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論文

Analyses of LSTF experiment and PWR plant for 5% cold-leg break loss of coolant accident

渡辺 正*; 石垣 将宏*; 勝山 仁哉

Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2018/10

LSTF及びPWRプラントに対する5%コールドレグ破断による冷却材喪失事故について、これらを対象とした解析モデルを整備し、RELAP5/MOD3.3コードを用いて解析を行った。臨界流モデルの放出係数は、LSTFに対する実験と解析の圧力過渡が一致するよう決定し、PWR解析にも適用した。その結果、解析結果は、LSTF実験に対する熱水力学的挙動をよく再現できることを示した。しかしながら、ループシールよる炉心における差圧の減少やループ流速は過小評価された。また、LSTF実験に対する解析ではボイルオフ中における炉心の加熱時間は長いものの、LSTFとPWRプラント間ではそれらはよく一致することから、スケーリング効果は小さいことも明らかとなった。

論文

ROSA/LSTF test on nitrogen gas behavior during reflux condensation in PWR and RELAP5 code analyses

竹田 武司; 大津 巌

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 5(4), p.18-00077_1 - 18-00077_14, 2018/08

We conducted an experiment focusing on nitrogen gas behavior during reflux condensation in PWR with ROSA/LSTF. The primary pressure was lower than 1 MPa under constant core power of 0.7% of volumetric-scaled (1/48) PWR nominal power. Steam generator (SG) secondary-side collapsed liquid level was maintained at certain liquid level above SG U-tube height. Nitrogen gas was injected stepwise into each SG inlet plenum at certain constant amount. The primary pressure and degree of subcooling of SG U-tubes were largely dependent on amount of nitrogen gas accumulated in SG U-tubes. Nitrogen gas accumulated from outlet towards inlet of SG U-tubes. Non-uniform flow behavior was observed among SG U-tubes with nitrogen gas ingress. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated remaining problems in predictions of the primary pressure and degree of subcooling of SG U-tubes depending on number of nitrogen gas injection. We studied further non-uniform flow behavior through sensitivity analyses.

論文

Uncertainty analysis of ROSA/LSTF test by RELAP5 code and PKL counterpart test concerning PWR hot leg break LOCAs

竹田 武司; 大津 巌

Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 50(6), p.829 - 841, 2018/08

An experiment was conducted for OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project using LSTF, which simulated 17% hot leg intermediate-break LOCA in PWR. Core uncovery started simultaneously with liquid level drop in crossover leg downflow-side before loop seal clearing, and water remaining occurred on upper core plate. Results of uncertainty analysis with RELAP5/MOD3.3 code clarified influences of combination of multiple uncertain parameters on peak cladding temperature within defined uncertain ranges. An experiment was performed for OECD/NEA PKL-3 Project with PKL. The LSTF test simulated PWR 1% hot leg small-break LOCA with steam generator secondary-side depressurization as accident management measure and nitrogen gas inflow. Some discrepancies appeared between the LSTF and PKL test results for primary pressure, core collapsed liquid level, and cladding surface temperature probably due to effects of differences between LSTF and PKL in configuration, geometry, and volumetric size.

論文

Some characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical large-diameter channels

Shen, X.*; Schlegel, J. P.*; 日引 俊*; 中村 秀夫

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 333, p.87 - 98, 2018/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:62.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Two phase flows in large-diameter channels are important to efficiently and safely transfer mass and energy in a wide variety of applications including nuclear power plants. Two-phase flows in vertical large-diameter channels, however, show much more complex multi-dimensional nature than those in small diameter channels. Various constitutive equations are required to mathematically close the model to predict two-phase flows with two-fluid model. Validations of the constitutive equations require extensive experiment effort. This paper summarizes the recent experimental studies on two-phase flows in vertical large-diameter channels, which includes measuring technique and available databases. Then, a comprehensive review of constitutive equations is provided covering flow regime transition criteria, drift-flux correlations, interfacial area concentration correlations and one- and two-group interfacial area transport equation(s), with discussions on typical characteristics of large-diameter channel flows. Recent 1D numerical simulations of large-diameter channel flows is reviewed too. Finally, future research directions are suggested.

