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論文

Development of a water purifier for radioactive cesium removal from contaminated natural water by radiation-induced graft polymerization

瀬古 典明*; 保科 宏行*; 笠井 昇*; 柴田 卓弥; 佐伯 誠一*; 植木 悠二*

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 143, p.33 - 37, 2018/02

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:38.14(Chemistry, Physical)

Six years after the Fukushima-nuclear accident, the dissolved radioactive cesium (Cs) is now hardly detected inenvironmental natural waters. These natural waters are directly used as source of drinking and domestic waters in disaster-stricken areas in Fukushima. However, the possibility that some radioactive Cs adsorbed on soil or leaves will contaminate these natural waters during heavy rains or typhoon is always present. In order for the returning residents to live with peace of mind, it is important to demonstrate the safety of the domestic waters that they will use for their daily life. For this purpose, we have synthesized a material for selective removal of radioactive Cs by introducing ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP) onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric through radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization technique. Water purifiers filled with the grafted Csadsorbent were installed in selected houses in Fukushima. The capability of the grafted adsorbent to remove Cs from domestic waters was evaluated for a whole year. The results showed that the tap water filtered through the developed water purifier contained no radioactive Cs, signifying the very effective adsorption performance of thedeveloped grafted adsorbent. From several demonstrations, we have commercialized the water purifier named "KranCsair".

論文

Utilization status of the electron accelerator and the $$gamma$$-ray irradiation facilities

上松 敬; 宇野 定則; 花屋 博秋; 山縣 諒平; 清藤 一; 長尾 悠人; 山崎 翔太; 川島 郁男*; 八木 紀彦*; 高木 雅英*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 173, 2016/02

高崎量子応用研究所の電子加速器及び$$gamma$$線照射施設を2014年度年間計画に基づいて照射利用に供した。利用件数は、2013年度に比べ、電子加速器では故障のため減少し、$$gamma$$線ではわずかに増加し、それぞれ205件及び857件だった。東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故に対する復興対応関連の課題については、電子加速器では35件、$$gamma$$線照射施設においては172件の利用があった。

論文

Evaluation of a cesium adsorbent grafted with ammonium 12-molybdophosphate

柴田 卓弥; 瀬古 典明; 天田 春代; 笠井 昇; 佐伯 誠一; 保科 宏行; 植木 悠二

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 119, p.247 - 252, 2016/02

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:23.48(Chemistry, Physical)

A fibrous adsorbent for radioactive cesium (Cs) removal has been developed by radiation induced graft polymerization. To apply the developed adsorbent to drinking water, the stability of adsorbent having high affinity for Cs ligand, ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP), was evaluated. As a result, since a crosslinking structure was introduced onto the grafted AMP, it could be successfully satisfied the regulation of Food Sanitation Act. Finally, the Cs adsorbent was commercialized as water purifier named by "KranCsairtextregistered".

論文

原子力機構高崎研電子加速器の現状

宇野 定則; 花屋 博秋; 山崎 翔太; 山縣 諒平; 清藤 一; 長尾 悠人; 上松 敬; 川島 郁男*; 八木 紀彦*; 高木 雅英*; et al.

第28回タンデム加速器及びその周辺技術の研究会報告集, p.121 - 123, 2015/12

高崎量子応用研究所の電子加速器は最大出力2MV、30mA、60kWで、1981年1月に運転が開始された。この加速器は圧力容器内に2本の加速管を内蔵しており、垂直および水平方向に電子線を発生できるデュアルビーム型電子加速器である。平成26年度は4月から10月にかけて経年劣化による故障が頻発し、稼働率は60%に低下した。垂直ラインは、これらの故障が原因で0.5MVの運転はできない状況であり、更に水平ラインの部品を垂直ラインの故障した機器に転用したため水平運転は停止中である。本研究会では、当電子加速器の運転・故障の状況および整備の内容を報告する。

