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論文

Long-term simulations of radiocesium discharge in watershed with improved radiocesium wash-off model; Applying the model to Abukuma River basin of Fukushima

Liu, X.; 町田 昌彦; 操上 広志; 北村 哲浩

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 203, p.135 - 146, 2019/07

福島第一原子力発電所事故後の放射性セシウムの長期的な移行及び分布をシミュレートするために、土壌流亡予測式を用いた土砂・セシウム移行(SACT)数値解析モデルを開発した。このモデルでは、2011年の放射性セシウムの年間流出量は観測結果と整合したが、それ以降は、特に阿武隈川について、観測されている早い減少傾向を再現できていなかった。そこで、放射性セシウムの垂直方向の移行や土壌への吸着過程など考慮し、SACTを改良した。モデルを検証するために、阿武隈川で流出する顕濁態の年間平均放射性セシウム濃度の観測量と比較したところ、パラメータ調整をすることなく観測結果を再現できることを確認した。

論文

Validation of three-dimensional finite-volume-particle method for simulation of liquid-liquid mixing flow behavior

加藤 正嗣*; 船越 寛司*; Liu, X.*; 松元 達也*; Liu, W.*; 守田 幸路*; 神山 健司

Proceedings of 11th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-11) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/11

Computational fluid dynamics based on particle-based simulations with a fully Lagrangian approach is a powerful tool to understand thermal-hydraulic behaviors of multi-component, multi-phase flows involved in disrupted nuclear core during severe accidents. In this study, a validation study of 3D particle-based simulation using the finite volume particle method was performed for mixing flow behavior of two liquid phases with different densities in a pool. Fundamental experiments using water and silicon oil were also carried out for the present validation. An enhanced multi-phase scheme was introduced to provide accurate and stable calculations of multi-phase flows characterized by high density ratios. The simulation results of the experiments were given to demonstrate validity of the present simulation method and enhanced performance for simulations of mixing and separation behaviors of liquid-liquid two-phase flows in the pool.

論文

Particle-based simulation of heat transfer behavior in EAGLE ID1 in-pile test

守田 幸路*; 小川 竜聖*; 時岡 大海*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; 神山 健司

Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 11 Pages, 2018/10

EAGLE炉内ID1試験は日本原子力研究開発機構によって実施され、FAIDUSと称される内部ダクト付き燃料集合体からの早期燃料流出を模擬したものである。試験で生じた早期ダクト破損は、燃料とスティールから構成される溶融プールからの高い熱流束によるものと解釈されている。試験後の分析からは、壁面に燃料クラストが形成されない状況において、高い熱伝導度を有するプール中の溶融スティールによって溶融プールからダクトへの伝熱が効果的に促進されたことが示唆されている。本研究では、多成分多相流の粒子法に基づいた完全ラグランジェ法を用いて溶融プールからダクト壁への熱伝達機構を分析した。プール中の溶融スティールと燃料の混合と分離挙動およびこれらの挙動がプールからダクトへの伝熱に与える影響を調べるため、燃料ピンの崩壊、溶融プールの形成およびダクト壁の破損に至る一連の挙動を模擬した。現在の2次元粒子法シミュレーションでは、10MW/m$$^{2}$$を超える壁面への大きな熱負荷は、核発熱を伴う液体燃料が壁面へ直接接触することによるものであることが示された。

論文

Numerical simulation on self-leveling behavior of mixed particle beds using multi-fluid model coupled with DEM

Phan, L. H. S.*; 大原 陽平*; 河田 凌*; Liu, X.*; Liu, W.*; 守田 幸路*; Guo, L.*; 神山 健司; 田上 浩孝

Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 12 Pages, 2018/10

燃料デブリベッドの自己平坦化挙動は、ナトリウム冷却高速炉(SFR)での炉心崩壊事故(CDA)の安全評価における主要現象の1つである。SIMMERコードはSFRのCDA解析のために開発され、安全評価のみならずCDA時の主要な伝熱流動現象の数値解析に適切に適用されてきた。しかしながら、SIMMERの流体モデルは、個々の粒子特性のみならず、粒子間の強い相互作用を表現することは困難である。この問題を解決するため、SIMMERの多流体モデルと粒子に対する個別要素法(DEM)とを結合させた新しい手法を開発し、多相流における流体と粒子との相互作用および粒子挙動を適切に評価することを試みてきた。本研究では、DEMと結合したSIMMERコードの多流体モデルを検証するため、円筒状の粒子ベッドにガスを吹き込んだ自己平坦化試験シリーズの数値シミュレーションを行った。さらに検証を進める必要があるが、シミュレーション結果と試験結果とは適切に一致し、デブリベッドの自己平坦化を評価する手法としての潜在的な可能性を示した。DEMと結合したSIMMERコードは、SFRで粒子ベッドに関する安全評価のための次世代の計算手法として期待される。

