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Journal Articles

XAFS analysis of ruthenium in simulated iron phosphate radioactive waste glass

Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Sasage, Kenichi; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*; Nagai, Takayuki

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 551, p.120393_1 - 120393_8, 2021/01

The chemical state of ruthenium in simulated iron phosphate radioactive waste glass was investigated by conventional X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and imaging XAFS analyses. The EXAFS analysis suggested that ruthenium was contained as glass phase when content of the waste components was less than 10wt.% in 30 mol%Fe$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$-P$$_{2}$$O$$_{5}$$ base glass. In other samples, crystalline RuO$$_{2}$$ was predominant. According to the imaging XAFS analysis, RuO$$_{2}$$ particles in all samples had length smaller than 50$$mu$$m. Aggregations of RuO$$_{2}$$, which are found in nuclear waste borosilicate glass, were not seen in any of the iron phosphate glass samples.

JAEA Reports

A Catalog showing distribution and features of lineaments and related landforms in an active shear zone with unclear fault displacement topography; An Example of an active left-lateral shear zone in southern Kyushu Island, southwest Japan (Contract research)

Goto, Akira; Sasaki, Akimichi*; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Miwa, Atsushi*; Terusawa, Shuji*; Kagohara, Kyoko*; Shimada, Koji

JAEA-Research 2020-013, 88 Pages, 2020/11

JAEA-Research-2020-013.pdf:22.86MB
JAEA-Research-2020-013-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:0.18MB

Improvement of the investigation techniques to identify active faults is important for the implementation of geological disposal projects from the viewpoint of avoiding locations where permeability increases due to fault displacement. Generally, the existence of active faults is confirmed by aerial photography interpretation of fault displacement topography, which is a topographical trace of fault movement, and on-site geological surveys. However, the investigation method for cases where the topographical traces are unclear is not sufficiently developed. Therefore, to improve existing topographical methods, this study deciphered lineaments up to the rank of poorly defined features, which are almost neglected in general active fault research. The investigation area is one of the geodetic strain concentration zone, called the southern Kyushu shear zone, where the seismogenic faults of the 1997 Kagoshima northwest earthquakes are concealed. We conducted aerial photography interpretation of 62 sheets of 1/25,000 topographic maps, and obtained 1,327 lineaments. Distribution density, direction and length of lineaments were also investigated with topographic and geologic information. As a result, it was clarified that the east-west lineaments in the south Kyushu shear zone predominate in the western part, and the lineaments are densely distributed in the aftershock distribution area of the Kagoshima northwest earthquake. Along with these results, we have compiled a catalog of typical 13 lineaments based on combinations of clarity, direction, length and geomorphic characters of lineaments.

Journal Articles

Current status and prospects of FT and (U-Th)/He dating laboratory at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Sueoka, Shigeru; Shimada, Koji; Kanno, Mizuho; Yokoyama, Tatsunori

Fisshion, Torakku Nyusureta, (33), p.15 - 18, 2020/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Estimation of the uplift/denudation history in Kitakami Mountains by thermochronology

Kajita, Yuya*; Fukuda, Shoma; Sueoka, Shigeru; Hasebe, Noriko*; Tamura, Akihiro*; Morishita, Tomoaki*; Kohn, B. P.*; Tagami, Takahiro*

Fisshion, Torakku Nyusureta, (33), p.28 - 30, 2020/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Coupled modeling simulator for near-field processes in cement engineered barrier systems for radioactive waste disposal

Benbow, S. J.*; Kawama, Daisuke*; Takase, Hiroyasu*; Shimizu, Hiroyuki*; Oda, Chie; Hirano, Fumio; Takayama, Yusuke; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira

Crystals (Internet), 10(9), p.767_1 - 767_33, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0

Details are presented of the development of a coupled modeling simulator for assessing the evolution in the near-field of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal where concrete is used as a backfill. The simulator uses OpenMI, a standard for exchanging data between simulation software programs at run-time, to form a coupled chemical-mechanical-hydrogeological model of the system. The approach combines a tunnel scale stress analysis finite element model, a discrete element model for accurately modeling the patterns of emerging cracks in the concrete, and a finite element and finite volume model of the chemical processes and alteration in the porous matrix and cracks in the concrete, to produce a fully coupled model of the system. Combining existing detailed simulation software in this way with OpenMI has the benefit of not relying on simplifications that might be necessary to combine all of the modeled processes in a single piece of software.

