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改良オーステナイト最適化鋼の開発(II) - 試作被覆管の炉外試験評価 -

Development of optimized advanced austenic steels (II); Evaluation of out-of-pile testing results of the fabricated fuel claddings

上羽 智之; 水田 俊治; 鵜飼 重治

Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Mizuta, Shunji; not registered

改良オーステナイト最適化鋼(14Cr-25Ni鋼)は改良オーステナイト鋼(15Cr-20Ni鋼)の更なる耐スエリング性能を改善するため改良を行っている炉心材料である。この改良では照射中の析出物の微細・安定化を図るために、Ti,Nb,V,Pを複合添加し高温溶体化処理によってマトリックスに固溶させている。更に、最終冷間加工において加工度の増加と同時に残留応力を低減化している。14Cr-25Ni鋼の試作被覆管について実施している炉外試験のうち、組織観察(製品まま)、固溶量測定、結晶粒度測定の結果を評価し、以下の結果が得られた。(1)組織観察では、粒内に球状の析出物が認められた。EDXによる組成分析の結果、この析出物はTi,Nbの複合炭窒物[Ti,Nb(C,N)]がほとんどであった。(2)固溶したTiとNbの添加量に対する割合はそれぞれ70%、30%程度であった。未固溶のTi,Nbは未固溶CとMC型の炭化物を形成している可能性がある。(3)添加元素をマトリックスに十分に固溶させるために溶体化処理温度を高温にすると結晶粒が粗大化しやすくなり、超音波探傷検査におけるシャワーエコーの発生原因となる。結晶粒度測定の結果、Nbの添加量を標準鋼(0.2wt%)よりも少なくした鋼種(0.1wt%)では粗大粒の発生が少なく、Nb添加量の減少による結晶粒度制御の効果が確認できた。また、合金元素の固溶を促進させるために溶体化処理温度を高くしても、例えば中間冷間加工度を高めにすると同時に中間熱処理温度も高くするなど中間冷間加工と中間熱処理の条件を適切に設定することにより結晶粒の粗大化を抑制できる可能性がある。

14Cr-25Ni optimized advanced austenic steels have been developed to improve the swelling resistance of 15Cr-20Ni austenic stainless steels used for FBR fuel cladding. ln this improvement, Ti,Nb,V and P were dissolved into 14Cr-25Ni marix by means of the high-temperature solution treatment to make finely distributed and stabilized precipitates in the operation. Furthermore, at the final stage of cold-working, cold-working level increased and residual stress was reduced. ln this study, as fablicated microstructure observation, solubility of alloying elements and grain size test in the manufacturing process were evaluated. Following results were obtained. (1)Spherical precipitates were observed in the grain. Most of them were identified as conjugated carbo-nitride [Ti,Nb(C,N)] by EDX analysis. (2)The dissolved percentages of Ti and Ni in the matrix were about 70% and 30% respectively. Undissoved Ti and Nb may react with undissolved carbon and precipitate as MC carbides. (3)High-temperature solution treatment is effective for the sufficient solubility of alloying elements, but it is likely to induce very large grains, which is the cause of defective signal in the ultrasonic alloy testing. The results of the grain size test showed that the large grain size is reduced in low Nb (0.1wt%) alloy compared with the standard alloy (0.2wt%Nb), and the effectiveness for the grain size control by reducing the Nb content was confirmed. Also, it was suggested that the intermediate heat treatment and cold work conditions would possibly avoid the occurrence of the large grain at the final heat treatment.

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