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Effects of dislocation arrangement and character on the work hardening of lath martensitic steels

段野下 宙志*; 長谷川 寛*; 樋口 翔*; 松田 広志*; Gong, W.; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; 梅澤 修*

Scripta Materialia, 236, p.115648_1 - 115648_5, 2023/11


Work-hardening behavior of a lath martensitic Fe-18Ni alloy during tensile deformation is discussed based on the Taylor's equation. The dislocation characteristics are monitored using in situ neutron diffraction. In the specimens of as-quenched (AQ) and tempered at 573 K (T573), the dislocations are extremely dense and randomly arranged. The dislocations in AQ and T573 form dislocation cells as deformation progresses. Consequently, a composite condition comprising cell walls and cell interiors is formed, and the coefficient $$alpha$$ in the Taylor's equation increases. Cells are already present in the specimen tempered at 773 K (T773), which has a low dislocation density and a large fraction of edge-type dislocations. As deformation continues, the dislocation density of T773 increases, its cell size decreases, and its composite condition become stronger. Simultaneously, the edge-type dislocation fraction decreases, keeping $$alpha$$ unchanged. Thus, both the dislocation arrangement and character affected $$alpha$$, thereby affecting the work-hardening behavior.


Conversion of clay minerals to photocatalysts for Cr$$^{VI}$$ reduction and salicylic acid decomposition

杉田 剛; 森 勝伸*; 下山 巖

Applied Clay Science, 243, p.107074_1 - 107074_8, 2023/10



Quantitatively evaluating respective contribution of austenite and deformation-induced martensite to flow stress, plastic strain, and strain hardening rate in tensile deformed TRIP steel

Mao, W.; Gao, S.*; Gong, W.; Bai, Y.*; Harjo, S.; Park, M.-H.*; 柴田 曉伸*; 辻 伸泰*

Acta Materialia, 256, p.119139_1 - 119139_16, 2023/09




Residual stress relaxation by bending fatigue in induction-hardened gear studied by neutron Bragg edge transmission imaging and X-ray diffraction

Su, Y. H.; 及川 健一; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 堀野 孝*; 井戸原 修*; 三阪 佳孝*; 友田 陽*

International Journal of Fatigue, 174, p.107729_1 - 107729_12, 2023/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:0.01(Engineering, Mechanical)

A novel procedure, double induction quenching (DIQ), effective for improving the fatigue strength of gear products, has been used for producing gears with steep gradients of compressive residual stress generated in the tooth surface. We performed a Bragg edge imaging experiment at a pulsed neutron source to determine the spatial distribution of the {110} lattice spacing (d$$_{110}$$) and the broadening of the {110} Bragg edge (w$$_{110}$$) on the DIQ gear product after tooth-bending fatigue tests to which different loading cycles were applied. No significant difference occurred in the d$$_{110}$$ and the w$$_{110}$$at Hofer 's critical section of the teeth with different loading conditions within the accuracy of data analysis. However, we detected a decrease in the w$$_{110}$$ and changes in the residual lattice strain distribution in the axial direction along the tooth root directions at the opposite side of Hofer 's critical section for both teeth after 3$$times$$10 $$^{5}$$ and 8$$times$$10 $$^{5}$$ cycles, relieving the compressive residual stresses during the fatigue process. The residual stress close to the gear tooth surface determined by X-ray diffraction using sequential polishing showed a slight relaxation and redistribution from the tensile side in the hoop direction, complementary to the neutron Bragg edge imaging.


An X-ray and neutron scattering study of aqueous MgCl$$_2$$ solution in the gigapascal pressure range