論文

Modeling of eutectic reaction between molten stainless steel and B$$_{4}$$C for severe accident simulations

Liu, X.*; 守田 幸路*; 山野 秀将

Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 12 Pages, 2018/10

実験結果に基づき、共晶物質成長速度を放物線型法則によりモデル化した。熱及び物質移行過程についても共晶物質の平衡及び非平衡相変化を考慮してモデル化された。共晶物の熱物性値もまた実験で計測されたデータを用いて、熱物性及び状態方程式の解析モデルに組み込んだ。

論文

Dirac surface state-modulated spin dynamics in a ferrimagnetic insulator at room temperature

Tang, C.*; Song, Q.*; Chang, C.-Z.*; Xu, Y.*; 大沼 悠一; 松尾 衛*; Liu, Y.*; Yuan, W.*; Yao, Y.*; Moodera, J. S.*; et al.

Science Advances (Internet), 4(6), p.eaas8660_1 - eaas8660_6, 2018/06

This work demonstrates markedly modified spin dynamics of magnetic insulator (MI) by the spin momentum-locked Dirac surface states of the adjacent topological insulator (TI). As the Bi concentration $$x$$ is systematically tuned in 5-nm-thick (Bi$$_{x}$$Sb$$_{1-x}$$)$$_{2}$$Te$$_{3}$$ TI films, the weight of the surface relative to bulk states peaks at $$x$$ = 0.32 when the chemical potential approaches the Dirac point. At this concentration, the Gilbert damping constant of the precessing magnetization in 10-nm-thick Y$$_{3}$$Fe$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$ MI films in the MI/TI heterostructures is enhanced by an order of magnitude, the largest among all concentrations. In addition, the MI acquires additional strong magnetic anisotropy that favors the in-plane orientation with similar Bi concentration dependence. These extraordinary effects of the Dirac surface states distinguish TI from other materials such as heavy metals in modulating spin dynamics of the neighboring magnetic layer.

論文

Quantitative characterization of the nanoscale local lattice strain induced by Sr dopants in La$$_{1.92}$$Sr$$_{0.08}$$CuO$$_{4}$$

Lin, J. Q.*; Liu, X.*; Blackburn, E.*; 脇本 秀一; Ding, H.*; Islam, Z.*; Sinha, S. K.*

Physical Review Letters, 120(19), p.197001_1 - 197001_6, 2018/05

 パーセンタイル:100(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

X線散漫散乱の観測により、銅酸化物高温超伝導体La$$_{2-x}$$Sr$$_{x}$$CuO$$_{4}$$中の不純物Srにより生じるナノスケールの格子歪みを観測した。この結果は、これまで議論となっていた不純物による歪みの性質を明らかにしたとともに、STMで観測されているギャップの不均一性の原因ではないことを明らかにした。

論文

CIELO collaboration summary results; International evaluations of neutron reactions on uranium, plutonium, iron, oxygen and hydrogen

Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Talou, P.*; Plompen, A. J.*; Schillebeeckx, P.*; et al.

Nuclear Data Sheets, 148, p.189 - 213, 2018/02

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:4(Physics, Nuclear)

CIELO国際協力では、原子力施設の臨界性に大きな影響を与える重要核種($$^{235}$$U, $$^{238}$$U, $$^{239}$$Pu, $$^{56}$$Fe, $$^{16}$$O, $$^{1}$$H)の中性子断面積データの精度を改善し、これまで矛盾していると考えられた点を解消することを目的として研究が行われた。多くの研究機関が参加したこのパイロットプロジェクトは、IAEAの支援も受けて、OECD/NEAの評価国際協力ワーキングパーティ(WPEC)のSubgroup 40として組織された。本CIELOプロジェクトは、新たな実験研究や理論研究を行う動機付けとなり、測定データを正確に反映し臨界性の積分テストに優れた新たな一連の評価済みライブラリとして結実した。本報告書は、これまでの研究成果と、本国際協力の次の段階の計画概要をまとめたものである。

論文

Shell evolution beyond $$Z$$=28 and $$N$$=50; Spectroscopy of $$^{81,82,83,84}$$Zn

