中堂 博之; 松尾 衛*; 前川 禎通*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 103(17), p.174308_1 - 174308_10, 2021/05
We report the observation of the Barnett field, rotational Doppler effect, and Berry phase using the rotating nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) methods. We have developed coil-spinning techniques that enable us to systematically study the effects of rotation in setups involving rotation of the signal detector, rotation of the sample, and simultaneous rotation of both the signal detector and sample. Applying these setups to NQR measurements, we observe NQR line splittings in which the spectral structures are clearly distinct among the setups. By analyzing these structures, we clarify the origin of the NQR line splittings and discuss the relationship between the rotational Doppler effect, Barnett field effect, and Berry phase in terms of the rotational degrees of freedom, such as the relative rotation and the sample rotation itself, and the observation frame of reference. We also provide clear evidence of the difference between the rotational Doppler effect and the Barnett field, and the equivalence of the Barnett field and the Berry phase.
岡安 悟; 針井 一哉*; 小畠 雅明; 吉井 賢資; 福田 竜生; 石田 真彦*; 家田 淳一; 齊藤 英治
Journal of Applied Physics, 128(8), p.083902_1 - 083902_7, 2020/08
The ion-irradiation tolerance of thermoelectric devices based on the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) was investigated by using 320 MeV gold ion (Au) beams modeling cumulative damages due to fission products emitted from the surface of spent nuclear fuels. For this purpose, prototypical Pt/YFeO/GdGaO SSE elements were irradiated with varying the dose level at room temperature and measured the SSE voltage of them. We confirmed that the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of the SSE elements are not affected by the ion-irradiation up to ions/cm fluence and that the SSE signal is extinguished around ions/cm, in which the ion tracks almost fully cover the sample surface. We also performed the hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements to understand the effects at the interface of Pt/YFeO. The HAXPES measurements suggest that the chemical reaction that diminishes the SSE signals is enhanced with the increase of the irradiation dose. The present study demonstrates that SSE-based devices are applicable to thermoelectric generation even in harsh environments for a long time period.
今井 正樹; 中堂 博之; 松尾 衛; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 102(1), p.014407_1 - 014407_5, 2020/07
The angular momentum compensation temperature of ferrimagnets has attracted much attention because of high-speed magnetic dynamics near . We show that NMR can be used to investigate domain wall dynamics near in ferrimagnets. We performed Fe-NMR measurements on the ferrimagnet HoFeO with = 245 K. In a multi-domain state, the NMR signal is enhanced by domain wall motion. We found that the NMR signal enhancement shows a maximum at in the multi-domain state. The NMR signal enhancement occurs due to increasing domain-wall mobility toward . We develop the NMR signal enhancement model involves domain-wall mobility. Our study shows that NMR in multi-domain state is a powerful tool to determine , even from a powder sample and it expands the possibility of searching for angular momentum-compensated materials.
高橋 遼*; 中堂 博之; 松尾 衛; 針井 一哉*; 大沼 悠一*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Nature Communications (Internet), 11, p.3009_1 - 3009_6, 2020/06
Hydrodynamic motion can generate a flux of electron-spin's angular momentum via the coupling between fluid rotation and electron spins. Such hydrodynamic generation, called spin hydrodynamic generation (SHDG), has recently attracted attention in a wide range of fields, especially in spintronics. Spintronics deals with spin-mediated interconversion taking place on a micro or nano scale because of the spin-diffusion length scale. To be fully incorporated into the interconversion, SHDG physics should also be established in such a minute scale, where most fluids exhibit a laminar flow. Here, we report electric voltage generation due to the SHDG in a laminar flow of a liquid-metal mercury. The experimental results show a scaling rule unique to the laminar-flow SHDG. Furthermore, its energy con- version efficiency turns out to be about 105 greater than of the turbulent one. Our findings reveal that the laminar-flow SHDG is suitable to downsizing and to extend the coverage of fluid spintronics.
小畠 雅明; 吉井 賢資; 福田 竜生; 川崎 郁斗; 岡根 哲夫; 山上 浩志; 矢板 毅; 針井 一哉; 家田 淳一; 岡安 悟; et al.