山口 敏男*; 福山 菜美*; 吉田 亨次*; 片山 芳則*; 町田 真一*; 服部 高典

Liquids, 3(3), p.288 - 302, 2023/09

圧力0.1MPaから4GPa、温度300Kから500Kにおける2mol/kg MgCl$$_2$$水溶液の構造をX線と中性子散乱測定によって明らかにした。この散乱データを経験的ポテンシャル構造精密化(EPSR)モデリングにより解析し、圧力と温度の関数としてペア分布関数、配位数分布、角度分布、空間密度関数を導出した。Mg$$^{2+}$$は第3殻まで広がったリジッドな溶媒和殻を形成している。つまり、0GPaで約6個の水分子を含む6配位八面体の第1溶媒和殻は、ギガパスカルの圧力領域では、近接イオン対を形成し、約5個の水分子と1個のCl$$^-$$となる。また、Cl$$^-$$の溶媒和も、圧力によって大きく変わる。つまり、Cl$$^-$$イオンまわりの水分子の配位数は、0.1MPa/300Kでの8から、4GPa/500Kでの10に増加する。また溶媒(水)も、0.1MPa/300Kでの四面体ネットワーク構造から、ギガパスカルの圧力領域では、密に詰まった構造へと変化する。このとき、中心水分子1個まわりの隣接酸素原子数は、0.1MPa/298Kでの4.6個から4GPa/500Kでの8.4個へと徐々に増加する。


Strengthening of $$alpha$$Mg and long-period stacking ordered phases in a Mg-Zn-Y alloy by hot-extrusion with low extrusion ratio

Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; 相澤 一也; 川崎 卓郎; 山崎 倫昭*

Acta Materialia, 255, p.119029_1 - 119029_12, 2023/08

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

An as-cast sample and two hot-extruded samples with different extrusion ratios (R) of Mg$$_{97}$$Zn$$_{1}$$Y$$_{2}$$ alloy containing the HCP $$alpha$$ matrix ($$alpha$$Mg) and the long-period stacking ordered phase (LPSO) of about 25-vol%, were used in tensile deformation in situ neutron diffraction experiments, to elucidate the effects of uniquely different microstructural evolutions in $$alpha$$Mg and LPSO with varying the R value to the mechanical properties. $$alpha$$Mg behaved as the soft phase and LPSO as the hard phase, and hot-extrusion improved the strength of both. At the R value of 5.0, a bimodal microstructure was created in $$alpha$$Mg, increasing largely the yield strength of $$alpha$$Mg. With increasing the R value to 12.5, the bimodal microstructure of $$alpha$$Mg collapsed and the yield strength of $$alpha$$Mg decreased. However, the strength of LPSO increased monotonously with increasing the R value due to the developments of kink bands and texture.


Field-tuned quantum renormalization of spin dynamics in the honeycomb lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet YbCl$$_3$$

Sala, G.*; Stone, M. B.*; Hal$'a$sz, G. B.*; Lumsden, M. D.*; Fay, A, F,*; Pajerowski, D. M.*; 河村 聖子; 金子 耕士; Mazzone, D. G.*; Simutis, G.*; et al.

Communications Physics (Internet), 6, p.234_1 - 234_7, 2023/08

We demonstrate and elucidate quantum effects on the honeycomb lattice through comprehensive inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the prototype honeycomb lattice quantum magnet YbCl$$_{3}$$ as a function of applied magnetic field. Examining the spectrum above the saturation field where linear spin-wave theory is essentially exact, we accurately determine the dominant nearest-neighbor Heisenberg interaction. Below the saturation field, we reveal a field-dependent energy renormalization of the entire magnetic spectrum; the sharp spin-wave modes as well as the multimagnon continuum. This renormalization is a quantum effect that can be accurately captured by the first 1=S correction in nonlinear spin-wave theory. Furthermore, we find that the application of a magnetic field induces a qualitatively new sharp feature inside the multimagnon continuum; the lower edge of a specific two-magnon component; which is complementary to the previously observed Van Hove singularity and demonstrates that structures within the multimagnon continuum can occur over a wide experimental parameter space and can be used as an additional means of identifying quantum phenomena.



関根 由莉奈

ファインケミカル, 52(8), p.25 - 32, 2023/08

凍結現象を利用することで、カルボキシメチルセルロースナノファイバーを主体とした無害な素材のみで 高い圧縮負荷にも耐えるハイドロゲルが形成することを発見した。鍵となるのは水溶液が凍結する時に起きる、氷結晶と溶質の相分離である。本稿では凍結架橋ゲルの形成メカニズムやゲルの特性について述べる。


Development of correction method for sample density effect on PGA

前田 亮; 瀬川 麻里子; 藤 暢輔; 遠藤 駿典; 中村 詔司; 木村 敦

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 332(8), p.2995 - 2999, 2023/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Chemistry, Analytical)

The accuracy of the prompt $$gamma$$-ray analysis is known to degrade for the samples containing neutron-scattering materials, such as hydrogen, depending on its content. Recently, we discovered that the density of the scattering materials also affects the accuracy. In this paper, we developed a correction method for the effect of the sample densities. The developed correction method is straightforward and applicable to samples with unknown densities. The simulation and experiments verified the performance of the correction method. The results confirmed that the correction method could reduce the uncertainty due to sample density from 47% to approximately 1%.


