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JAEA Reports

Practical guide on soil sampling, treatment, and carbon isotope analysis for carbon cycle studies

Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nagano, Hirohiko*; Sugiharto, U.*; Saengkorakot, C.*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Naoki; Nagai, Haruyasu; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-012, 53 Pages, 2020/10


There is growing concern that recent rapid changes in climate and environment could have a significant influence on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems (especially forest ecosystems) and could consequently lead to a positive feedback for global warming. The magnitude and timing of this feedback remain highly uncertain largely due to a lack of quantitative understanding of the dynamics of organic carbon stored in soils and its responses to changes in climate and environment. The tracing of radiocarbon (natural and bomb-derived $$^{14}$$C) and stable carbon ($$^{13}$$C) isotopes through terrestrial ecosystems can be a powerful tool for studying soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The primary aim of this guide is to promote the use of isotope-based approaches to improve our understanding of the carbon cycling in soils, particularly in the Asian region. The guide covers practical methods of soil sampling; treatment and fractionation of soil samples; preparation of soil samples for $$^{13}$$C (and stable nitrogen isotope, $$^{15}$$N) and $$^{14}$$C analyses; and $$^{13}$$C, $$^{15}$$N, and $$^{14}$$C measurements by the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The guide briefly introduces ways to report $$^{14}$$C data, which are frequently used for soil carbon cycling studies. The guide also reports results of a case study conducted in a Japanese forest ecosystem, as a practical application of the use of isotope-based approaches. This guide is mainly intended for researchers who are interested but are not experienced in this research field. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in soil carbon cycling studies, including field works, laboratory experiments, isotope analyses, and discussions with great interest.

Journal Articles

Formation and mobility of soil organic carbon in a buried humic horizon of a volcanic ash soil

Wijesinghe, J. N.*; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Kokubu, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Noriko*; Sase, Takashi*; Hosono, Mamoru*; Inoue, Yuzuru*; Mori, Yuki*; Hiradate, Shuntaro*

Geoderma, 374, p.114417_1 - 114417_10, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Soil Science)

Journal Articles

Synchronized gravitational slope deformation and active faulting; A Case study on and around the Neodani fault, central Japan

Komura, Keitaro*; Kaneda, Heitaro*; Tanaka, Tomoki*; Kojima, Satoru*; Inoue, Tsutomu*; Nishio, Tomohiro

Geomorphology, 365, p.107214_1 - 107214_22, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Geography, Physical)

On the basis of pit excavations and sediment cores at an off-fault deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD) site and a trench excavation across the active Neodani fault at a nearby site, we examined the records of DGSD and surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes of the Neodani fault. We found the four most recent DGSD events and the four most recent surface-rupturing earthquakes, respectively and conclude that the ages of events are overlapped each other. We infer that static crustal strain from repeated seismogenic faulting plays an important role in the occurrence of DGSD events, at least in the immediate vicinity of active faults, although coseismic severe shaking would have at least some effect on them. Our case study suggests that off-fault DGSDs can be used to reconstruct or refine the paleoseismic history of a nearby active fault.

Journal Articles

Application of ion channeling for downsizing Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) systems

Matsubara, Akihiro*; Fujita, Natsuko; Ishii, Kunikazu*; Kimura, Kenji*

Hoshasen (Internet), 45(3), p.134 - 138, 2020/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Dating of geological samples

Kokubu, Yoko

ISEE Newsletter, 9, P. 4, 2020/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Radiocarbon dating of a shrine pavilion and offerings at Abushina shrine in Gifu prefecture, Japan

Kokubu, Yoko; Nishio, Tomohiro; Fujita, Natsuko; Matsubara, Akihiro

Proceedings of the 8th East Asia Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Symposium and the 22nd Japan Accelerator Mass Spectrometry symposium (EA-AMS 8 & JAMS-22), p.91 - 93, 2020/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Present status of the JAEA-AMS-TONO in 2019

Fujita, Natsuko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Miyake, Masayasu*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Kato, Motohisa*; Okabe, Nobuaki*; Isozaki, Nobuhiro*; Ishizaka, Chika*; Nishio, Tomohiro; et al.

Proceedings of the 8th East Asia Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Symposium and the 22nd Japan Accelerator Mass Spectrometry symposium (EA-AMS 8 & JAMS-22), p.34 - 36, 2020/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Study of surface stripper for the AMS system with a footprint below 2 m $$times$$ 2 m

Matsubara, Akihiro; Fujita, Natsuko; Kimura, Kenji

Proceedings of the 8th East Asia Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Symposium and the 22nd Japan Accelerator Mass Spectrometry symposium (EA-AMS 8 & JAMS-22), p.57 - 59, 2020/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Lahar record during the last 2500 years, Chokai Volcano, northeast Japan; Flow behavior, sourced volcanic activity, and hazard implications

Minami, Yusuke*; Oba, Tsukasa*; Hayashi, Shintaro*; Kokubu, Yoko; Kataoka, Kyoko S.*

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 387, p.106661_1 - 106661_17, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