報告書

Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-SG-10; Recovery actions from multiple steam generator tube rupture accident

竹田 武司

JAEA-Data/Code 2018-004, 64 Pages, 2018/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2018-004.pdf:3.33MB

LSTFを用いた実験(実験番号:SB-SG-10)が1992年11月17日に行われた。SB-SG-10実験では、PWRの蒸気発生器(SG)伝熱管複数本破損事故からの回復操作を模擬した。高圧注入(HPI)系から低温側配管や高温側配管への冷却材注入により、健全ループSGの逃し弁(RV)開放を開始しても一次系圧力はSG二次側圧力よりも高く維持された。しかし、加圧器(PZR)の逃し弁(PORV)開放により、PZRの水位が回復するとともに、一次系と破断ループSG二次側の圧力は均圧した。放射性物質の大気放出に関して、健全ループSGのRV開放後、破断ループSGのRVは一回開いた。実験中、炉心は飽和ないしサブクール水で満たされた。健全ループSGのRV開放後、健全ループで顕著な自然循環が継続した。また、特に両ループのHPI系から高温側配管への冷却材注入時に高温側配管での顕著な温度成層が生じた。一次系と破断ループSG二次側の圧力が均圧後、健全ループ一次系冷却材ポンプの再起動による冷温停止状態を確認して実験を終了した。本報告書は、SB-SG-10実験の手順、条件および実験で観察された主な結果をまとめたものである。

報告書

Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-PV-07; 1% Pressure vessel top break LOCA with accident management actions and gas inflow

竹田 武司

JAEA-Data/Code 2018-003, 60 Pages, 2018/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2018-003.pdf:3.68MB

LSTFを用いた実験(実験番号:SB-PV-07)が2005年6月9日に行われた。SB-PV-07実験では、PWRの1%圧力容器頂部小破断冷却材喪失事故を模擬した。このとき、高圧注入(HPI)系の全故障と蓄圧注入(ACC)タンクから一次系への非凝縮性ガス(窒素ガス)の流入を仮定した。実験では、上部ヘッドに形成される水位が破断流量に影響を与えることを見出した。一番目のアクシデントマネジメント(AM)策として、手動による両ループのHPI系から低温側配管への冷却材の注入を炉心出口最高温度が623Kに到達した時点で開始した。炉心出口温度の応答が遅くかつ緩慢であるため、燃料棒表面温度は大きく上昇した。AM策に従い、炉心水位が回復して炉心はクエンチした。また、二番目のAM策として、両ループの蒸気発生器(SG)逃し弁開放によるSG二次側減圧を一次系圧力が4MPaに低下した時点で開始したが、SG二次側圧力が一次系圧力に低下するまで一次系減圧に対して有効とならなかった。ACCタンクから窒素ガスの流入開始後、一次系とSG二次側の圧力差が大きくなった。本報告書は、SB-PV-07実験の手順、条件および実験で観察された主な結果をまとめたものである。

論文

Considerations on phenomena scaling for BEPU

中村 秀夫

Proceedings of ANS International Conference on Best Estimate Plus Uncertainties Methods (BEPU 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2018/00

軽水炉の安全評価にて、システム解析コードを用いて不確かさを考慮した最適評価解析(BEPU)を行うとき、本来目標である高温高圧で多様な形状を有する実機での伝熱流動条件下に生じる事故現象の精確な予測には依然として残されている課題がある。その中で、主に流路サイズと圧力(流体物性)に依存した現象のスケーリングが関与する課題の例を挙げ、Keynote講演での議論に資する。

論文

ROSA/LSTF tests and posttest analyses by RELAP5 code for accident management measures during PWR station blackout transient with loss of primary coolant and gas inflow

竹田 武司; 大津 巌

Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2018, p.7635878_1 - 7635878_19, 2018/00

Three tests were carried out with LSTF, simulating accident management (AM) measures during PWR station blackout transient with loss of primary coolant under assumptions of nitrogen gas inflow and total-failure of high-pressure injection system. As AM measures, steam generator (SG) depressurization was done by fully opening relief valves, and auxiliary feedwater was injected into secondary-side simultaneously. Conditions for break size and onset timing of AM measures were different. Primary pressure decreased to below 1 MPa with or without primary depressurization by fully opening pressurizer relief valve. Nonuniform flow behaviors were observed in SG U-tubes with gas ingress depending on gas accumulation rate in two tests that gas accumulated remarkably. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated remaining problems in predictions of primary pressure, SG U-tube liquid levels, and natural circulation mass flow rates after gas inflow and accumulator flow rate through analyses for two tests.