論文

放射線加工技術を駆使した金属捕集材の開発; 環境浄化と資源確保を目指して

瀬古 典明

電気評論, 100(12), p.47 - 51, 2015/12

高分子の放射線加工技術の一つであるグラフト重合を用いて繊維状の捕集材を開発した成果の紹介記事である。具体的には、環境水中からのレアメタル及びヒ素の吸着除去に関する研究実施例及び福島復興のために開発した飲用水向け給水器の開発に関する内容であり、いずれも放射線グラフト重合技術の「高分子基材を自由に選択できる」「任意の吸着基を自由に選択できる」ことの特徴を記した内容である。

論文

共用促進事業を活用した高崎量子応用研究所における最近の成果

広田 耕一

放射線と産業, (139), p.33 - 36, 2015/12

文部科学省の補助事業「先端研究施設供用・プラットフォーム形成事業」を活用した高崎量子応用研究所のイオンビーム照射研究施設、$$gamma$$線照射施設、電子線照射施設の利用概要及びその研究成果について解説する。具体的には、各照射施設の特徴や専任の指導員による技術サポートが受けられる三つの戦略分野(有用遺伝子資源創成研究、分析技術利用、材料開発)の内容について紹介するとともに、同事業により得られた最近の成果(既存品種にない花色や花びらを有する花の作出、高性能リチウムイオン電池の開発に役立つリチウムイオンの濃度分布の分析、耐変形性を付与したフッ素ゴムの開発など)について述べる。

論文

Swelling of radiation-cured polymer precursor powder for silicon carbide by pyrolysis

武山 昭憲; 出崎 亮; 杉本 雅樹; 吉川 正人

Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 3(4), p.402 - 406, 2015/12

Ceramic yield, density, volume change and pore size distribution were measured for radiation- and thermally cured (poly carbo silan) PCS powder when they were pyrolyzed in the temperature ranges between 673 and 973 K. Higher ceramic yield was obtained for radiation-cured powder due to smaller amount of evolved gas. Temperature dependence of volume change and the total pore volume show the formation and disappearance of pores in the powders were determined by the volume shrinkage and evolution of decomposed gases. Volume shrinkage narrowed the pore size distribution for radiation-cured powder. For thermally cured powder, the narrowing of size distribution was disturbed by aggregated pores. Smaller amount of evolved gas from radiation-cured powder relative to thermally cured powder prevented the aggregation of pores and provided the narrow size distribution.

論文

Upgrade in catalytic activity of hydrophobic platinum catalysts by irradiation with electron beams

岩井 保則

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1796 - 1799, 2015/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:66.76(Nuclear Science & Technology)

疎水性白金触媒は水蒸気-水素間水素同位体交換反応やトリチウム酸化の用途にて核融合分野で広く使用されている。疎水性触媒の触媒活性は空気中の水蒸気や水ミストのほかに燃焼反応により生成する水にもほとんど影響されない特徴を持つ。一般的に疎水性触媒は多孔性の疎水性高分子に白金を担持することで作成される。日本はスチレンジビニルベンゼンを疎水性高分子とした疎水性白金触媒をトリチウム水処理システムに採用してきた実績を有する。システム規模低減のためには触媒活性の可能な限りの向上が必要である。二種類の疎水性白金触媒を電子線で照射した場合のトリチウム酸化性能の変化を精査した。両方の触媒とも線量の増加とともに疎水性触媒の触媒活性は向上し、500から1000kGyにて総括反応速度係数はピーク値を示し、それ以降の線量では徐々に低下することを見出した。総括反応速度係数のピーク値は未照射の6倍の値を示した。スチレンジビニルベンゼンは放射線に対する耐久性が強く、この程度の線量では機械的強度に影響はなく、簡易に触媒活性を向上可能な有力な方法であることを見出した。

論文

JAEA高崎量子応用研究所の研究

玉田 正男

原子力年鑑2016, p.148 - 152, 2015/10

高崎量子応用研究所は、昭和38年(1963年)4月に設置された。現在、イオン, 電子線, Co-60$$gamma$$線などの量子ビーム照射施設を有し、中性子, 放射光など他の量子ビーム照射施設を含めて横断的な活用を進める量子ビーム利用プラットフォームの一端を担う研究所として、研究開発を進めている。最近の技術移転例は、セシウム除去用カートリッジ型フィルタや吟醸酒製造に適した清酒酵母である。また、最近の実用化例としては、放射線橋かけ樹脂の学校教材化がある。引き続き、アウトリーチ活動などを通じて放射線利用に対する理解促進を図って行く。

