Kubo, Kotaro; Jang, S.*; Takata, Takashi*; Yamaguchi, Akira*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(4), p.359 - 373, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:81.82(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is an essential approach to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. However, this method includes certain difficulties, such as modeling of combinations of multiple hazards. Seismic-induced flooding scenario includes several core damage sequences, i.e., core damage caused by earthquake, flooding, and combination of earthquake and flooding. The flooding fragility is time-dependent as the flooding water propagates from the water source such as a tank to compartments. Therefore, dynamic PRA should be used to perform a realistic risk analysis and quantification. This study analyzed the risk of seismic-induced flooding events by coupling seismic, flooding, and thermal-hydraulics simulations, considering the dependency between multiple hazards explicitly. For requirements of safety improvement, especially in light of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, sensitivity analysis was performed on the seismic capacity of systems, and the effectiveness of alternative steam generator injection by a portable pump was estimated. We demonstrate the use of this simulation-based dynamic PRA methodology to evaluate the risk induced by a combination of hazards.

JAEA Reports

Historical changes and Correspondence to Research and Test Reactors New Regulatory Standards for Monitoring Post in Oarai Research and Development Institute, JAEA

Hamaguchi, Takumi; Yamada, Junya; Komatsuzaki, Naoya*; Hatakeyama, Takumi; Seya, Natsumi; Muto, Yasunobu; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Makoto

JAEA-Technology 2022-038, 65 Pages, 2023/03


New regulatory requirements were developed taking into account the lessons-learnt from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 2011. The new regulatory standards required that monitoring posts should be diversified in transmission systems and equipped with backup power supply equipment for design basis accidents. In this report, we look back on the history of monitoring posts in Oarai Research and Development Institute, explained the application for the permission of reactor installment license, application for approval of the design and construction method, pre-use operator's inspection and improvement design of monitoring posts. This report also includes about inspection based on act on special measures concerning nuclear emergency preparedness and the installation of KURAMA-II, which was carried out in conjunction with the improvement of monitoring post for new regulatory standards. As an appendix, application document for approval of the design and construction method are included.

Journal Articles

Fact-finding survey on the competencies and literacy of radiological technologists regarding radiation disasters

Arai, Tomohiro*; Murata, Sho*; Watanabe, Yuichi*; Ishihara, Toshihiro*; Fukamizu, Yoshiya*; Takeda, Satoshi*; Ebata, Kiyokadzu*; Watanabe, Yuki; Takashima, Yoshio*; Kaneko, Junichi*

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, 31(2), p.237 - 245, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.00(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Radiological technologists have received specialized education about radiation and serve as risk communicators who aim to lessen patients' anxiety about radiation exposure, in addition to performing radiological examinations in routine clinical practice. Also, Radiological technologists across Japan were dispatched to the affected area to conduct an essential procedure-screening the belongings and body surfaces of evacuees for contamination at the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company in March 2011. In this study, we conducted a fact-finding survey on knowledge and awareness of radiation disasters among radiological technologists at National Hospital Organization facilities in Japan to reveal their literacy and competencies regarding radiation disasters. Also, we compared the knowledge and awareness of radiation disasters among Japanese radiological technologists between nuclear power station areas and non-nuclear power station areas and discuss ideal human resource development for radiological technologists to be ready to serve during a radiation disaster.

JAEA Reports

Background radiation monitoring via manned helicopter for application of technique of nuclear emergency response in the fiscal year 2021 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Sasaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Yoshiharu*; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Hiraga, Shogo*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Akutsu, Yuichiro*; Hokama, Tomonori; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2022-028, 127 Pages, 2023/02


A large amount of radioactive material was released by the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company, caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring via manned helicopter has been utilized to grasp rapidly and widely the distribution of the radioactive materials surrounding FDNPS. We prepare the data of background radiation dose, geomorphic characteristics and the controlled airspace surrounding nuclear facilities of the whole country in order to make effective use of the monitoring technique as a way of emergency radiation monitoring and supply the results during an accident of a facility. This report has summarized the knowledge noted above achieved by the aerial radiation monitoring around Ohi and Takahama nuclear power stations. In addition, the examination's progress aimed at introducing airborne radiation monitoring via an unmanned plane during a nuclear disaster and the technical issues are summarized in this report.

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring via manned helicopter around the Nuclear Power Station in the fiscal year 2021 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Nagakubo, Azusa; Kawasaki, Yoshiharu*; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Hiraga, Shogo*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Akutsu, Yuichiro*; Urabe, Yoshimi*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2022-027, 148 Pages, 2023/02


By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the FDNPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring via manned helicopter has been conducted around FDNPS. The results of the airborne radiation monitoring and the evaluation for temporal change of dose rate in the fiscal 2021 were summarized in this report. Analysis considering topographical effects was applied to the result of the airborne monitoring to improve the accuracy of the conventional method. In addition, technique for discriminating gamma rays from the ground and those from the airborne Rn-progenies was also utilized to evaluate their effect on airborne radiation monitoring.