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 30, p.011192_1 - 011192_6, 2020/03
スピンゼーベック効果を示す系として注目されているPt/YFeO(YIG)系に対し、放射光を用いた硬X線光電子分光(HAXPES)により表面及び界面の電子状態測定を行った。本系ではスピンゼーベック効果のほかに特異な性質を示すことが報告されている。例えば、外部磁場が存在しない状況でもホール効果を発現する。この起源として、YIG中のFeイオンがPt膜に染み出し、磁性を持つ金属間化合物を生成している可能性が提案されている。そこでHAXPESの分析深さを利用し、界面近傍の鉄イオン等の電子状態を測定した。Ptの厚みが2nm, 5nm, 8nm, 10nmの試料を測定したところ、2nmと5nmの試料において鉄イオンの分析を行うことができた。Fe 1s光電子スペクトルからは、鉄イオンが3+のものと金属的な0価に近い2つの状態が存在することが判明し、上記の可能性を支持する結果が得られた。Pt 4fやO 1sスペクトルなども測定しており、詳しい結果は当日報告する。
針井 一哉; Seo, Y.-J.*; 堤 康雅*; 中堂 博之; 大柳 洸一*; 松尾 衛; 塩見 雄毅*; 小野 崇人*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Nature Communications (Internet), 10(1), p.2616_1 - 2616_5, 2019/06
Electric current has been used to send electricity to far distant places. On the other hand, spin current, a flow of electron spin, can in principle also send angular momentum to distant places. In a magnet, there is a universal spin carrier called a spin wave, a wave-type excitation of magnetization. Since spin waves exhibit a long propagation length, it should be able to send angular momentum that can generate torque and force at a distant place: a new function of magnets. Here we observe mechanical angular momentum transmission and force generation due to spin waves injected into YFeO by the spin-Seebeck effect. The spin-wave current, transmitted through a YFeO micro cantilever, was found to create a mechanical force on the cantilever as a non-local reaction of the spin-Seebeck effect. Spin-wave current can be generated remotely even in open circuits, and it can be used to drive micro mechanical devices.
山本 慧; Thiang, G. C.*; Pirro, P.*; Kim, K.-W.*; Everschor-Sitte, K.*; 齊藤 英治*
Physical Review Letters, 122(21), p.217201_1 - 217201_5, 2019/05
We propose a topological characterization of Hamiltonians describing classical waves. Applying it to the magnetostatic surface spin waves that are important in spintronics applications, we settle the speculation over their topological origin. For a class of classical systems that includes spin waves driven by dipole-dipole interactions, we show that the topology is characterized by vortex lines in the Brillouin zone in such a way that the symplectic structure of Hamiltonian mechanics plays an essential role. We define winding numbers around these vortex lines and identify them to be the bulk topological invariants for a class of semimetals. Exploiting the bulk-edge correspondence appropriately reformulated for these classical waves, we predict that surface modes appear but not in a gap of the bulk frequency spectrum. This feature, consistent with the magnetostatic surface spin waves, indicates a broader realm of topological phases of matter beyond spectrally gapped ones.
今井 正樹; 中堂 博之; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 松尾 衛; 大沼 悠一*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Letters, 114(16), p.162402_1 - 162402_4, 2019/04
We demonstrate that the angular momentum compensation temperature , at which the net angular momentum in the sample disappears, can be controlled in HoFeO by partially substituting Dy for Ho. The can be detected using the Barnett effect, by which mechanical rotation magnetizes an object due to spin-rotation coupling. We found that increases with the Dy content and clarified that the of HoDyFeO coincides with room temperature. The Barnett effect enables us to explore materials applicable to magnetic devices utilizing the angular momentum compensation only by rotating the powder sample at room temperature.
有沢 洋希*; 大門 俊介*; 追川 康之*; Seo, Y.-J.*; 針井 一哉; 大柳 洸一*; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Letters, 114(12), p.122402_1 - 122402_5, 2019/03
We have investigated magnetic field effects on mechanical vibration of a magnetic microbridge made of ferrimagnetic insulator YFeO at room temperature. The mechanical resonance frequency of the bridge exhibits a steep change at the saturation magnetic field of the microbridge. The steep change was shown to originate from magnetoelastic coupling combined with shape magnetic anisotropy. The competition between shape magnetic anisotropy and the external magnetic field can drive a delta-E effect, the modulation of Young modulus via the magnetoelastic coupling, in a narrow field range, which results in the observed steep change in the mechanical property.