Incommensurate nature of the antiferromagnetic order in GdCu$$_2$$

金子 耕士; 田端 千紘; 萩原 雅人; 山内 宏樹; 久保田 正人; 長壁 豊隆; 大貫 惇睦*

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 92(8), p.085001_1 - 085001_2, 2023/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

A magnetic order in orthorhombic GdCu$$_2$$ was investigated by a single crystal neutron diffraction with thermal neutron. Magnetic peaks were observed at incommensurate positions described by the ordering vector $$q$$=($${delta}$$~1~0) with $${delta}$$=0.678 at 4~K. This ordering vector is close to the commensurate one with $$q_c$$=(2/3~1~0) reported earlier, but clearly deviates. The incommensurate nature of the magnetic order in GdCu$$_2$$ is further corroborated by the peak shift with temperature below $$T_{rm N}$$.


One-dimensional band structure in quasi-two-dimensional $$eta$$-Mo$$_4$$O$$_{11}$$ revealed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculation

角田 一樹; 檜垣 聡太*; 佐藤 仁*; 水流 大地*; 宮本 幸治*; 奥田 太一*; 黒岩 芳弘*; 森吉 千佳子*; 高瀬 浩一*; 小口 多美夫*; et al.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 92(8), p.084706_1 - 084706_6, 2023/08

We investigated the electronic structure of $$eta$$-Mo$$_4$$O$$_{11}$$ bulk crystal in the whole Brillouin zone at a normal metallic state by utilizing resonant and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies and first-principles calculations. Mo 4$$p$$-4$$d$$ resonant photoelectron experiment revealed that the Mo 4$$d$$ electrons of MoO$$_6$$ octahedra mainly contributed to the electrical conductivity. We also demonstrated that the free electron-like band dispersions along $$k_b$$ axis, consisting of Mo 4$$d_{xy}$$ electrons, do not show clear $$k_a$$ and $$k_c$$ dependences and formed a one-dimensional Fermi surface even at the normal state. The observed low-dimensional and anisotropic band structures are expected to induce exotic physical properties such as quantized bulk Hall effect, charge density wave transitions, and Luttinger liquid behavior.


Element-specific insight into ferromagnetic stability in UCoGe revealed by soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

竹田 幸治; Posp$'i$$v{s}$il, J.*; 山上 浩志; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範

Physical Review B, 108(8), p.085129_1 - 085129_10, 2023/08

We investigated the element-specific electronic states and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe and Ru-substituted U(Co$$_{0.88}$$Ru$$_{0.12}$$)Ge using soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments. YCoGe, a nonmagnetic compound without the 5$$f$$ electrons, was also examined as a reference material. The shapes of the XMCD spectra of UCoGe at the U $$N_mathrm{5}$$ and Ge $$L_mathrm{2,3}$$ edges are indistinguishably similar to those of U(Co$$_{0.88}$$Ru$$_{0.12}$$)Ge. On the other hand, the XMCD spectral shape at the Co $$L_mathrm{2}$$ edge is very peculiar and is changed by the existence of the U 5$$f$$ electrons and the Ru substitution. From the sum rule analysis for the XMCD spectra, it was found that the magnetic moments of the U 5$$f$$ and Co 3$$d$$ electrons in UCoGe and U(Co$$_{0.88}$$Ru$$_{0.12}$$)Ge are aligned in the same direction under the present experimental conditions; $$T$$ = 5.5 - 50 K and $$mu_mathrm{0}H$$ = 0 - 10 T. Furthermore, even in the case of YCoGe, the Co 3$$d$$ electrons have a large orbital magnetic moment, suggesting that the Co 3$$d$$ electrons in these compounds are in a low symmetric electronic environment originally. Through the $$T$$- and $$mu_mathrm{0}H$$-dependence of the XMCD intensity, it was revealed that the magnetic properties at the Co site are not simply induced by the magnetism at the U site and that the Co 3$$d$$ electrons play an important role in the stability of ferromagnetism.


