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砂利の除染試験; 敷砂利及びバラストの効果的な除染方法の確立

Decontamination test of gravel; Establishment of effective decontamination methods about paving gravel and ballast

加藤 貢; 田辺 務; 梅澤 克洋; 和田 孝雄

Kato, Mitsugu; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Umezawa, Katsuhiro; Wada, Takao

東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故により、放射性物質が環境中に飛散したため、空間線量率を下げるべく除染作業が進められている。このうち、住宅、公共施設、墓地、軌道等に敷いている砂利について、物理的な複数の方法により除染試験を行った。試験としては、材質や形状の異なる各砂利に対し、摩砕やブラスト等の除染効果の可能性がある機器を用いて、作業性や安全性における合理的かつ高い除染効果が得られる除染方法を確立することを目的とした。試験結果から、砂利の特徴に応じた除染方法による適用性と除染効果(低減率)を確認できた。一括りに砂利といっても特徴があるため、砂利の特徴に応じた除染方法を選択する必要があることが分かった。また、同じ場所から採取した砂利でも個々の汚染状態に大きなバラツキがあることも分かったため、除染前後の測定では、汚染状態のバラつきに応じた手法と手順、仕様を採用することが肝要である。

After the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, widespread contamination by radioactive materials occurred. Thus, decontamination work have been developed because of reducing air dose rate. Of this, in order to examine decontamination effect about gravel which cover sites of houses, communal facilities and cemeteries, and about ballast laid on a track, JAEA examined a decontamination test by physical plural methods. The objective of this testing is to establish rational and high effective decontamination methods to decontaminate each different gravel of materials and the shape, using the equipment which have possibility of the decontamination effect by trituration or blast. From the test results, applicability of the decontamination method depending on a characteristic of the gravel and the decontamination effect (reduction rate) are confirmed. There are various characteristics with the thing said to be gravel. It is confirmed that one decontamination method cannot be applied to all types of gravel. Furthermore, it is confirmed that there is great variability among individual polluted condition in the gravel gathered from the same place. Therefore, it is important to measure the degree of pollution so that a measurement error becomes as little as possible. For example, to measure plural points of the measurement side and keeping the height of measurement constant.

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