JAEA Reports

Guideline on structural integrity assessment for reactor pressure vessel in domestic light water reactor based on probabilistic fracture mechanics

Lu, K.; Katsuyama, Jinya; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Li, Y.

JAEA-Research 2022-012, 39 Pages, 2023/02


For reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in the light water reactors, the fracture toughness decreases due to the neutron irradiation embrittlement with operating years. In Japan, to prevent RPVs from a nil-ductile fracture, deterministic fracture mechanics methods in accordance with the codes provided by the Japan Electric Association are performed for assessing the structural integrity of RPVs under the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events by taking the neutron irradiation embrittlement into account. On the other hand, in recent years, probabilistic methodologies for PTS evaluation are introduced into regulations in the United States and some European countries. For example, in the United States, a PTS screening criterion related to the reference temperature based on the probabilistic method is stipulated. If the screening criterion is not satisfied, it is allowable to perform the evaluation based on the probabilistic method by calculating numerical index such as through-wall crack frequency (TWCF). In addition, the reduction of non-destructive examination extent or extension of examination intervals for RPV welds have been discussed based on the probabilistic method. Here, the probabilistic method is a structural integrity assessment method based on probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) which is rational in calculating the failure probability of components by considering uncertainties of various factors related to the aged degradation due to the long-term operation. Based on these backgrounds, we developed a PFM analysis code PASCAL and released a guideline on structural integrity assessment based on PFM by reflecting the latest knowledge and expertise in 2017. Here, the main analysis target was the RPV of pressurized water rector considering neutron irradiation embrittlement and PTS events in the structural integrity assessment of RPVs. The objective of the guideline is that persons who have knowledge on the fracture mechanics can carry out the PFM analyses and

JAEA Reports

Improve long periodic ground motion evaluation with the epicenter on the border between Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures in seismic design of nuclear facilities

Kirita, Fumio; Tominaga, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Seshimo, Kazuyoshi; Uryu, Mitsuru

JAEA-Research 2022-006, 61 Pages, 2023/02


Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) has been observing ground motion for a long time. On the border from northern Ibaraki prefecture to Fukushima prefecture, inland crustal earthquakes occur less frequently until the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (hereinafter referred to as Tohoku Earthquake). After Tohoku Earthquake, aftershocks have become more frequent in this area, and in the Hamadori region of Fukushima earthquake that a remarkable long periodic component was observed in the NCL seismic observation record. Until now there were no such things that long periodic components were observed at the observation points near the epicenter of April 2011 Fukushima earthquake, but it was thought basin structure in deep basement around the NCL affected the propagation process to NCL by reflection survey result. As basement structure of NCL affected the seismic wave propagation process, the seismic wave repeatedly reflects and refracts. For that reason, long periodic components of seismic waves may be possibly amplified. In this study, in order to refine the long periodic ground motion evaluation, using a three dimensional ground structure model (3D model) that can reflect the shape of the deep basement structure around the NCL. When modeling 3D ground structure which has a width of about 80km and a length of about 110km and ranges from the epicenter area of April 2011 Fukushima earthquake to the northern coastal area of Ibaraki prefecture modeled, improved the optimum ground structure model using multiple observation records and performed simulation analysis.

JAEA Reports

User's manual and analysis methodology of probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis code PASCAL Ver.5 for reactor pressure vessels

Takamizawa, Hisashi; Lu, K.; Katsuyama, Jinya; Masaki, Koichi*; Miyamoto, Yuhei*; Li, Y.

JAEA-Data/Code 2022-006, 221 Pages, 2023/02


As a part of the structural integrity assessment research for aging light water reactor (LWR) components, a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis code PASCAL (PFM Analysis of Structural Components in Aging LWR) has been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The PASCAL code can evaluate failure probabilities and failure frequencies of core region in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under transients by considering the uncertainties of influential parameters. The continuous development of the code aims to improve the reliability by introducing the analysis methodologies and functions base on the state-of-the-art knowledge in fracture mechanics and domestic data. In the first version of PASCAL, which was released in FY2000, the basic framework was developed for analyzing failure probabilities considering pressurized thermal shock events for RPVs in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In PASCAL Ver. 2 released in FY 2006, analysis functions including the evaluation methods for embedded cracks and crack detection probability models for inspection were introduced. In PASCAL Ver. 3 released in FY 2010, functions considering weld-overlay cladding on the inner surface of RPV were introduced. In PASCAL Ver. 4 released in FY 2017, we improved several functions such as the stress intensity factor solutions, probabilistic fracture toughness evaluation models, and confidence level evaluation function by considering epistemic and aleatory uncertainties related to influential parameters. In addition, the probabilistic calculation method was also improved to speed up the failure probability calculations. To strengthen the practical applications of PFM methodology in Japan, PASCAL code has been improved since FY 2018 to enable PFM analyses of RPVs subjected to a broad range of transients corresponding to both PWRs and boiling water reactors, including pressurized thermal shock, low-temperature over pressure, and normal operational transients. In particular, the stress intensi

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