Exploring spin-polarization in Bi-based high-$$T_c$$ cuprates

岩澤 英明*; 角田 一樹; 石田 茂之*; Le F$`e$vre, P.*; Bertran, F.*; 吉田 良行*; 永崎 洋*; Santander-Syro, A.*; 奥田 太一*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 13, p.13451_1 - 13451_7, 2023/08

The role of spin-orbit interaction has been recently reconsidered in high-$$T_c$$ cuprates, stimulated by the recent experimental observations of spin-polarized electronic states. However, due to the complexity of the spin texture reported, the origin of the spin polarization in high-$$T_c$$ cuprates remains unclear. Here, we present the spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data on the facing momentum points that are symmetric with respect to the $$Gamma$$ point, to ensure the intrinsic spin nature related to the initial state. We consistently found the very weak spin polarization only along the nodal direction, with no indication of spin-splitting of the band. Our findings thus call for a revision of the simple application of the spin-orbit interaction, which has been treated within the standard framework of the Rashba interaction in high-$$T_c$$ cuprates.


Atomic reconstruction induced by uniaxial stress in MnP

小澤 竜也*; 藤原 理賀; 内原 猛*; 満田 節生*; 矢野 真一郎*; 玉造 博夢; 宗像 孝司*; 中尾 朗子*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 13, p.13750_1 - 13750_8, 2023/08



${it In situ}$ neutron diffraction study on the deformation behavior of the plastic inorganic semiconductor Ag$$_{2}$$S

Wang, Y.*; Gong, W.; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Zhang, K.*; Zhang, Z. D.*; Li, B.*

Applied Physics Letters, 123(1), p.011903_1 - 011903_6, 2023/07


Bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S is a plastic inorganic semiconductor at room temperature. It exhibits a compressive strain greater than 50%, which is highly different from brittle conventional counterparts, such as silicon. Here, we present the experimental investigation of the deformation behavior in a plastic inorganic semiconductor Ag$$_{2}$$S using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction during compressive deformation at room and elevated temperatures. At room temperature, the lattice strain partitioning among $$hkl$$-orientated grain families could be responsible for the significant work-hardening behavior in the bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S with a monoclinic structure. The rapid accumulation of lattice defects and remarkable development of the deformation texture suggest that dislocation slip promotes plasticity. At 453 K, a monoclinic phase transforms into a body-centered cubic phase. A stress plateau appears at $$sim$$-4.8 MPa, followed by a rehardening state. The deformation mode of bulk Ag$$_{2}$$S at the initial stage is likely attributable to the migration of silver ions, and as strain increases, it is closer to that of room temperature, leading to rehardening.


Heterogeneous aggregation of humic acids studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

斉藤 拓巳*; 元川 竜平; 大窪 貴洋*; 三浦 大輔*; 熊田 高之

Environmental Science & Technology, 57(26), p.9802 - 9810, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Engineering, Environmental)

Aggregation of humic acids (HAs) were studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. The combination of these techniques enables us to examine aggregation structures of heterogeneous HA particles. Two HAs with distinctive compositions were examined; a commercial HA (PAHA) and a HA extracted from deep sedimentary groundwater (HHA). While macroscopic coagulation tests showed that these HAs were stable in solutions except for HHA at pH $$<$$ 6, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that they formed aggregates with the sizes exceeding sub-micrometer length scale. The SAXS curves of PAHA remarkably varied with pD, whereas the SANS curves did not. With the help of theoretical fittings, it was revealed that PAHA aggregates consisted of two domains: poorly hydrated cores and well-hydrated proton-rich shells. The cores are (dis)aggregated with pD inside the aggregates of the shell. The SANS and SAXS curves of HHA resemble each other, and their intensities at low q increased with a decrease of pD, indicating the formation of homogeneous aggregates. This study revealed that distinctive aggregation behaviors exist in humic substances with heterogeneous structures like PAHA, which is invaluable for their roles in the fate of contaminants or nutrients in aqueous environments.