Shand, C. M.*; Podoly$'a$k, Zs.*; G$'o$rska, M.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Nowacki, F.*; Otsuka, T.*; Sieja, K.*; Tostevin, J. A.*; Tsunoda, T.*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 773, p.492 - 497, 2017/10

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:14.67(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Low-lying states in neutron-rich $$^{81,82.83.84}$$Zn nuclei were measured for the first time via in-beam $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy at RIKEN. These include the 4$$_1^+$$ to 2$$_1^+$$ in $$^{82}$$Zn and the 2$$_1^+$$ to 0$$_1^+$$ and 4$$_1^+$$ to 2$$_1^+$$ in $$^{84}$$Zn. The reduced E($$2^+$$) energies and increased E(4$$^+$$)/E(2$$^+$$) ratios at $$N$$=52,54 compared to $$^{80}$$Zn attest that the magicity is confined just on the neutron number $$N$$=50 only. The levels observed in $$^{84}$$Zn suggest the onset of deformation towards heavier Zn isotopes. The data were compared to state-of-the-art shell model calculations.

論文

Numerical simulation of solid-particle sedimentation behavior using a multi-fluid model coupled with DEM

河田 凌*; 大原 陽平*; Sheikh, Md. A. R.*; Liu, X.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*; Guo, L.*; 神山 健司; 鈴木 徹

Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2017/09

Numerical simulations of various thermal-hydraulic phenomena with multiphase and multicomponent flows in postulated core disruptive accidents (CDAs) are regarded as particular difficulties in the safety analysis of liquid-metal cooled reactors. In a material relocation phase of CDAs, core debris may settle on the core-support structure and/or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel and then form the debris bed. In particular, the shape of debris bed is crucial for the relocation of molten core and heat-removal capability of the debris bed as well as re-criticality. In the present study, a hybrid numerical simulation method, which couples the multi-fluid model of the 3D fast reactor safety analysis code SIMMER-IV with the discrete element method (DEM), was applied to analyze sedimentation and bed formation behaviors of core debris. In the present study, 3D simulations were performed for a series of particle sedimentation experiments with gravity driven discharge of solid particles into a quiescent cylindrical water pool. The present simulation predicts the sedimentation behavior of mixed particles with different density or particle size as well as homogeneous particles. The simulation results on bed shapes and particle distribution in the bed agree well with the experimental ones. They demonstrate the fundamental applicability of the present hybrid method to solid-particle sedimentation and bed formation simulations.

論文

Observation of magnetoelastic effects in a quasi-one-dimensional spiral magnet

Wang, C.*; Daiwei, Y.*; Liu, X.*; Chen, R.*; Du, X.*; Hu, B.*; Wang, L.*; 飯田 一樹*; 蒲沢 和也*; 脇本 秀一; et al.

Physical Review B, 96(8), p.085111_1 - 085111_5, 2017/08

AA2017-0274.pdf:1.02MB

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:66.33(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

This paper presents a systematic study of spin and lattice dynamics in the quasi-one-dimensional spiral magnet CuBr$$_2$$, using Raman scattering in conjunction with infrared and neutron spectroscopy. Along with the development of spin correlations upon cooling, we observe a rich set of broad Raman bands at energies that correspond to phonon-dispersion energies near the one-dimensional magnetic wave vector. The low-energy bands further exhibit a distinct intensity maximum at the spiral magnetic ordering temperature.

論文

Shape evolution in neutron-rich krypton isotopes beyond N=60; First spectroscopy of $$^{98,100}$$Kr

Flavigny, F.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Delaroche, J.-P.*; Girod, M.*; Libert, J.*; Rodriguez, T. R.*; Authelet, G.*; Baba, H.*; Calvet, D.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 118(24), p.242501_1 - 242501_6, 2017/06

 被引用回数:14 パーセンタイル:9.07(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The first $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy of very neutron rich $$^{98,100}$$Kr isotopes was carried out at the RIBF at RIKEN Nishina center. Excited states in these isotopes were populated via (p,2p) reactions using radioactive $$^{99,101}$$Rb beams accelerated to 220 MeV/nucleon. The new data show a significant increase in deformation beyond N=60, as well as competing configurations (shape-coexistence) at low energy. The data were compared with beyond-mean-field calculations which predict level energies in good agreement with observation, and suggest oblate-prolate shape coexistence.