Journal Articles

Pressure resistance thickness of disposal containers for spent fuel direct disposal

Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Naoki; Makino, Hitoshi; Kanamaru, Shinichiro*; Okumura, Taisei*

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 19(3), p.121 - 135, 2020/09

A series of structural analysis of disposal containers for direct disposal of spent fuel was carried out to provide preliminary estimates of the required pressure resistance thickness of the disposal container. Disposal containers were designed to contain either 2, 3 or 4 spent fuel assemblies in linear, triangular or square arrangements, respectively. The required pressure resistance thickness was evaluated using separation distance of the housing space for each spent fuel assembly as a key model parameter to obtain the required thickness of the body and then the lid of the disposal container. This work also provides additional analytical technical knowledge, such as the validity of the setting of the stress evaluation line and the effect of the model length on the analysis. These can then be referred to and used again in the future as a basis for conducting similar evaluations under different conditions or proceeding with more detailed evaluations.

Journal Articles

Kinetic study on eutectic melting process between boron carbide and stainless steel in sodium-cooled fast reactor

Kikuchi, Shin; Sakamoto, Kan*; Takai, Toshihide; Yamano, Hidemasa

Nippon Kikai Gakkai 2020-Nendo Nenji Taikai Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/09

In a postulated severe accidental condition of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), eutectic melting between boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) as control rod element and stainless steel (SS) as control rod cladding or related structure may occur. Thus, behavior of B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting is one of the phenomena to evaluate the core disruptive accidents in SFR. In order to clarify the kinetic feature of B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting process in the interface, the thinning test for SS crucibles using the pellets of B$$_{4}$$C or SS with low B$$_{4}$$C concentration were performed to obtain the rate constant with dependence of B$$_{4}$$C concentration against SS. It was found that the rate constants of eutectic melting between SS and SS low B$$_{4}$$C concentration were smaller than that of B$$_{4}$$C-SS in the high temperature range. Besides, the rate constant of eutectic melting between SS and B$$_{4}$$C containing SS became small when decreasing the B$$_{4}$$C concentration against SS.

Journal Articles

Study on eutectic melting behavior of control rod materials in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors, 1; Project overview and progress until 2018

Yamano, Hidemasa; Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Shin; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki*; Higashi, Hideo*; Nishi, Tsuyoshi*; Ota, Hiromichi*; et al.

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2020/08

One of the key issues in a core disruptive accident (CDA) evaluation in sodium-cooled fast reactors is eutectic reactions between boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) and stainless steel (SS) as well as its relocation. Such behaviors have never been simulated in CDA numerical analyses in the past, therefore it is necessary to develop a physical model and incorporate the model into the CDA analysis code. This study focuses on B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting experiments, thermophysical property measurement of the eutectic melt, and physical model development for the eutectic melting reaction. The eutectic experiments involve the visualization experiments, eutectic reaction rate experiments and material analyses. The thermophysical properties are measured in a range from solid to liquid state. The physical model is developed for a severe accident computer code based on the measured data of the eutectic reaction rate and the physical properties. This paper describes the project overview and progress of experimental and analytical studies conducted until 2018. Specific results in this paper are boron concentration distributions of solidified B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic sample in the eutectic melting experiments, which would be used for the validation of the eutectic physical model implemented into the computer code.

Journal Articles

Study on eutectic melting behavior of control rod materials in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors, 3; Kinetic study of boron carbide-stainless steel eutectic melting by differential thermal analysis

Kikuchi, Shin; Yamano, Hidemasa; Nakamura, Kinya*

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2020/08

In a postulated severe accidental condition of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), eutectic melting between boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) and stainless steel (SS) may take place. Thus, kinetic behavior of B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting is one of the important phenomena to be considered when evaluating the core disruptive accidents in SFR. In this study, for the first step to obtain the fundamental information on kinetic feature of B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting, the thermal analysis using the pellet type samples of B$$_{4}$$C and Type 316L SS as different experimental technique was performed. The differential thermal analysis endothermic peaks for the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting appeared from 1483K to 1534K and systematically shifted to higher temperatures when increasing heating rate. Based on this kinetic feature, apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting were determined by Kissinger method. It was found that the kinetic parameters obtained by thermal analysis were comparable to the literature values.