論文

放射線で加工したプラスチックが学校教材に

長澤 尚胤; 田口 光正

Isotope News, (736), p.47 - 50, 2015/08

学校教育現場ではプラスチックに対する放射線照射効果を理解するための学校教材が求められていたものの、市場にはほとんど無かった。放射線架橋技術を活用して生分解性プラスチックであるポリ($$varepsilon$$-カプロラクトン)に耐熱性や形状記憶性を持たせた学校教材を企業と共同開発した。本教材を通じて、学生達が放射線の照射効果を体験し、熱収縮チューブ, 電線ケーブル被覆材, 自動車ラジアルタイヤ, 創傷被覆材の製造など放射線加工技術が社会で利用させていることを理解できる。

論文

水域に飛散したセシウムを捕集する材料の開発

瀬古 典明; 柴田 卓弥; 笠井 昇; 植木 悠二; 佐伯 誠一; 保科 宏行

放射線と産業, (138), p.9 - 12, 2015/06

福島の原子力発電所災害以降、環境資源材料研究グループでは環境中の水域に飛散した放射性物質のうち、特にセシウムに対して効果のある捕集材料の開発を進めてきた。これまでの実績から水に対して接触効率が良好で、取り扱いの簡便な不織布繊維を基材に用い、これにセシウムに対して親和性のある吸着基を量子ビーム技術を活用した放射線グラフト重合技術により導入した。材料の評価では、福島被災地の各所で実施したフィールドテストで評価を重ね、最終的には井戸水, 沢水を対象にした飲用水向けのモニター試験を進め、その良好な結果から給水器の発売に繋げた経緯について紹介する。

論文

Evaluation of antibacterial effect by using a fibrous grafted material loaded Ag ligand

柴田 卓弥; 瀬古 典明; 笠井 昇; 保科 宏行; 植木 悠二

International Journal of Organic Chemistry, 5(2), p.100 - 107, 2015/06

To obtain the safety of drinking water, an antibacterial material was prepared by loading Ag onto fibrous iminodiacetate (IDA) adsorbent, which was synthesized by radiation induced graft polymerization of a glycidyl methacrylate and subsequent chemical modification of the produced epoxy group to an IDA group(IDA-Ag). A total amount of loaded Ag on the IDA-Ag fabric was 0.4 mmol-Ag/g-fabric. As a result of evaluating antibacterial effects by the column mode water flow test with a stream water, the effective Ag concentration was monitored 0.05 ppm at irrespective of flow rate which was functioned to the antibacterial performance. The antibacterial effects for general bacteria were indicated until BV (BV: steam water volume/IDA-Ag fabric volume) 6,000, and for colitis germ legions were completely disinfected until BV 6,000.

論文

Atom-photon coupling from nitrogen-vacancy centres embedded in tellurite microspheres

Ruan, Y.*; Gibson, B. C.*; Lau, D. W. M.*; Greentree, A. D.*; Ji, H.*; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.*; Johnson, B. C.*; 大島 武; Monro, T. M.*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 5, p.11486_1 - 11486_7, 2015/06

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:77.35(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

A technique for creating high quality tellurite microspheres with embedded nano-diamonds (NDs) containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers was developed. TZN tellurite glass (TeO$$_{2}$$-ZnO-Na$$_{2}$$O) was fabricated in-house using the melt-quench technique and was formed to be glass fiber with a diameter of 0.16 mm. During this process, NDs with NV centers which were created by electron irradiation at 2 MeV were added into TZN tellurite glass above 690 $$^{circ}$$C. To obtain uniformly dispersed ND solutions, the NDs were processed using strong acid reflux and ultra-sonication before the mixture with TZN tellurite glass. This method can realize very bright fluorescence of the NVs in the NDs at room temperature. It is concluded that this new approach can be applied to a robust way of creating cavities for use in quantum and sensing applications.

