Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Nemoto, Junichi*; Ishitani, Ikuo*; Ito, Masahiro*; Pelletier, M.*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 359, p.110448_1 - 110448_7, 2020/04
Coupled computer code analyses of irradiation performance of axially heterogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel elements with high burnup in a fast reactor were conducted. Post-irradiation experiments revealed local concentration of Cs near the interfaces between MOX fuel and blanket columns including the internal blanket of the fuel elements as well as an increase in their cladding diameters. The analyses indicated that the local Cs concentration occurred as a result of Cs axial migration from the MOX fuels toward the blanket pellets near the interfaces. Swelling of the blanket pellets induced by the formation of low-density Cs-U-O compound was not sufficient to cause pellet-to-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). The PCMI analyzed in the MOX fuel column regions was insignificant, and the cladding diameter increases were caused mainly by void swelling in cladding and irradiation creep due to fission gas pressure.
Mitsumoto, Rika; Hazama, Taira; Takahashi, Keita; Kondo, Satoru
JAEA-Technology 2019-020, 167 Pages, 2020/03
The prototype fast breeder reactor Monju has produced valuable technological achievements through design, construction, operation and maintenance over half a century since 1968. This report compiles the reactor technologies developed for Monju, including the areas: history and major achievements, design and construction, commissioning, safety, reactor physics, fuel, systems and components, sodium technology, materials and structures, operation and maintenance, and accidents and failures.
Kondo, Satoru; Tobita, Yoshiharu
JAEA-Research 2019-009, 382 Pages, 2020/03
The SIMMER-III computer code, developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA, the former Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation), is a two-dimensional, multi-velocity-field, multi-component fluid-dynamics code, coupled with a space- and time-dependent neutron kinetics model. The code is being used widely for simulating complex phenomena during core-disruptive accidents (CDAs) in liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In parallel to the code development, a comprehensive assessment program was performed in two phases: Phase 1 for verifying individual fluid-dynamics models; and Phase 2 for validating its applicability to integral phenomena important to evaluating LMFR CDAs. The SIMMERIII assessment program was participated by European research and development organizations, and the achievement of Phase 1 was compiled and synthesized in 1996. This report has been edited by revising and reproducing the original 1996 informal report, which compiled the achievement of Phase 1 assessment. A total of 34 test problems were studied in the areas: fluid convection, interfacial area and momentum exchange, heat transfer, melting and freezing, and vaporization and condensation. The problems identified have been reflected to the Phase 2 assessment and later model development and improvement. Although the revisions were made in the light of knowledge base obtained later, the original individual contributions by the participants, both positive and negative, are retained except for editorial changes.
Watanabe, So; Senzaki, Tatsuya; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Nakatani, Kiyoharu*; Matsuura, Haruaki*; Horiuchi, Yusuke*; Arai, Tsuyoshi*
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 322(3), p.1273 - 1277, 2019/12
Otaka, Toshiki*; Sato, Tatsumi*; Ono, Shimpei; Nagoshi, Kohei; Abe, Ryoji*; Arai, Tsuyoshi*; Watanabe, So; Sano, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Nakatani, Kiyoharu*
Analytical Sciences, 35(10), p.1129 - 1133, 2019/10
Fukuyama, Hiroyuki*; Higashi, Hideo*; Yamano, Hidemasa
Nuclear Technology, 205(9), p.1154 - 1163, 2019/09
An electromagnetic-levitation technique performed in a static magnetic field was used to measure the density, surface tension, normal spectral emissivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of molten 316L stainless steel (SS316L) and SS316L that contained 5mass%BC. The addition of 5mass%BC to SS316L yielded reductions of 111 K, 6%, 19%, and 6% in the liquidus temperature, density, normal spectral emissivity, and thermal conductivity at the liquidus temperature of SS316L, respectively. The heat capacity increased by 5% with this addition. Although the 5mass%BC addition had no clear effect on the surface tension, sulfur dissolved in the SS316L resulted in a significant decrease in the surface tension.
Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Yamano, Hidemasa
Nuclear Technology, 205(9), p.1164 - 1174, 2019/09
Segawa, Tomoomi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Makino, Takayoshi; Iso, Hidetoshi; Kawaguchi, Koichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Sato, Hisato; Fukasawa, Tomonori*; Fukui, Kunihiro*
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.738 - 745, 2019/09
In the MOX fuel fabrication process, the dry grinding technology of mixed oxide pellets have been developed for the effective use of nuclear fuel materials. To develop a technology to control the particle size of dry recovered powder, the performance of the buhrstone mill and the collision plate type jet mill were studied using a simulated powder of particle size distribution about 500 m. We found that the particle size can be controlled at the range of about 250 m or less by both by adjusting the clearance between the grinding wheels of the buhrstone mill, and the clearance and elevation angle of the clarification zone of the the collision plate type jet mill. And furthermore, the collision plate type jet mill is considered to be suitable for particle size control because the operating parameters of the classifier can be finely adjusted.
Yamano, Hidemasa; Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Shin; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki*; Higashi, Hideo*; Nishi, Tsuyoshi*; Ota, Hiromichi*; et al.
