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Small gas bubble experiment for mitigation of cavitation damage and pressure waves in short-pulse mercury spallation targets

パルス核破砕中性子源におけるキャビテーション損傷と圧力波抑制のための微小気泡注入実験

Riemer, B. W.*; Wendel, M. W.*; Felde, D. K.*; Sangrey, R. L.*; Abdou, A.*; West, D. L.*; Shea, T. J.*; 長谷川 勝一  ; 粉川 広行 ; 直江 崇  ; Farny, C. H.*; Kaminsky, A. L.*

Riemer, B. W.*; Wendel, M. W.*; Felde, D. K.*; Sangrey, R. L.*; Abdou, A.*; West, D. L.*; Shea, T. J.*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Farny, C. H.*; Kaminsky, A. L.*

水銀ターゲットにおいて陽子線が入射して励起される圧力波と、それによって発生する容器のキャビテーション損傷に対するマイクロバブル注入の効果を調べるために、水銀ループを製作し、ロスアラモス研究所のWNR施設にて、パルス陽子線入射実験(米国中性子源の2.5MW相当)を行った。実験に先駆けて12種類の気泡発生装置の性能(半径150$$mu$$m以下の気泡半径分布と気泡含有率)を評価し、原子力機構が開発した旋回流型気泡発生装置及びオークリッジ研究所が開発したオリフィス型気泡発生装置を選定した。水銀流動条件、気泡注入条件、陽子線強度を系統的に変化させた19条件でそれぞれ100回の陽子線入射を実施し、陽子線入射に励起されるループの音響振動をレーザードップラー振動計とマイクロホンで計測すると共に、試験片の損傷を評価した。その結果、気泡含有率の増加と共に形成される損傷痕の深さが浅くなり、気泡含有率5$$times$$10$$^{-4}$$では、気泡無し時の約1/3になることを確認した。また、音響振動には損傷痕深さに対応した高周波数成分の減少が観測された。

Populations of small helium gas bubbles were introduced into a flowing mercury experiment test loop to evaluate mitigation of beam-pulse induced cavitation damage and pressure waves. The test loop was developed and thoroughly tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) prior to irradiations at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research Center (LANSCE-WNR) facility. Twelve candidate bubblers were evaluated over a range of mercury flow and gas injection rates by use of a novel optical measurement technique that accurately assessed the generated bubble size distributions. Final selection for irradiation testing included two variations of a swirl bubbler provided by Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) collaborators and one orifice bubbler developed at SNS. Bubble populations of interest consisted of sizes up to 150 $$mu$$m in radius with achieved gas void fractions in the 10$$^{-5}$$ to 10$$^{-4}$$ range. The nominal WNR beam pulse used for the experiment created energy deposition in the mercury comparable to SNS pulses operating at 2.5 MW. Nineteen test conditions were completed each with 100 pulses, including variations on mercury flow, gas injection and protons per pulse. The principal measure of cavitation damage mitigation was surface damage assessment on test specimens that were manually replaced for each test condition. Damage assessment was done after radiation decay and decontamination by optical and laser profiling microscopy with damaged area fraction and maximum pit depth being the more valued results. Damage was reduced by flow alone; the best mitigation from bubble injection was between half and a quarter that of flow alone. Other data collected included surface motion tracking by three laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV), loop wall dynamic strain, beam diagnostics for charge and beam profile assessment, embedded hydrophones and pressure sensors, and sound measurement by a suite of conventional and contact microphones.

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パーセンタイル:65.28

分野:Materials Science, Multidisciplinary

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