論文

Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature

Widmann, M.*; Lee, S.-Y.*; Rendler, T.*; Son, N. T.*; Fedder, H.*; Paik, S.*; Yang, L.-P.*; Zhao, N.*; Yang, S.*; Booker, I.*; et al.

Nature Materials, 14(2), p.164 - 168, 2015/02

 被引用回数:166 パーセンタイル:0.53(Chemistry, Physical)

Single silicon vacancy (V$$_{Si}$$) in silicon carbide (SiC) was studied from the point of view of single photon source for quantum computing. The V$$_{Si}$$ centers were created in high purity semi-insulating hexagonal (4H)-SiC by 2 MeV electron irradiation with fluences up to 5$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ /cm$$^{2}$$. No subsequent annealing was carried out. A couple of solid immersion lens (SIL) with 20 $$mu$$m diameter were created on samples by ion milling using 40 keV Ga focused ion beam. A typical home-built confocal setup was used after optimizing for emission in the wavelength range around 900 nm. As a result, optically detected electron spin resonance (ODMR) for V$$_{Si}$$ was observed at room temperature (RT). Using ODMR, Rabi oscillations were also observed, and the Rabi frequency increased with increasing applied-magnetic field. In addition, spin relaxation time T$$_{1}$$ and T$$_{2}$$ were detected to be 500 $$mu$$s and 160 $$mu$$s, respectively.

論文

Development of an adsorbent for Cs removal synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization

柴田 卓弥; 瀬古 典明; 天田 春代; 笠井 昇; 佐伯 誠一; 保科 宏行; 植木 悠二

日本イオン交換学会誌, 26(1), p.9 - 14, 2015/01

It is important task for recovering of Cs from the contaminated area caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. We developed a highly efficient Cs adsorbent by radiation grafting of ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP) and crosslinking of grafted chains with a suitable crosslinker at the same time. As a result of the optimizaion, the Cs adsorbent with 1 mol% of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate satisfied the specification as a water purifier. The resultant grafted Cs adsorbent could work to maintain the highly performance of Cs removal in the standard pH range for drinking water (from pH 5.8 to 8.6) and even in the presence of coexisting ions such as K, Ca, Mg, and Na.

論文

Nanodiamond in tellurite glass, 2; Practical nanodiamond-doped fibers

Ruan, Y.*; Ji, H.*; Johnson, B. C.*; 大島 武; Greentree, A. D.*; Gibson, B. C.*; Monro, T. M.*; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.*

Optical Materials Express (Internet), 5(1), p.73 - 87, 2015/01

 被引用回数:12 パーセンタイル:22.85(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Tellurite glass fibers with embedded nanodiamond are attractive materials for quantum photonics applications. Reducing the loss of these fibers in the 600-800 nm wavelength range of nanodiamond fluorescence is essential to exploit the unique properties of nanodiamond in the new hybrid material. We reported the origin of loss in nanodiamond-doped glass and impact of glass fabrication conditions, as part I. In this study, we report the fabrication of nanodiamond-doped tellurite fibers with significantly reduced loss in the visible through further understanding of the impact of glass fabrication conditions on the interaction of the glass melt with the embedded nanodiamond. We fabricated nanodiamond with Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers by 2 MeV electron irradiation at 1$$times$$10$$^{18}$$ /cm$$^{2}$$ and subsequent annealing at 800 $$^{circ}$$C. The nanodiamonds with NV centers were added into molten Tellurite glass. Tellurite fibers containing nanodiamond with concentrations up to 0.7 ppm-weight were fabricated, while reducing the loss by more than an order of magnitude down to 10 dB/m at 600-800 nm.

