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Crystal structure of UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-${it O}$-glucosyltransferase from ${it Clitoria ternatea}$

Hiromoto, Takeshi; Honjo, Eijiro*; Tamada, Taro; Noda, Hisanobu*; Kazuma, Kohei*; Suzuki, Masahiko*; Kuroki, Ryota

Flowers of the butterfly pea (${it Clitoria ternatea}$) accumulate a group of polyacylated anthocyanins, named ternatins, in their petals. The first step in ternatin biosynthesis is the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to anthocyanidins such as delphinidin, a reaction catalyzed in ${it C. ternatea}$ by UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-${it O}$-glucosyltransferase (${it Ct}$3GT-A; AB185904). To elucidate the structure-function relationship of ${it Ct}$3GT-A, recombinant ${it Ct}$3GT-A was expressed in ${it Escherichia coli}$ and its tertiary structure was determined to 1.85 ${AA}$, resolution by using X-ray crystallography. The structure of ${it Ct}$3GT-A shows a common folding topology, the GT-B fold, comprised of two Rossmann-like $$beta$$/$$alpha$$/$$beta$$ domains and a cleft located between the N- and C-domains containing two cavities that are used as binding sites for the donor (UDP-Glc) and acceptor substrates. By comparing the structure of ${it Ct}$3GT-A with that of the flavonoid glycosyltransferase ${it Vv}$GT1 from red grape (${it Vitis vinifera}$) in complex with UDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro glucose and kaempferol, locations of the catalytic His-Asp dyad and the residues involved in recognizing UDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro glucose were essentially identical in ${it Ct}$3GT-A, but certain residues of ${it Vv}$GT1 involved in binding kaempferol were found to be substituted in ${it Ct}$3GT-A. These findings are important for understanding the differentiation of acceptor-substrate recognition in these two enzymes.

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