Journal Articles

Study on eutectic melting behavior of control rod materials in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors, 4; Validation of a multi-phase model for eutectic reaction between stainless steel and boron carbide

Liu, X.*; Morita, Koji*; Yamano, Hidemasa

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2020/08

In our previous study, a two-dimensional fast reactor safety analysis code, SIMMER-III, was extended to include a physical model to simulate the eutectic reaction between stainless steel (SS) and B$$_{4}$$C. Based on experimental knowledge on eutectic reaction, the growth of eutectic material was modeled according to a parabolic rate law. Heat and mass transfer behaviors among reactor materials including a eutectic composition in solid and liquid phases were also modeled considering both equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes in phase change. Physical properties of the eutectic composition were also formulated based on experimental measurements for 5 mass% B$$_{4}$$C-SS composition. In this study, we extended the eutectic reaction model to SIMMER-IV, a three-dimensional counterpart of SIMMER-III. We performed validation analysis using SIMMER-III and SIMMER-IV with the developed model based on an experiment, where a B$$_{4}$$C pellet was immersed into a molten SS pool. Boron concentration in the pool was measured at several time points and the boron concentration after solidification of the molten pool was compared with the experiment post analysis result. Simulation results of boron distribution are comparable to the experimental results.

Journal Articles

Comparison of field data and numerical simulation of nitrate evolution in groundwater using the model of nitrate evolution

Abe, Toru*; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(1), p.3 - 11, 2020/06

Degradation of TRU waste in a geological disposal facility may cause the formation of a nitrate plume. A Nitrate Evolution model due to mineral reactions, microbial activity, and metal corrosiON (NEON) has therefore been developed to evaluate the safety case for geological disposal of TRU waste. Small scale laboratory experiments can be reproduced satisfactorily, however, it is necessary to demonstrate the applicability of the NEON model on scales relevant to the geological disposal of TRU waste. In the current study, an industrial analogue of a nitrate plume from the pollution of groundwater from nitrate fertilizers used on Ikuchi Island, Japan was selected to test the applicability of the NEON model. Concentration profiles of nitrate ions in the groundwater were successfully reproduced over the hundreds of meters scale demonstrating the applicability of the NEON model in evaluating the chemical behavior of a nitrate plume derived from the geological disposal of TRU waste.

Journal Articles

Study on loss-of-cooling and loss-of-coolant accidents in spent fuel pool; Confirmation of fuel temperature calculation function with oxidation reaction in the SAMPSON code

Suzuki, Hiroaki*; Morita, Yoshihiro*; Naito, Masanori*; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00450_1 - 19-00450_17, 2020/06

In this study, the SAMPSON code was modified to evaluate severe accidents in a spent fuel pool (SFP). Air oxidation models based on oxidation data obtained on the Zircaroy-4 cladding (ANL model) and the Zircaroy-2 cladding (JAEA model) were included in the modified SAMPSON code. Experiments done by Sandia National Laboratory using simulated fuel assemblies equivalent to those of an actual BWR plant were analyzed by the modified SAMPSON code to confirm the functions for analysis of the severe SFP accidents. The rapid fuel rod temperature rise due to the Zr air oxidation reaction could be reasonably evaluated by the SAMPSON analysis. The SFP accident analyses were conducted with different initial water levels which were no water, water level at bottom of active fuel, and water level at half of active fuel. The present analysis showed that the earliest temperature rise of the fuel rod surface occurred when there was no water in the SFP and natural circulation of air became possible.

Journal Articles

Sorption behavior of selenide on montmorillonite

Sugiura, Yuki; Tomura, Tsutomu*; Ishidera, Takamitsu; Doi, Reisuke; Francisco, P. C. M.; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumura, Daiju; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Tachi, Yukio

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 324(2), p.615 - 622, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Chemistry, Analytical)

JAEA Reports

Compilation of previous studies on secondary effects induced by earthquake and fault activity (Contract research)

Goto, Akira; Murakami, Masaki*; Sakai, Ryutaro*; Terusawa, Shuji*; Sueoka, Shigeru

JAEA-Review 2020-003, 60 Pages, 2020/03

JAEA-Review-2020-003.pdf:4.43MB

One of the natural phenomena that may affect the geological disposal system are earthquake and fault activity. Fault displacement due to the earthquake and fault activity will be considered the direct effects. In addition to it, it is necessary to consider the secondary effects include secondary faults formed by the seismic fault activity as well as spring water and mud volcanoes that are generated by fluid movement attributed to the fault activity. This paper introduces previous studies performed focused on the hydraulic effects (spring water and mud volcanoes) and mechanical effects (secondary faults) in order to understand the effects of these secondary phenomena on the geological disposal system. We were able to collect 142 literatures from Japan and overseas by searching for related keywords in Japanese and English. As a result, we compiled case studies of each secondary impact. From the viewpoint of geological disposal, we extracted the following issues for future research and development. As for the sump water induced by earthquakes and faulting, accumulation of information related to its mechanism, affected area, and activity history is required. As for the mud volcanoes, reviewing of the mechanism of anomalous pore water pressure that causing the formation, also development of estimation technique are required. And for the secondary faults, accumulation of the detailed spatial distribution and reviewing of formation mechanism are required.