Lustikova, J.*; 塩見 雄毅*; 横井 直人*; 壁谷 典幸*; 木村 憲彰*; 家永 紘一郎*; 金子 真一*; 大熊 哲*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治
Nature Communications (Internet), 9, p.4922_1 - 4922_6, 2018/11
A rectenna, standing for a rectifying antenna, is an apparatus which generates d.c. electricity from electric fluctuations. It is expected to realize wireless power transmission as well as energy harvesting from environmental radio waves. To realize such rectification, devices that are made up of internal atomic asymmetry such as an asymmetric junction have been necessary so far. Here we report a material that spontaneously generates electricity by rectifying environmental fluctuations without using atomic asymmetry. The sample is a common superconductor without lowered crystalline symmetry, but, just by putting it in an asymmetric magnetic environment, it turns into a rectifier and starts generating electricity. Superconducting vortex strings only annihilate and nucleate at surfaces, and this allows the bulk electrons to feel surface fluctuations in an asymmetric environment: a vortex rectenna. The rectification and generation can be switched on and off with only a slight change in temperature or external magnetic fields.
今井 正樹; 緒方 裕大*; 中堂 博之; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 松尾 衛*; 大沼 悠一*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Letters, 113(5), p.052402_1 - 052402_3, 2018/07
We report direct observation of gyromagnetic reversal, which is the sign change of gyromagnetic ratio in a ferrimagnet HoFeO, by using the Barnett effect measurement technique at low temperatures. The Barnett effect is a phenomenon in which magnetization is induced by mechanical rotation through the coupling between rotation and total angular momentum of electrons. The magnetization of HoFeO induced by mechanical rotation disappears at 135 K and 240 K. The temperatures correspond to the magnetization compensation temperature and the angular momentum compensation temperature , respectively. Between and , the magnetization flips over to be parallel against the angular momentum due to the sign change of gyromagnetic ratio. This study provides an unprecedented technique to explore the gyromagnetic properties.
内田 健一*; 大門 俊介*; 井口 亮*; 齊藤 英治
Nature, 558(7708), p.95 - 99, 2018/06
The Peltier effect, discovered in 1834, converts a charge current into a heat current in a conductor, and its performance is described by the Peltier coefficient, which is defined as the ratio of the generated heat current to the applied charge current. To exploit the Peltier effect for thermoelectric cooling or heating, junctions of two conductors with different Peltier coefficients have been believed to be indispensable. Here we challenge this conventional wisdom by demonstrating Peltier cooling and heating in a single material without junctions. This is realized through an anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect in which the Peltier coefficient depends on the angle between the directions of a charge current and magnetization in a ferromagnet. By using active thermography techniques, we observe the temperature change induced by this effect in a plain nickel slab. We find that the thermoelectric properties of the ferromagnet can be redesigned simply by changing the configurations of the charge current and magnetization, for instance, by shaping the ferromagnet so that the current must flow around a curve. Our experimental results demonstrate the suitability of nickel for the anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect and the importance of spin-orbit interaction in its mechanism. The anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect observed here is the missing thermoelectric phenomenon in ferromagnetic materials-the Onsager reciprocal of the anisotropic magneto-Seebeck effect previously observed in ferromagnets and its simplicity might prove useful in developing thermal management technologies for electronic and spintronic devices.
Qiu, Z.*; Hou, D.*; Barker, J.*; 山本 慧; Gomonay, O.*; 齊藤 英治*
Nature Materials, 17(7), p.577 - 580, 2018/05
緒方 裕大; 中堂 博之; Gu, B.; 小林 伸聖*; 小野 正雄; 針井 一哉; 松尾 衛; 齊藤 英治; 前川 禎通
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 442, p.329 - 331, 2017/11
The gyroscopic g factor, , of FeCo nanogranules embedded in a matrix of MgF (FeCo-MgF) was determined by measuring the magnetic-field generation from a rotating sample due to the Barnett effect. The value of the FeCo-MgF is estimated to be 1.76 0.11. The orbital contribution to the magnetic moment in the FeCo nanogranules was found to be quite large compared with that in bulk FeCo, being consistent with a density-functional-theory calculation that shows that the orbital magnetic moment may increase at the FeCo/MgF interfaces. The result suggests that the orbital magnetic moment is enhanced by symmetry breaking at the surface of the FeCo nanogranules.
