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Journal Articles

A Study of methods to prevent piping and erosion in buffer materials intended for a vertical deposition hole at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Jo, Mayumi*; Ono, Makoto*; Nakayama, Masashi; Asano, Hidekazu*; Ishii, Tomoko*

Geological Society Special Publications, 482, 16 Pages, 2018/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:23.29

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2014 (Joint research)

Kobayashi, Masato*; Saito, Masahiko*; Iwatani, Takafumi*; Nakayama, Masashi; Tanai, Kenji; Fujita, Tomo; Asano, Hidekazu*

JAEA-Research 2015-018, 14 Pages, 2015/12

JAEA-Research-2015-018.pdf:5.43MB

JAEA and RWMC concluded the letter of cooperation agreement on the research and development of radioactive waste disposal in April, 2005, and have been carrying out the collaboration work based on the agreement. JAEA have been carrying out the Horonobe URL Project which is intended for a sedimentary rock in the Horonobe town, Hokkaido, since 2001. In the project, geoscientific research and research and development on geological disposal technology are being promoted. Meanwhile, The Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has been promoting construction of equipments for the full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system and operation technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal since 2008, to enhance public's understanding to the geological disposal of HLW, e.g. using underground facility. RWMC received an order of the project in fiscal year 2014 continuing since fiscal year 2008. Since topics in this project are included in the Horonobe URL Project, JAEA carried out this project as collaboration work continuing since fiscal year 2008. This report summarizes the results of the research on engineering technology carried out in this collaboration work in fiscal year 2014.

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2013 (Joint research)

Fujita, Tomo; Tanai, Kenji; Nakayama, Masashi; Sawada, Sumiyuki*; Asano, Hidekazu*; Saito, Masahiko*; Yoshino, Osamu*; Kobayashi, Masato*

JAEA-Research 2014-031, 44 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Research-2014-031.pdf:16.11MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (RWMC) concluded the letter of cooperation agreement on the research and development of radioactive waste disposal in April, 2005, and have been carrying out the collaboration work based on the agreement. JAEA have been carrying out the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project which is intended for a sedimentary rock in the Horonobe town, Hokkaido, since 2001. In the project, geoscientific research and research and development on geological disposal technology are being promoted. Meanwhile, the government (the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has been promoting construction of equipments for the full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system (EBS) and operation technology for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal since 2008, to enhance public's understanding to the geological disposal of HLW, e.g. using underground facility. RWMC received an order of the project in fiscal year 2012 (2011/2012) continuing since fiscal year 2008 (2008/2009). Since topics in this project are included in the Horonobe URL Project, JAEA carried out this project as collaboration work continuing since fiscal year 2008. This report summarizes the results of engineering technology carried out in this collaboration work in fiscal year 2013. In fiscal year 2013, emplacement tests using buffer material block for the vertical emplacement concept were carried out and visualization tests for water penetration in buffer material were carried out.

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2012 (Joint research)

Nakatsuka, Noboru; Sato, Haruo; Tanai, Kenji; Nakayama, Masashi; Sawada, Sumiyuki*; Asano, Hidekazu*; Saito, Masahiko*; Yoshino, Osamu*; Tsukahara, Shigeki*; Hishioka, Sosuke*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2013-034, 70 Pages, 2014/01

JAEA-Research-2013-034.pdf:9.11MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (RWMC) concluded the letter of cooperation agreement on the research and development of radioactive waste disposal in April, 2005, and have been carrying out the collaboration work based on the agreement. JAEA have been carrying out the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project which is intended for a sedimentary rock in the Horonobe town, Hokkaido, since 2001. In the project, geoscientific research and research and development on geological disposal technology are being promoted. Meanwhile, the government (the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has been promoting construction of equipments for the full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system and operation technology for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal since 2008, to enhance public's understanding to the geological disposal of HLW, e.g. using underground facility. RWMC received an order of the project in fiscal year 2012 (2011/2012) continuing since fiscal year 2008 (2008/2009). Since topics in this project are included in the Horonobe URL Project, JAEA carried out this project as collaboration work continuing in fiscal year 2008. This report summarizes the results of engineering technology carried out in this collaboration work in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2012, part of the equipments for emplacement of buffer material was produced and visualization test for water penetration in buffer material were carried out.