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.418 - 427, 2019/09
Eutectic reactions between boron carbide (BC) and stainless steel (SS) as well as its relocation are one of the key issues in a core disruptive accident (CDA) evaluation in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Since such behaviors have never been simulated in CDA numerical analyses, it is necessary to develop a physical model and incorporate the model into the CDA analysis code. This study is focusing on BC-SS eutectic melting experiments, thermophysical property measurement of the eutectic melt, and physical model development for the eutectic melting reaction. The eutectic experiments involve the visualization experiments, eutectic reaction rate experiments and material analyses. The thermophysical properties are measured in the range from solid to liquid state. The physical model is developed for a severe accident computer code based on the measured data of the eutectic reaction rate and the physical properties. This paper describes the project overview and progress of experimental and analytical studies by 2017. Specific results in this paper is boron concentration distributions of solidified BC-SS eutectic sample in the eutectic melting experiments, which would be used for the validation of the eutectic physical model implemented into the computer code.
Ota, Hirokazu*; Ohgama, Kazuya; Yamano, Hidemasa
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.30 - 39, 2019/09
Ota, Hiromichi*; Kokubo, Hiroki*; Nishi, Tsuyoshi*; Yamano, Hidemasa
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.858 - 860, 2019/09
A viscosity measurement apparatus has been developed. It is known that the measurement of the viscosity of molten alloy at elevated temperatures is difficult due to the difficulty of handling for low viscosity fluids such as the stainless steel (SS)+BC alloy. In this study, the viscosities of the molten nickel (Ni) and stainless steel (SS) were measured by the oscillating crucible method to confirm the performance of the viscosity measurement apparatus as a first step. This method is suitable for high temperature molten alloys. A crucible containing molten metal is suspended, and a rotational oscillation is given to the crucible electromagnetically. The oscillation was damped by the friction of molten metal. The viscosity is determined from the period of oscillation and the logarithmic decrement. The crucible was connected to a mirror block and an inertia disk made of aluminum, and whole of them was suspended by a wire made of platinum-13% rhodium alloy. A laser light is irradiated to the mirror. The reflection light is detected by the photo-detectors, and then, the logarithmic decrement of molten metal is determined. The viscosities of molten nickel and SS melts were measured up to 1823 K. In these results, the measured viscosity values of molten Ni and SS were close to those of the literature values of molten Ni and SS. By the equipment, the viscosity of molten SS+BC alloys are measured. The BC concentration dependence of the viscosity of molten SS+BC alloys is to be clarified.
Fukuyama, Hiroyuki*; Higashi, Hideo*; Yamano, Hidemasa
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.853 - 857, 2019/09
Thermophysical properties of molten mixture of 316L stainless steel (SS316L) and control-rod material (BC) are necessary for the development of computer simulation codes that describe core degradation mechanisms during severe accidents in nuclear power plants involving sodium-cooled fast reactors. The effect of BC addition to SS316L on the solidus and liquidus temperatures were first measured by differential scanning calorimetry. An electromagnetic levitation technique performed in a static magnetic field was used to measure the density, surface tension, normal spectral emissivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of molten SS316L and SS316L containing BC. The effects of BC addition to SS316L on the thermophysical properties were studied up to 10 mass%.
Liu, X.*; Morita, Koji*; Yamano, Hidemasa
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.47 - 51, 2019/09
Investigation of the eutectic reaction in a core disruptive accident of sodium cooled reactor is of importance since reactor criticality will be affected by the change in reactivity after eutectic reaction. In this study, we performed 1st step of validation analysis using a fast reactor safety analysis code, SIMMER-III, with the developed model based on a new series of experiments, where a BC pellet was immersed into a molten stainless steel (SS) pool. The simulation results showed the general behavior of eutectic material formation measured in the experiments reasonably. The eutectic reaction consumes solid BC and liquid SS, and then the liquid eutectic composition is produced at the early stage of reaction due to the high temperature of molten SS. Movement of the eutectic material in the molten pool leads to the redistribution of boron element. Molten SS pool then freezes to solid SS and movement of eutectic material is stopped by surrounding solid SS. Boron concentration in the pool was measured after molten SS freezes into a solid. Simulation results indicate that boron tends to accumulate in the upper part of the molten pool. This is attributed to the buoyancy force acting on lighter boron in the molten SS pool. A parametric study was also conducted by changing the initial temperature of BC pellet and SS to investigate the temperature sensitivity on the eutectic reaction behavior.
Sugino, Kazuteru; Numata, Kazuyuki*; Ishikawa, Makoto; Takeda, Toshikazu*
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 130, p.118 - 123, 2019/08
In MA sample irradiation test data calculations, the neutron fluence during irradiation period is generally scaled by using dosimetry data in order to improve calculation accuracy. In such a case, appropriate correction is required to burnup sensitivity coefficients obtained by the conventional generalized perturbation theory because some cancellations occur in the burnup sensitivity coefficients. Therefore, a new formula for the burnup sensitivity coefficient has been derived with the consideration of the neutron fluence scaling effect (NFS). In addition, the cross-section-induced uncertainty is evaluated by using the obtained burnup sensitivity coefficients and the covariance data based on the JENDL-4.0.