大沼 悠一; 松尾 衛*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
まぐね, 12(5), p.217 - 224, 2017/10
塩見 雄毅*; 高嶋 梨菜*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 96(13), p.134425_1 - 134425_9, 2017/10
A magnon Nernst effect, an antiferromagnetic analog of the magnon Hall effect in ferromagnetic insulators, has been studied experimentally for the layered antiferromagnetic insulator MnPS in contact with two Pt strips. Thermoelectric voltage in the Pt strips grown on MnPS single crystals exhibits nonmonotonic temperature dependence at low temperatures, which is unlikely to be explained by electronic origins in Pt but can be ascribed to the inverse spin Hall voltage induced by a magnon Nernst effect. Control of antiferromagnetic domains in the MnPS crystal by magnetoelectric cooling is found to modulate the low-temperature thermoelectric voltage in Pt, which is evidence consistent with the emergence of the magnon Nernst effect in Pt-MnPS hybrid structures.
Wang, H.*; Hou, D.*; Qiu, Z.*; 吉川 貴史*; 齊藤 英治; Jin, X.*
Journal of Applied Physics, 122(8), p.083907_1 - 083907_6, 2017/08
An electric method for measuring magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic insulators (AFIs) is proposed. When a metallic film with strong spin-orbit interactions, e.g., platinum (Pt), is deposited on an AFI, its resistance should be affected by the direction of the AFI Nel vector due to the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). Accordingly, the direction of the AFI Nel vector, which is affected by both the external magnetic field and the magnetic anisotropy, is reflected in resistance of Pt. The magnetic field angle dependence of the resistance of Pt on AFI is calculated by considering the SMR, which indicates that the antiferromagnetic anisotropy can be obtained experimentally by monitoring the Pt resistance in strong magnetic fields. Calculations are performed for realistic systems such as Pt/CrO, Pt/NiO, and Pt/CoO.
小林 大眞*; 吉川 智英*; 松尾 衛*; 井口 亮*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治; 能崎 幸雄*
Physical Review Letters, 119(7), p.077202_1 - 077202_5, 2017/08
We demonstrate the generation of alternating spin current (SC) via spin-rotation coupling (SRC) using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) in a Cu film. Ferromagnetic resonance caused by injecting SAWs was observed in a Ni-Fe film attached to a Cu film, with the resonance further found to be suppressed through the insertion of a SiO film into the interface. The intensity of the resonance depended on the angle between the wave vector of the SAW and the magnetization of the Ni-Fe film. This angular dependence is explicable in terms of the presence of spin transfer torque from a SC generated via SRC.
大門 俊介*; 内田 健一*; 井口 亮*; 日置 友智*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 96(2), p.024424_1 - 024424_12, 2017/07
The spin Peltier effect (SPE), heat-current generation due to spin-current injection, in various metal (Pt, W, and Au single layers and Pt/Cu bilayer)/ferrimagnetic insulator [yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG)] junction systems has been investigated by means of a lock-in thermography (LIT) method. The SPE is excited by a spin current across the metal/YIG interface, which is generated by applying a charge current to the metallic layer via the spin Hall effect. The LIT method enables the thermal imaging of the SPE free from the Joule-heating contribution. Importantly, we observed spin-current-induced temperature modulation not only in the Pt/YIG and W/YIG systems, but also in the Au/YIG and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, excluding the possible contamination by anomalous Ettingshausen effects due to proximity-induced ferromagnetism near the metal/YIG interface. As demonstrated in our previous study, the SPE signals are confined only in the vicinity of the metal/YIG interface; we buttress this conclusion by reducing a spatial blur due to thermal diffusion in an infrared-emission layer on the sample surface used for the LIT measurements. We also found that the YIG-thickness dependence of the SPE is similar to that of the spin Seebeck effect measured in the same Pt/YIG sample, implying the reciprocal relation between them.
渡辺 真悟*; 廣部 大地*; 塩見 雄毅*; 井口 亮*; 大門 俊介*; 亀田 麻衣*; 高橋 三郎*; 齊藤 英治
Scientific Reports (Internet), 7, p.4576_1 - 4576_6, 2017/07
Spin pumping enables the generation of d.c. and gigahertz-band (GHz-band) voltages from an applied microwave via magnetization dynamics when combined with inverse spin Hall effects. However, generating such voltages in the in-between frequency region, or the megahertz (MHz) band, has been difficult since ferromagnetic resonance usually occurs in the GHz band. Here we show that in spite of GHz-band microwaves applied, MHz-band voltages can be generated by spin pumping with use of nonlinear magnetization dynamics in YFeO. The mechanism is ascribed to the MHz-band oscillation of the amplitude of the magnetization precession, which is projected onto a rectified voltage component via spin pumping. The present finding could be useful for frequency down-conversion thanks to the simple and durable structure, continuous-wave operation, and the tunability of an output frequency with low magnetic fields.