論文

RELAP5 uncertainty evaluation using ROSA/LSTF test data on PWR 17% cold leg intermediate-break LOCA with single-failure ECCS

竹田 武司; 大津 巌

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 109, p.9 - 21, 2017/11

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:64.68(Nuclear Science & Technology)

An experiment was conducted for the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project using LSTF, which simulated a cold leg intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident with 17% break in a PWR. Assumptions were made such as single-failure of high-pressure and low-pressure injection systems. In the LSTF test, core dryout took place because of rapid drop in the core liquid level. Liquid was accumulated in upper plenum, SG U-tube upflow-side and inlet plena because of counter-current flow limiting (CCFL). The post-test analysis by RELAP5/MOD3.3 code revealed that peak cladding temperature (PCT) was overpredicted because of underprediction of the core liquid level due to inadequate prediction of accumulator flow rate. We found the combination of multiple uncertain parameters including the Wallis CCFL correlation at the upper core plate, core decay power, and steam convective heat transfer coefficient in the core within the defined uncertain ranges largely affected the PCT.

論文

ROSA/LSTF test and RELAP5 analyses on PWR cold leg small-break LOCA with accident management measure and PKL counterpart test

竹田 武司; 大津 巌

Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 49(5), p.928 - 940, 2017/08

An experiment using PKL was performed for the OECD/NEA PKL-3 Project as a counterpart to a previous test with LSTF on a cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident with an accident management measure in a PWR. The rate of steam generator secondary-side depressurization was controlled to achieve a primary depressurization rate of 200 K/h as a common test condition. In both tests, rapid recovery started in the core collapsed liquid level after loop seal clearing. Some discrepancies appeared between the LSTF and PKL test results for the core collapsed liquid level, the cladding surface temperature, and the primary pressure. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated a remaining problem in the prediction of primary coolant distribution. Results of uncertainty analysis for the LSTF test clarified the influences of the combination of multiple uncertain parameters on peak cladding temperature within the defined uncertain ranges.

論文

ROSA/LSTF test on nitrogen gas behavior during reflux cooling in PWR and RELAP5 post-test analysis

竹田 武司; 大津 巌

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2017/07

An experiment focusing on nitrogen gas behavior during reflux cooling in a PWR was performed with the LSTF. The test conditions were made such as the constant core power of 0.7% of the volumetric-scaled PWR nominal power and the primary pressure of lower than 1 MPa. The steam generator (SG) secondary-side collapsed liquid level was maintained at a certain liquid level above the SG tube height. Nitrogen gas was injected stepwise into each SG inlet plenum at a certain constant amount. The primary pressure and the SG U-tube fluid temperatures were greatly dependent on the amount of nitrogen gas accumulated in the SG U-tubes. Non-uniform flow behavior was observed among the SG U-tubes with nitrogen gas ingress. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated remaining problems in the predictions of the primary pressure and the SG U-tube fluid temperatures after nitrogen gas inflow.

論文

Multi-dimensional gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical large-diameter channels

Shen, X.*; Schlegel, J. P.*; 日引 俊*; 中村 秀夫

Proceedings of 2017 Japan-US Seminar on Two-Phase Flow Dynamics (JUS 2017), 6 Pages, 2017/06

Large-diameter (D) channels are extensively used to increase the mass, momentum and heat transport capability of working fluid. Comparing with small-D pipes, two-phase flows in large-D channels show quite different and more complicated flow characteristics, since much larger cap bubbles can exist and interfacial instability prevents the cap bubbles from forming a large stable Taylor bubble. Flow regimes and radial void fraction profiles are also different from those in small-D pipes especially in cap/slug flow regime. The relative velocities between phases are greatly increased. This paper reviews recent progresses in the researches on two-phase flows in large-D channels. The state-of-the-art tool of four-sensor probe may enable classification of two-group bubbles by the measurement of bubble diameter instead of bubble chord length. Databases and most of the updated constitutive equations that cover flow regime transition criteria, drift-flux correlations, interfacial area concentration (IAC) correlations and one- and two-group interfacial area transport equation(s) are summarized and analyzed. Typical multi-dimensional characteristics of flows in large-D channels are presented and their one-dimensional numerical simulations are reviewed. Finally the future research directions are suggested.

報告書

Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07; Loss-of-feedwater transient with primary feed-and-bleed operation

竹田 武司

JAEA-Data/Code 2016-004, 59 Pages, 2016/07

JAEA-Data-Code-2016-004.pdf:3.34MB

LSTFを用いた実験(実験番号: TR-LF-07)が1992年6月23日に行われた。TR-LF-07実験では、PWRの給水喪失事象を模擬した。このとき、一次系フィード・アンド・ブリード運転とともに、補助給水系の不作動を仮定した。また、蒸気発生器(SG)の二次側水位が3mまで低下した時点でSI信号を発信し、その後30分で加圧器(PZR)の逃し弁(PORV)開放による一次系減圧を開始した。さらに、SI信号発信後12秒でPZRの有るループの高圧注入系(HPI)の作動を開始し、一次系圧力が10.7MPaまで低下した時点でPZRの無いループのHPIの作動を開始した。一次系とSG二次側の圧力は、PZRのPORVとSGの逃し弁の周期的開閉によりほぼ一定に維持された。PORVの開放にしたがい、PZRの水位が大きく低下し始め、高温側配管では水位が形成した。HPIの作動により、PZRと高温側配管の水位は回復した。一次系圧力はSG二次側圧力を下回り、両ループの蓄圧注入系(ACC)が作動した。炉心露出が生じなかったことから、PORV, HPIおよびACCを用いた一次系フィード・アンド・ブリード運転は、炉心冷却に有効であった。本報告書は、TR-LF-07実験の手順、条件および実験で観察された主な結果をまとめたものである。