The study focuses on volcanic-fan deposits at Chokai Volcano in northeast Japan. The authors conducted sedimentary facies analysis, radiocarbon dating, and historical document analysis to understand the flow characteristics and history of far-reaching lahars. The volcanic fan is composed mainly of a series of lahar deposits formed by at least five large lahar events at: the 2nd - 5th century BC; 2nd to 4th century BC; AD 5th to 7th century; AD 871; and AD 1801 during last 2500 years. These lahar events can be classified into three types: (1) a cohesive debris flow sourced by the debris avalanche deposit; (2) a non-cohesive lahar by a magmatic eruption; and (3) a cohesive debris flow by a phreatic eruption. The lahar, incorporating debris avalanche deposit, flowed as hazardous cohesive debris flow; lahars after magmatic eruptions tends to be streamflow through the flow transformation of sandy debris flow; and a cohesive lahar by a phreatic eruption tends to be of small scale.

Journal Articles

A Suitable procedure for preparing of water samples used in radiocarbon intercomparison

Takahashi, Hiroshi*; Minami, Masayo*; Aramaki, Takafumi*; Handa, Hiroko*; Kokubu, Yoko; Ito, Shigeru*; Kumamoto, Yuichiro*

Radiocarbon, 61(6), p.1879 - 1887, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Water sample for interlaboratory comparison (here after "comparison water") must have inalterable $$^{14}$$C concentration during the comparison campaign and inter-batches homogeneity. In this study, the procedure for preparing of comparison water was discussed. We employed that comparison waters were artificially made by mixing chemical reagents, controlling $$^{14}$$C concentration and chemical composition. We could prepare six comparison waters, having 1, 14, 37, 56, 72 and 100 pMC, respectively. The stable carbon isotopic values and chemical compositions of some batches were measured to exanimate the inter- batches homogeneity. The $$^{14}$$C discrepancies among the batches were negligible for the inter-laboratory comparison. Finally, the results of trial comparison in Japan will be presented. Most of $$^{14}$$C results of CO$$_{2}$$ extracted by six laboratories showed good agreements each other.

JAEA Reports

Sample preparation method for measurement of in-situ belliyum-10 and allumium-26 in terrestrial quartz using accelerator mass spectrometry at Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Kokubu, Yoko; Matsushi, Yuki*; Ishizaka, Chika*; Hirao, Noriaki*; Yonaga, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Kiyotaka*

JAEA-Testing 2019-002, 101 Pages, 2019/11


This report provides a description of sample preparation method for measurement of in-situ belliyum-10 ($$^{10}$$Be) and allumium-26 ($$^{26}$$Al) in terrestrial quartz using accelerator mass spectrometry at Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The report is based on the laboratory manual "Chemistry for in-situ $$^{10}$$Be and $$^{26}$$Al measurement for terrestrial quartz by AMS at MALT ver.1.3 and ver.2.2" prepared by ph.D Matsushi at Kyoto University.

Journal Articles

Current status of JAEA-AMS-TONO in the 20th year

Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Ishizaka, Chika; Okabe, Nobuaki; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Nishizawa, Akimitsu*; Nishio, Tomohiro*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 456, p.271 - 275, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Instruments & Instrumentation)

JAEA-AMS-TONO has been in operation at the Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency since 1998 and 20 years have passed from the beginning of its utilization. The AMS system is a versatile system based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron type accelerator. The system has been used to measure carbon-14 ($$^{14}$$C), beryllium-10 ($$^{10}$$Be) and aluminium-26 ($$^{26}$$Al). In addition, the development of measurement of iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) has been started. The main use is measurement of $$^{14}$$C in geological samples for dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology. In order to increase the speed of sample preparation, we introduced the automated graphitization equipment and made a gas-strip line to collect dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater samples. Measurement of $$^{10}$$Be and $$^{26}$$Al has been used for geoscience studies and the detection limit in the measurement of $$^{10}$$Be was improved by $$^{7}$$Be-counting suppression. Recently tuning of measurement condition of $$^{129}$$I has been progressed.

Journal Articles

Preliminary test of the EA-AGE3 system for $$^{14}$$C measurement of CaCO$$_{3}$$ samples and coral-based estimation of marine reservoir correction in the Ogasawara Islands, Northwestern Subtropical Pacific

Kokubu, Yoko; Mitsuguchi, Takehiro*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamada, Tsutomu*; Asami, Ryuji*; Iryu, Yasufumi*

Radiocarbon, 61(5), p.1593 - 1601, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

We performed $$^{14}$$C measurements of two fossil and one modern corals using a combined system of an elemental analyzer and an automated graphitization equipment AGE3 (EA-AGE3 system) and JAEA-AMS-TONO. The $$^{14}$$C concentrations (pMC values) of mid-Holocene Okinawa corals obtained by our EA-AGE3 system appear to be slightly higher than those obtained by the conventional graphitization method using phosphoric acid. The pMC increase in our EA-AGE3 system may result in significant underestimation of $$^{14}$$C age especially for older samples (e.g., 10,000 BP); however, the pMC increase is negligible in $$^{14}$$C measurements of modern or recent samples. We applied the EA-AGE3 method to the pre- and post-bomb annual-band samples from the modern Ogasawara coral for $$^{14}$$C measurements. On the basis of the pre-bomb coral $$^{14}$$C data, we estimated marine reservoir correction ($$Delta$$R) around Ogasawara Islands and its stability between $$sim$$1900 and 1950 AD.