論文

$$gamma$$ decay of unbound neutron-hole states in $$^{133}$$Sn

Vaquero, V.*; Jungclaus, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Wimmer, K.*; Gargano, A.*; Tostevin, J. A.*; Chen, S.*; N$'a$cher, E.*; Sahin, E.*; 志賀 慶明*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 118(20), p.202502_1 - 202502_5, 2017/05

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:18.97(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Excited states in $$^{133}$$Sn were populated following one-neutron knockout reaction from an unstable $$^{134}$$Sn beam at the RIBF laboratory in RIKEN. In addition to the already known $$gamma$$ rays, additional $$gamma$$ strength was observed for the first time in the excitation-energy range 3.5-5.5 MeV. Since the neutron separation energy of $$^{133}$$Sn is low, this observation provides direct evidence for the radioactive decay of neutron-unbound states in this nucleus. The ability of $$gamma$$ decay to compete with neutron emission was attributed to a mismatch between the wave functions of the initial and final states in the neutron emission case. These findings suggest that in the region south-east of $$^{132}$$Sn, nuclear structure effects play a significant role in the decay of unbound states, which are instead usually ignored in the evaluation of neutron-emission probabilities in astrophysical simulations.

論文

Low-lying structure and shape evolution in neutron-rich Se isotopes

Chen, S.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Rodriguez, T. R.*; Authelet, G.*; Baba, H.*; Calvet, D.*; Ch$^a$teau, F.*; Corsi, A.*; Delbart, A.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 95(4), p.041302_1 - 041302_6, 2017/04

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:8.11(Physics, Nuclear)

Neutron-rich isotopes of selenium, $$^{88,90,92,94}$$Se, where studied via in beam $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy after nucleon removal reactions at RIBF in RIKEN. The low-energy excitations of these nuclei were investigated using $$gamma$$-$$gamma$$ coincidences, and the first and second excited 2$$^+$$ states were found at remarkably low energies. The analysis and comparison with self-consistent beyond-mean field calculations suggest that both shape coexistence and triaxiality are needed to describe these isotopes.

論文

Material composition effects on far-field deposition minimum critical mass

Atz, M.*; Liu, X.*; Fratoni, M.*; Ahn, J.*; 平野 史生

Proceedings of 2017 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference (IHLRWM 2017) (CD-ROM), p.608 - 614, 2017/04

After nuclear waste is buried in a repository, hydrogeological processes can dissolve, transport, separate, and rearrange radionuclides inside or outside the repository. If fissile material becomes separated from neutron absorbers and precipitates in a far-field geologic formation, a critical mass may be formed. The scope of this study is to assess the impact of the spent fuel composition and host rock type on the risk of criticality in the far field. In particular, this study performs neutronics analysis in order to determine the minimum theoretical mass of fissile material needed to achieve criticality in a water-saturated far-field deposition under conservative conditions. Understanding of the effects of composition of spent fuels and host rock types enable discussion of the likelihood of far field criticality from LWR used fuel. In addition, this work makes recommendations on repository design and LWR fuel cycle management so as to minimize the risk of far-field criticality.

論文

Effects of random geometry on post-closure repository criticality safety

Liu, X.*; Fratoni, M.*; Ahn, J.*; 平野 史生

Proceedings of 2017 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference (IHLRWM 2017) (CD-ROM), p.595 - 599, 2017/04

The present work aims to study the effect of random geometry on the long-term criticality safety. Preliminary considerations on uranium depositions in randomly fractured rocks have been obtained through an approximated analytical solution to calculate spherical fuel lumps with random locations. With stochastic and heterogeneous conditions applied, the present work examines the conservatives of the neutronic models for repository criticality safety assessment, and provides deeper understandings of the system. The major finding is that, when parameters are chosen to optimized the criticality, effective multiplication factor for systems with the random geometries can be well-bounded by the average case.

論文

Uniaxial pressure effect on the magnetic ordered moment and transition temperatures in BaFe$$_{2-x}$$T$$_{x}$$As$$_{2}$$ ($$T$$ = Co,Ni)

Tam, D. M.*; Song, Y.*; Man, H.*; Cheung, S. C.*; Yin, Z.*; Lu, X.*; Wang, W.*; Frandsen, B. A.*; Liu, L.*; Gong, Z.*; et al.