報告書

Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-HL-12; 1% Hot leg break LOCA with SG depressurization and gas inflow

竹田 武司

JAEA-Data/Code 2015-022, 58 Pages, 2016/01

JAEA-Data-Code-2015-022.pdf:3.31MB

LSTFを用いた実験(実験番号: SB-HL-12)が1998年2月24日に行われた。SB-HL-12実験では、PWRの1%高温側配管小破断冷却材喪失事故を模擬した。このとき、高圧注入系の全故障とともに、蓄圧注入系(ACC)タンクからの非凝縮性ガス(窒素ガス)の流入を仮定した。また、アクシデントマネジメント(AM)策として両ループの蒸気発生器(SG)逃し弁全開による減圧を燃料棒表面最高温度が600Kに到達直後に開始した。一回目のボイルオフによる炉心露出に起因したAM策開始後、一次系圧力は低下したため、炉心二相混合水位は上昇し、燃料棒表面温度は635Kまでの上昇にとどまった。低温側配管内でのACC水と蒸気の凝縮に誘発されたループシールクリアリング(LSC)前に、二回目のボイルオフによる炉心露出が生じた。LSC後速やかに炉心水位は回復し、燃料棒表面温度は696Kまでの上昇にとどまった。窒素ガスの流入開始後、一次系とSG二次側の圧力差が大きくなった。SG伝熱管でのリフラックス凝縮時に、三回目のボイルオフによる炉心露出が生じ、燃料棒表面最高温度が908Kを超えた。本報告書は、SB-HL-12実験の手順、条件および実験で観察された主な結果をまとめたものである。

論文

ROSA/LSTF tests and RELAP5 posttest analyses for PWR safety system using steam generator secondary-side depressurization against effects of release of nitrogen gas dissolved in accumulator water

竹田 武司; 大貫 晃*; 金森 大輔*; 大津 巌

Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2016, p.7481793_1 - 7481793_15, 2016/00

AA2016-0048.pdf:5.15MB

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:76.09(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Two tests related to a new safety system for PWR were performed with ROSA/LSTF. The tests simulated cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accidents with 2-inch diameter break using an early steam generator (SG) secondary-side depressurization with or without release of nitrogen gas dissolved in accumulator (ACC) water. The pressure difference between the primary and SG secondary sides after the actuation of ACC system was larger in the test with the dissolved gas release than in the test without the dissolved gas release. No core uncovery and heatup took place because of the ACC coolant injection and two-phase natural circulation. The RELAP5 code predicted most of the overall trends of the major thermal-hydraulic responses after adjusting a break discharge coefficient for two-phase discharge flow under the assumption of releasing all the dissolved gas at the vessel upper plenum.

報告書

平成26年度研究開発・評価報告書; 評価課題「安全研究とその成果の活用による原子力安全規制行政に対する技術的支援」(事後評価・事前評価)

工藤 保; 鬼沢 邦雄*; 中村 武彦

JAEA-Evaluation 2015-011, 209 Pages, 2015/11

JAEA-Evaluation-2015-011.pdf:10.36MB

日本原子力研究開発機構(以下、「原子力機構」という)は、「国の研究開発評価に関する大綱的指針」(平成20年10月31日内閣総理大臣決定)及びこの大綱的指針を受けて作成された「文部科学省における研究及び開発に関する評価指針」(平成21年2月17日文部科学大臣決定)、並びに原子力機構の「研究開発課題評価実施規程」(平成17年10月1日制定、平成21年8月19日改訂)等に基づき、平成26年9月29日に「安全研究」に関する事後・事前評価を安全研究・評価委員会に諮問した。これを受けて、安全研究・評価委員会は、本委員会によって定められた評価方法に従い、原子力機構から提出された平成22年4月から平成26年9月まで及び平成27年度以降の安全研究センターの運営及び安全研究の実施に関する説明を受け、今期中期計画期間及び次期中長期計画期間の研究開発の実施状況について、研究開発の必要性、有効性、効率性等の観点から評価を行った。本報告書は、安全研究・評価委員会から提出された事後・事前評価結果(答申書)をまとめるとともに、本委員会での発表資料、及び評価結果に対する原子力機構の措置を添付したものである。