Kikuchi, Shin; Koga, Nobuyoshi*; Yamazaki, Atsushi*
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 137(4), p.1211 - 1224, 2019/08
In this study, two siliceous concretes with similar specification as structural concretes of SFR were selected for the comparative study of the thermal behavior. The thermal behavior of the structural concretes was investigated in a temperature range from room temperature to 1900 K using TG-differential thermal analysis (DTA) and other supplementary techniques. The softening and melting of the concretes initiated in the thermal decomposition product of the cement portion in the temperature range 1400-1600 K. Because the compositional difference between the cement portion of two different siliceous concretes was characterized by different Ca(OH)/CaCO ratios, the melting temperature ranges of those thermal decomposition products are not so significantly different. On the other hand, the melting of the aggregate is directly influenced by the initial composition of SiO compounds.
Ezure, Toshiki; Ito, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kameyama, Yuri*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 350, p.90 - 97, 2019/08
This paper reports the results of an experiment on surface vortex-type gas entrainment, which occurs in a shear flow area where flow passes besides the stagnation region. The relationship between the free surface dimple shape and the velocity distribution around the free surface vortex was simultaneously grasped under several horizontal and suction velocity conditions by a combination of visualization and particle image velocimetry measurements. The circulation and the vertical velocity gradient were also evaluated from the velocity distributions at a plane just below the free surface and the middle plane between the free surface and suction nozzle. Quantitative relationships between the circulation, vertical velocity gradient, and gas core length were obtained in time-trends as fundamental data to develop the evaluation method of gas entrainment. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the evaluation method based on a vortex model was an effective way to evaluate gas entrainment.
Ezure, Toshiki; Onojima, Takamitsu; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Jun; Kurihara, Akikazu; Kameyama, Yuri*
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.3355 - 3363, 2019/08
Steady-state sodium experiments under the operating conditions of a decay heat removal system (DHRS) were carried out as part of the safety enhancement of sodium-cooled fast reactors using the PLANDTL 2 facility, which has 30 heated channels with electric heaters and 25 no-heated channels as the simulated core. In the experiments, a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) with a dipped type direct heat exchanger (DHX) in the upper plenum was used as the DHRS. This paper reports on the preliminary experimental results of the PLANDTL 2 experiments under the DRACS operating conditions without flow in the primary circuit, including the thermal hydraulic interactions between the upper plenum and the core under the DHX operating conditions and the resulting core cooling behavior from the outside of the multiple rows of the fuel assemblies
Ito, Kei*; Ito, Daisuke*; Saito, Yasushi*; Ezure, Toshiki; Matsushita, Kentaro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Imai, Yasutomo*
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.6632 - 6642, 2019/08
In this paper, a mechanistic model is proposed to calculate the entrained gas flow rate by a free surface vortex. The model contains the theoretical equation of transient gas core elongation and the empirical equation of critical gas core length for gas bubble detachment. Based on those two equations, the entrained gas flow rate is calculated as the portion of the gas core elongated beyond the critical gas core length per unit time. Then, the mechanistic model was applied to the calculation of the entrained gas flow rate in a simple water experiment. As a result, it is confirmed that the entrained gas flow rate grows rapidly when the liquid (water) flow rate, which determine the strength of a free surface vortex, exceeds a certain threshold value.
Tanaka, Masaaki; Kudo, Yoshiro*; Nakada, Kotaro*; Koshizuka, Seiichi*
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.1473 - 1484, 2019/08
Verification and validation (V&V) including uncertainty quantification on modeling and simulation activities has been very much focused on. Due to increase of requirement for standardization of the procedures on the V&V and prediction process to enhance the simulation credibility, "Guideline for Credibility Assessment of Nuclear Simulations (AESJ-SC-A008: 2015)" was published on July 2016 from the AESJ through ten-year discussion. The paper describes brief history of discussion in the AESJ to the publication and introductory explanation of the procedures in the five major elements and one scheme described in the Guideline. And also, a practical experience of the V&V activity according to the fundamental concept indicated in the Guideline is introduced.
Ito, Daisuke*; Kurisaki, Tatsuya*; Ito, Kei*; Saito, Yasushi*; Imaizumi, Yuya; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.6430 - 6439, 2019/08
In core disruptive accident of sodium-cooled fast reactor, cooling of residual fuel debris formed in the reactor core is one of important factors to achieve in-vessel retention of the fuel. To clarify the feasibility of the cooling which is called "in-place cooling", characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in the debris bed must be well understood. Since the debris bed can be formed in a confined flow channel in the core, effect of the channel wall cannot be neglected. Thus, this study aims to clarify the effect of the wall on two-phase flow characteristics in the debris bed, which was simulated as a particle bed packed in a pipe. The pressure drop was measured and compared with results by previous models, and porosity and void fraction distributions were measured by X-ray radiography. Then, the pressure drop evaluation model was modified considering the wall effect, and the applicability of the models was discussed.