Journal Articles

Post-test material analysis of eutectic melting reaction of boron carbide and stainless steel

Yamano, Hidemasa; Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro

Nippon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 86(883), p.19-00360_1 - 19-00360_13, 2020/03

It is necessary to simulate a eutectic melting reaction and relocation behavior of boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) as a control rod material and stainless steel (SS) during a core disruptive accident in an advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designed in Japan because the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic relocation behavior has a large uncertainty in the reactivity history based on a simple calculation. A physical model simulating the eutectic melting reaction and relocation was developed and implemented into a severe accident simulation code. The developed model must be validated by using test data. To validate the physical model, therefore, the visualization tests of SS-B$$_{4}$$C eutectic melting reaction was carried out by contacting SS melts of several kg with a B$$_{4}$$C pellet heated up to about 1500 $$^{circ}$$C. The tests have shown the eutectic reaction visualization as well as freezing and relocation of the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic in upper part of the solidified test piece due to the density separation. Post-test material analyses by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope techniques have indicated that FeB appeared at the B$$_{4}$$C-SS contact interface and (Fe,Cr)$$_{2}$$B at the top surface of the test piece. Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry has been applied to quantitative analysis of boron concentration distributions. The boron concentration was high at the upper surface and near the original position of the B$$_{4}$$C pellet.

Journal Articles

In-situ backfilling experiment of the small scall drift by spray method in Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Matsui, Hiroya; Yahagi, Ryoji*; Ishizuka, Hikaru*; Toguri, Satohito*

WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Vol.247, p.145 - 159, 2020/00

In situ backfilling experiment using spray method in the small scale drift (approximately 4 by 3 m scale) was conducted at 500 m depth in Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) established by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). The backfill material consists of sand and bentonite. Specification for the backfill material was designed to satisfy the target permeability of generic host rock (10$$^{-8}$$ m/sec) assumed by NUMO. In this case, effective clay density should be 0.4 Mg/m$$^{3}$$ or more. Quality control of the material before backfilling was performed by setting the initial water contents (average 14%) based on the results of the laboratory testing and preliminary spray testing on ground surface. Densities of the backfilled material measured at any points satisfied the specification and the results suggested the establishment of the practical quality control methodology of the backfilling by spray method under actual deep geological environment. The in situ experiment was sponsored by METI (Ministry of Environment, Trade and Industry).

Journal Articles

Thermochronology on the fore-arc side of Northeast Japan Arc; A Preliminary report of apatite fission-track dating

Kajita, Yuya*; Fukuda, Shoma*; Sueoka, Shigeru; Hasebe, Noriko*; Tamura, Akihiro*; Morishita, Tomoaki*; Tagami, Takahiro*

Fisshion, Torakku Nyusureta, (32), p.6 - 7, 2019/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Thermophysical properties of molten stainless steel containing 5mass%B$$_{4}$$C

Fukuyama, Hiroyuki*; Higashi, Hideo*; Yamano, Hidemasa

Nuclear Technology, 205(9), p.1154 - 1163, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:13(Nuclear Science & Technology)

An electromagnetic-levitation technique performed in a static magnetic field was used to measure the density, surface tension, normal spectral emissivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of molten 316L stainless steel (SS316L) and SS316L that contained 5mass%B$$_{4}$$C. The addition of 5mass%B$$_{4}$$C to SS316L yielded reductions of 111 K, 6%, 19%, and 6% in the liquidus temperature, density, normal spectral emissivity, and thermal conductivity at the liquidus temperature of SS316L, respectively. The heat capacity increased by 5% with this addition. Although the 5mass%B$$_{4}$$C addition had no clear effect on the surface tension, sulfur dissolved in the SS316L resulted in a significant decrease in the surface tension.

Journal Articles

Hydration and degradation of High content Fly ash Silica fume Cement (HFSC)

Anraku, Sohtaro; Walker, C.*; Oda, Chie; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira

Proceedings of 15th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (ICCC 2019) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2019/09

Journal Articles

Formation of metal ion complexes in cementitious porewaters and leachates

Walker, C.*; Anraku, Sohtaro; Oda, Chie; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira

Proceedings of 15th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (ICCC 2019) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2019/09

648 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)