Journal Articles

$$^{14}$$C ages and calendar years of Japanese nails measured with accelerator mass spectrometry

Nagata, Kazahiro*; Furunushi, Yasuko*; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Kokubu, Yoko; Nakamura, Toshio*

Tetsu To Hagane, 105(4), p.488 - 491, 2019/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

The Japanese nails had been produced by the traditional ironmaking way of Tatara until the Edo period since the late of 6 Century. The quality of the Japanese nails is affected from steel produced by Tatara in each age. The $$^{14}$$C ages of 3 Japanese nails collected at shrines and temples at their repair were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry and calibrated to calendar years. Each $$^{14}$$C age provided plural calendar year periods with definite probabilities, and one of the periods determined in comparison with the history of temples and their repair records. The production ages of nails used in the Daibutuden of the Todaiji temple, the living quarters of the Manjuin temple and the Zaoudo of the Yoshino-Kongoji temple are before 1692, the 12 Century and before 1592, respectively, when they were repaired or reconstructed.

Journal Articles

Dating techniques and its application by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry; Improvement in preparation method for ultra-trace analysis

Watanabe, Takahiro

JAEA-Review 2018-037, p.20 - 22, 2019/03

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is widely used for radiometric dating of geological samples. Radiocarbon, Beryllium-10 and Aluminum-26 measurements by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have been developed at the Toki Research Institute of Isotope Geology and Geochronology, Tono Geoscience Center, JAEA. However, improvement in efficiency of sample preparation techniques and ultra-trace analysis are needed for high-time resolution dataset. In this study, we improved preparation method for radiocarbon dating using elemental analyzer (EA) and automated graphitization equipment (AGE3).

JAEA Reports

Proceedings of the 30th Meeting for Tandem Accelerators and their Associated Technologies

Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Shimada, Akiomi; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko

JAEA-Conf 2018-003, 147 Pages, 2019/02


The 30th Meeting of Tandem Accelerators and their Associated Technologies was held on July 6 and 7, 2017 at Tono Geoscience Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This meeting involved the participation of 97 persons from universities, research institutes and companies which have tandem accelerators and/or electrostatic accelerators. The purpose of the meeting is to contribute to research and development of accelerator technology through exchange of information among the engineers and the researchers who are interested in a tandem accelerator or an electrostatic accelerator. The meeting consisted of oral and poster sessions, and there were 33 presentations which contained about the current status of tandem accelerator facilities, technical developments and research using accelerators, etc. This proceedings summarizes the contents of the presentations at the meeting.

JAEA Reports

Proceedings of the 20th Japanese Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Shimada, Akiomi; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Watanabe, Takahiro

JAEA-Conf 2018-002, 134 Pages, 2019/02


This proceedings issue includes the presentation contents of the 20th Japanese Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (JAMS-20). The JAMS-20 was held by Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, on December 14-15th, 2017. The number of participants was seventy five during two days. On the Symposium, thirty two presentations were made for facility status reports, analytical developments and application techniques.

Journal Articles

The present status of the AGE3 automated graphitization equipment for radiocarbon dating at the JAEA-AMS-TONO

Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Ishizaka, Chika*; Nishio, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Miyake, Masayasu; Kato, Motohisa*; Isozaki, Nobuhiro*; Torazawa, Hitoshi*; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.116 - 119, 2019/02

AMS is widely used for radiocarbon dating of geological samples. However, improvement in efficiency of sample preparation techniques are needed for high-time resolution dataset. In 2016, automated graphitization equipment (AGE3, IonPlus AG) has been installed in Toki Research Institute of Isotope Geology and Geochronology, Tono Geoscience Center, JAEA. Background values and carbon recovery rates during preparation process of AGE3 should be estimated before application in radiocarbon dating. In this study, the AGE3 system was evaluated using the international standard materials (IAEA-C1, C4, C5, C6, C7, C9 and NIST-SRM4990C) at JAEA-AMS-TONO. Graphite samples was prepared by the AGE3 system and radiocarbon concentration of these standards was measured by AMS. The results were agreement with the consensus values. Background values were 0.15$$pm$$0.01 pMC (IAEA-C1) using the AGE3 system. Therefore, we concluded that the system can be adapted for radiocarbon dating of geological samples.

Journal Articles

Improvement of methods for measurement of $$^{129}$$I/$$^{127}$$I ratio at JAEA-AMS-TONO

Okabe, Nobuaki; Fujita, Natsuko; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Miyake, Masayasu; Nishio, Tomohiro*; Nishizawa, Akimitsu*; Isozaki, Nobuhiro*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko

JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.51 - 54, 2019/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of isobar separation method based on ion channeling

Matsubara, Akihiro*; Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu; Isozaki, Nobuhiro*

JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.68 - 71, 2019/02

no abstracts in English

154 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)