Effect of annealing on the magnetic microstructure of high-pressure torsion iron; The Relevance of higher-order contributions to the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering cross section

Bersweiler, M.*; 佐藤 宏和*; 足立 望*; 戸高 義一*; Peral, I.*; Kohlbrecher, J.*; Zaporozhets, V. D.*; Metlov, K. L.*; Michels, A.*; 大場 洋次郎

IUCrJ, 10(4), p.411 - 419, 2023/07


Magnetic microstructures in severely deformed iron produced via high-pressure torsion (HPT) straining have been investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. The results reveal that nonneglibible third-order scattering contribution in the inhomogeneities amplitude of magnetization is induced via HPT straining and the contribution becomes small with subsequent annealing. The contribution has negative values, which suggest that the inhomogeneity of the magnetic anisotropy enhanced via HPT is a possible origin of the third-order contribution.


Spontaneous topological Hall effect induced by non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order in intercalated van der Waals materials

高木 寛貴*; 高木 里奈*; 見波 将*; 野本 拓也*; 大石 一城*; 鈴木 通人*; 柳 有起*; 平山 元昭*; Khanh, N.*; 軽部 皓介*; et al.

Nature Physics, 19(7), p.961 - 968, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

In ferromagnets, electric current generally induces a transverse Hall voltage in proportion to the internal magnetization. This effect is frequently used for electrical readout of the spin up and down states. While these properties are usually not expected in antiferromagnets, recent theoretical studies predicted that non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order with finite scalar spin chirality - meaning a solid angle spanned by neighboring spins - can induce a large spontaneous Hall effect even without net magnetization or external magnetic field. This phenomenon, the spontaneous topological Hall effect, can potentially be used for the efficient electrical readout of the antiferromagnetic states, but it has not been experimentally verified due to a lack of appropriate materials hosting such magnetism. Here, we report the discovery of all-in-all-out type non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order in triangular lattice compounds CoTa$$_{3}$$S$$_{6}$$ and CoNb$$_{3}$$S$$_{6}$$. These compounds are reported to host unconventionally large spontaneous Hall effect despite their vanishingly small net magnetization, and our analysis reveals that it can be explained in terms of the topological Hall effect that originates from the fictitious magnetic field associated with scalar spin chirality. These results indicate that the scalar spin chirality mechanism offers a promising route to the realisation of giant spontaneous Hall response even in compensated antiferromagnets, and highlight intercalated van der Waals magnets as a promising quasi-two-dimensional material platform to enable various nontrivial ways of electrical reading and possible writing of non-coplanar antiferromagnetic domains.


Deformation mechanism of a strong and ductile maraging steel investigated using ${it in situ}$ X-ray synchrotron diffraction

Li, H.*; Liu, Y.*; Zhao, W.*; Liu, B.*; 冨永 亜希; 菖蒲 敬久; Wei, D.*

International Journal of Plasticity, 165, p.103612_1 - 103612_20, 2023/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Engineering, Mechanical)



Single crystal growths and magnetic properties of hexagonal polar semimetals $$R$$AuGe ($$R$$ = Y, Gd-Tm, and Lu)

車地 崇*; 厳 正輝*; 鬼頭 俊介*; 池内 和彦*; 中村 充孝; 池田 暁彦*; 有馬 孝尚*

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 947, p.169475_1 - 169475_8, 2023/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Chemistry, Physical)

We study structural and magnetic properties of rare-earth based semimetals ${it R}$AuGe (${it R}$ = Y, Gd-Tm, and Lu) using flux-grown single crystals. We evaluate the crystal electric field parameters based on the Stevens operators to reasonably reproduce the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibilities and specific heat for RAuGe (${it R}$ = TbTm). The estimated energy scale of the Ising gap ($$sim$$ 11 meV) in TmAuGe is consistent with an excitation observed in an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. These findings suggest an opportunity for interplay between conduction electrons and nontrivial spin structures in the family of magnetic polar semimetals ${it R}$AuGe.

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