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原子力事故後の環境中外部被ばく線量の測定・評価に関する研究

Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after the nuclear accident

坂本 隆一; 斎藤 公明 ; 堤 正博; 長岡 鋭

Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Nagaoka, Toshi

外部被ばく線量に影響を与えるファクターとしては、事故後の放射性核種の沈着分布,放射性核種の種類,核種の地中分布,降雨,積雪,半減期,家屋等の遮蔽効果,除染効果,生活パターン等がある。本調査研究では、チェルノブイリ地域において、これらのファクターに関係するデータを1992年から可能な範囲で継続的に収集を行った。本研究のおもな成果は次に示す4項目にまとめられた。(1)広域に汚染した地域の放射線レベルを迅速にサーベイする方法の開発、(2)汚染地域の住民に対する外部被ばく線量を推定する方法の検証、(3)$$gamma$$線線量評価用基本データのモンテカルロ法による整備、(4)汚染環境場の特性解析。以下、本報告では、調査や実験の概要を項目別に述べ、その後におもな成果を記述した。

There are many factors which affect external exposure in contaminated area: distributions of fallout, compositions of radioactive nuclides, soil conditions, depth profile of radioactivity in soil, rain fall, snow cover, radioactive decay, shielding effects of houses and other structures, de-contamination measures, and the 'occupancy factor' which accounts for the fraction of time that inhabitants spend in different locations. In this study, several important issues concerning these factors have been investigated using field measurements and computational simulations since 1992 in the Chernobyl area. The objectives of the study were: (1) The development of a mobile survey method to collect radiation data of the contaminated area over a wide area in a short time; (2) The verification of a method to infer external doses to the population; (3) The provision of basic data used for the evaluation of external dose due to gamma ray using a Monte Carlo simulation method. (4) Characteristics of the radiation fields in contaminated area. In this report, the results were summerized.

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