論文

ROSA/LSTF experiment on a PWR station blackout transient with accident management measures and RELAP5 analyses

竹田 武司; 大津 巌

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 2(5), p.15-00132_1 - 15-00132_15, 2015/10

An experiment on a PWR station blackout transient with accident management (AM) measures was conducted using the ROSA/LSTF under an assumption of non-condensable gas inflow to primary system from accumulator tanks. The AM measures considered are SG secondary-side depressurization by fully opening safety valves in both SGs with start of core uncovery and coolant injection into the secondary-side of both SGs at low pressures. The primary pressure started to decrease when the SG primary-to-secondary heat removal resumed soon after the SG secondary-side coolant injection. The primary depressurization worsened due to the gas accumulation in SG U-tubes after accumulator completion. The RELAP5 code indicated remaining problems in the predictions of the SG U-tube collapsed liquid level and primary mass flow rate after gas ingress. The SG coolant injection flow rate was found to significantly affect the peak cladding temperature and the ACC actuation time through RELAP5 sensitivity analyses.

論文

Thermal hydraulic safety research at JAEA after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident

与能本 泰介; 柴本 泰照; 竹田 武司; 佐藤 聡; 石垣 将宏; 安部 諭; 岡垣 百合亜; 孫 昊旻; 栃尾 大輔

Proceedings of 16th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-16) (USB Flash Drive), p.5341 - 5352, 2015/08

This paper summarizes thermal-hydraulic (T/H) safety studies being conducted at JAEA based on the consideration of research issues after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. New researches have been initiated after the accident, which are related to containment thermal hydraulics and accident management (AM) measures for the prevention of core damage under severe multiple failure conditions. They are conducted in parallel with those initiated before the accident such as a research on scaling and uncertainty of the T/H phenomena which are important for the code validation. Those experimental studies are to obtain better understandings on the phenomena and establish databases for the validation of both lumped parameter (LP) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. The research project on containment thermal hydraulics is called the ROSA-SA project and investigates phenomena related to over-temperature containment damage, hydrogen risk and fission product (FP) transport. For this project, we have designed a large-scale containment vessel test facility called CIGMA (Containment InteGral Measurement Apparatus), which is characterized by the capability of conducting high-temperature experiments as well as those on hydrogen risk with CFD-grade instrumentation of high space resolution. This paper describes the plans for those researches and results obtained so far.

論文

ROSA/LSTF experiment on accident management measures during a PWR station blackout transient with pump seal leakage and RELAP5 analyses

竹田 武司; 大津 巌

Journal of Energy and Power Sources, 2(7), p.274 - 290, 2015/07

An experiment on accident management (AM) measures during a PWR station blackout transient with leakage from primary coolant pump seals was conducted using the ROSA/LSTF under an assumption of non-condensable gas inflow to the primary system from accumulator tanks. The AM measures are steam generator (SG) secondary-side depressurization by fully opening safety valves (SVs) in both SGs and primary-side depressurization by fully opening SV in pressurizer with the start of core uncovery and coolant injection into the SG secondary-side at low pressures. The decrease was accelerated in the primary pressure when the SG primary-to-secondary heat removal resumed soon after the coolant injection into the SG secondary-side. The primary depressurization worsened due to the gas accumulation in the SG U-tubes after accumulator completion. Remaining problems in the RELAP5 code include the predictions of pressure difference between the primary and SG secondary sides after the gas inflow.

論文

RELAP5 code study of ROSA/LSTF experiments on PWR safety system using steam generator secondary-side depressurization

竹田 武司; 大貫 晃*; 西 弘昭*

Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 9(5), p.426 - 442, 2015/05

RELAP5 code analyses were performed on two ROSA/LSTF validation tests for PWR safety system that simulated cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accidents with 8-in. or 4-in. diameter break using SG (steam generator) secondary-side depressurization. The SG depressurization was initiated by fully opening the depressurization valves in both SGs immediately after a safety injection signal. In the 8-in. break test, loop seal clearing occurred and then core uncovery and heatup took place. Core collapsed liquid level recovered after the initiation of accumulator coolant injection, and long-term core cooling was ensured by the actuation of low-pressure injection system. Adjustment of break discharge coefficient for two-phase discharge flow predicted the break flow rate reasonably well. The code overpredicted the peak cladding temperature because of underprediction of the core collapsed liquid level due to inadequate prediction of the accumulator flow rate in the 8-in. break case.

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