論文

Evaluation of the scandium affinity under the iron coexistence using radiation grafted adsorbents

林 菜月*; 保科 宏行; 天田 春代; 山延 健*; 瀬古 典明

日本イオン交換学会誌, 25(4), p.105 - 108, 2014/11

A fibrous phosphoric acid adsorbents for scandium were synthesized by radiation graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), subsequent chemical modification, and direct grafting with a phosphoric monomer having both vinyl and phosphoric groups onto a polypropylene coated by polyethylene nonwoven fabric. The resultant grafted fibrous phosphoric acid adsorbent (HMP-g) having long side grafted chains has high affinity for scandium (Sc) ions even under the coexistence with Fe ion. The breakthrough capacity for Sc of 0.5 ppm with Fe coexistence was 10.9 mol-Sc per kg-adsorbent for the GMA derivative phosphoric adsorbent, and 17.8 mol-Sc per kg-adsorbent for HMP-g, respectively.

論文

Recovery of scandium from hot spring water with graft adsorbent containing phosphoric groups

保科 宏行; 笠井 昇; 天田 春代; 高橋 牧克*; 田中 和也*; 瀬古 典明

日本イオン交換学会誌, 25(4), p.248 - 251, 2014/11

An adsorbent for Scandium (Sc) recovery was developed with radiation-induced graft polymerization of phosphoric acids that have a high affinity for Sc onto polyethylene fabrics. The adsorption performance of Sc was evaluated with the Sc adsorption equipment, consisting of 155 mm internal diameter columns and a pump that were set up near Yukawa River in Kusatsu town. To achieve a practical use of Sc recovery, the adsorbent requires repeated use with maintaining its efficiency in terms of cost reduction. So, the reusability of the adsorbent was investigated by repeating adsorption and elution. The breakthrough curves of Sc adsorption showed similar behavior in all tests. The adsorbed Sc from the 19th adsorption test was 56 mg, which was comparable capacity to the average amount of the adsorbed Sc during the 19 tests. These results indicated that the adsorbent was used more than 19 times with maintaining high adsorption performance of Sc.

論文

A New eco-friendly synthesis method for arsenic adsorbent

天田 春代; 高橋 牧克*; 保科 宏行; 瀬古 典明

日本イオン交換学会誌, 25(4), p.109 - 113, 2014/11

A large amount of arsenic waste solution which was dissolved in neutral aqueous media, was generated from the manufacturing process of gallium arsenide component in semiconductor industry. As for arsenic removal, an adsorbent was developed by radiation graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modification with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) as a functional group. Furthermore, the grafting and the modification were carried out using water based solvent instead of organic solvent in view of an environmental emission and a working environment. The solvents were comprised of water and surfactant, and the adsorption performances compared with a conventional method synthesized in 1,4-dioxane of organic solvent. Total amount of arsenic for arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) at pH 6.5 were 3.2 times and 2.1 times higher than our previous fibrous adsorbent. From the pH dependency studies, the developed grafted adsorbent gave high removal ratio in a neutral media area for both arsenic species. Breakthrough capacities in the column mode tests for arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) were 0.3 and 18 mg/g at pH 6.5, respectively.

論文

Synthesis of highly-selective fibrous adsorbent by introducing 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen-2-ethylhexylphosphonate for scandium adsorption

保科 宏行; 植木 悠二; 佐伯 誠一; 瀬古 典明

International Journal of Organic Chemistry, 4(3), p.195 - 200, 2014/09

2-Ethylhexyl hydrogen-2-ethylhexylphosphonate (EHEP) is commonly used as a metal extractant because it has a particular affinity for rare-earth metals like Scandium (Sc). To develop a highly-selective polymeric adsorbent of Sc(III), EHEP was introduced as a functional group onto a polyethylene fabric with radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP). The adsorption performances for Sc(III) were evaluated in aqueous solutions containing Sc(III) and Fe(III) by a column test. The adsorption capacities of Sc(III) and Fe(III) until the bed volume reached 5000 were 5.22 and 0.12 mg/g, respectively. The adsorbents showed 44 times higher Sc(III) adsorption capacity than that of Fe(III). These results indicated that the grafted adsorbent containing EHEP had an extremely high selectivity for Sc(III) adsorption.

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