Physical Review B, 95(6), p.060505_1 - 060505_6, 2017/02

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:25.41(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We use neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation to study the effect of in-plane uniaxial pressure on the antiferromagnetic (AF) orthorhombic phase in BaFe$$_{2-x}$$T$$_{x}$$As$$_{2}$$ and its Co- and Ni-substituted members near optimal superconductivity. In the low-temperature AF ordered state, uniaxial pressure necessary to detwin the orthorhombic crystals also increases the magnetic ordered moment, reaching an 11% increase under 40 MPa for BaFe$$_{1.9}$$Co$$_{0.1}$$As$$_2$$, and a 15% increase for BaFe$$_{1.915}$$Ni$$_{0.085}$$As$$_2$$. We also observe an increase of the AF ordering temperature ($$T_N$$) of about 0.25 K/MPa in all compounds, consistent with density functional theory calculations that reveal better Fermi surface nesting for itinerant electrons under uniaxial pressure. The doping dependence of the magnetic ordered moment is captured by combining dynamical mean field theory with density functional theory, suggesting that the pressure-induced moment increase near optimal superconductivity is closely related to quantum fluctuations and the nearby electronic nematic phase.

論文

Are there signatures of harmonic oscillator shells far from stability?; First spectroscopy of $$^{110}$$Zr

Paul, N.*; Corsi, A.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Authelet, G.*; Baba, H.*; Bally, B.*; Bender, M.*; Calvet, D.*; Ch$^a$teau, F.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 118(3), p.032501_1 - 032501_7, 2017/01

 被引用回数:14 パーセンタイル:9.07(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The first measurement of $$gamma$$ rays emitted by the very neutron rich nuclei $$^{112}$$Mo (Z=42) and $$^{110}$$Zr (Z=40) was carried out at the RIBF facility at RIKEN. These data shine light on the postulated N=70 harmonic oscillator shell. If the spin-orbit splitting which gives rise to the N=82 shell gap is reduced in very neutron-rich nuclei, the harmonic oscillator gap at N=70 should open instead. However, both the measured energy of the first excited state $$^{112}$$Mo and $$^{110}$$Zr, respectively 235(7) keV and 185(11) keV, and their E(4$$^+$$)/E(2$$^+$$) ratio, indicate that these nuclei are good rotors, and exclude the shell stabilization scenario at Z=40 and N=70. These results were compared to state-of-the-art density functional theoretical calculations using Gogny and Skyrme effective interactions.

論文

Examination of the surrogate ratio method for the determination of the $$^{93}$$Zr(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{94}$$Zr cross section with $$^{90,92}$$Zr($$^{18}$$O,$$^{16}$$O)$$^{92,94}$$Zr reactions

Yan, S. Q.*; Li, Z. H.*; Wang, Y. B.*; 西尾 勝久; 牧井 宏之; Su, J.*; Li, Y. J.*; 西中 一朗; 廣瀬 健太郎; Han, Y. L.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 94(1), p.015804_1 - 015804_5, 2016/07

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:52.92(Physics, Nuclear)

The relative $$gamma$$-decay probability ratios of the neutron resonance states in $$^{94}$$Zr and $$^{92}$$Zr populated via two neutron transfer reactions, $$^{92}$$Zr($$^{18}$$O,$$^{16}$$O)$$^{94}$$Zr and $$^{90}$$Zr($$^{18}$$O,$$^{16}$$O)$$^{92}$$Zr, have been measured to test the validity of the surrogate ratio method (SRM) in determining the (n,$$gamma$$) reaction cross section. The cross sections of the $$^{93}$$Zr(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{94}$$Zr reaction are derived from the experimentally obtained ratios and the cross sections of the $$^{91}$$Zr(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{92}$$Zr reaction in the equivalent neutron energy range of $$E_{rm n}$$ = 0 - 8 MeV. The deduced cross sections of $$^{93}$$Zr(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{94}$$Zr reaction agree with the directly measured ones in the low-energy region, and with the evaluated ENDF/B-VII.1 data at higher energies of $$E_{rm n} >$$ 3 MeV. The agreement supports the concept of the SRM method to indirectly determine the (n,$$gamma$$) reaction cross sections.

論文

Searching for observable effects induced by anomalous triangle singularities

Liu, X.-H.*; 岡 眞; Zhao, Q.*

Physics Letters B, 753, p.297 - 302, 2016/02

 被引用回数:47 パーセンタイル:1.04(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

異常三角特異性(ATS)の性質と様々なハドロン生成過程における観測可能性とを検討した。最近観測された閾値付近に見られるハドロン状態の性質を理解する上で異常三角特異性が重要であることを示した。異常三角特異性と純粋にダイナミカルな極として現れる状態を区別する方法を議論した。

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