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2011 (Joint research)

Nakatsuka, Noboru; Sato, Haruo; Tanai, Kenji; Sugita, Yutaka; Nakayama, Masashi; Sawada, Sumiyuki*; Niinuma, Hiroaki*; Asano, Hidekazu*; Saito, Masahiko*; Yoshino, Osamu*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2013-027, 34 Pages, 2013/11

JAEA-Research-2013-027.pdf:5.84MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (RWMC) concluded the letter of cooperation agreement on the research and development of radioactive waste disposal in April, 2005, and have been carrying out the collaboration work based on the agreement. JAEA have been carrying out the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project which is intended for a sedimentary rock in the Horonobe town, Hokkaido, since 2001. In the project, geoscientific research and research and development on geological disposal technology are being promoted. Meanwhile, the government (the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has been promoting construction of equipments for the full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system and operation technology for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal since 2008, to enhance public's understanding to the geological disposal of HLW, e.g. using underground facility. RWMC received an order of the project in fiscal year 2010 (2010/2011) continuing since fiscal year 2008 (2008/2009). Since topics in this project are included in the Horonobe URL Project, JAEA carried out this project as collaboration work continuing in fiscal year 2008. This report summarizes the results of engineering technology carried out in this collaboration work in fiscal year 2011. In fiscal year 2011, part of the equipments for emplacement of buffer material was produced and visualization test for water penetration in buffer material were carried out.

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2010 (Joint research)

Nakatsuka, Noboru; Hatanaka, Koichiro; Sato, Haruo; Sugita, Yutaka; Nakayama, Masashi; Asano, Hidekazu*; Saito, Masahiko*; Suyama, Yasuhiro*; Hayashi, Hidero*; Honda, Yuko*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2013-026, 57 Pages, 2013/11

JAEA-Research-2013-026.pdf:7.48MB

JAEA and RWMC concluded the letter of cooperation agreement on the research and development of radioactive waste disposal in April, 2005, and have been carrying out the collaboration work described above based on the agreement. JAEA have been carrying out the Horonobe URL Project which is intended for a sedimentary rock in the Horonobe town, Hokkaido, since 2001. In the project, geoscientific research and research and development on geological disposal technology are being promoted. Meanwhile, the government (the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has been promoting construction of equipments for the full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system and operation technology for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal since 2008, to enhance public's understanding to the geological disposal of HLW, using underground facility, etc. RWMC received an order of the project in fiscal year 2010 continuing since fiscal year 2008. Since topics in this project are included in the Horonobe URL Project, JAEA carried out this project as collaboration work continuing in FY 2008. This report summarizes the results of engineering technology carried out in this collaboration work in fiscal year 2010. In fiscal year 2010, part of the equipments for emplacement of buffer material was produced and a house for the equipments and apparatus was opened in the adjoining land of Public Information House of JAEA Horonobe.

Journal Articles

Propagation behaviour of general and localised corrosion of carbon steel in simulated groundwater under aerobic conditions

Taniguchi, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Manabu; Naito, Morimasa; Kobayashi, Masato*; Takahashi, Rieko*; Asano, Hidekazu*

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, 46(2), p.117 - 123, 2011/04

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:51.86(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Carbon steel has been selected as one of the candidate materials for overpack for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan. Corrosion of carbon steel is divided into two types; general corrosion and localized corrosion. In this study, propagation behaviors of general and localized corrosions (pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion) were investigated by immersion tests of carbon steel under aerobic condition. The results of the immersion tests showed that the growth rate of corrosion was strongly dependent on the environmental condition and steel type, but the upper limit of pitting factor (the ratio of the maximum corrosion depth and the average corrosion depth) was approximately determined by only average corrosion depth. Based on these experimental data and literature data, an empirical model that predicts the maximum corrosion depth of an overpack from average corrosion depth was developed by applying the extreme value statistical analysis using the Gumbel distribution function.

Journal Articles

Long term integrity of overpack closure weld for HLW geological disposal, 2; Corrosion properties under anaerobic conditions

Kobayashi, Masato*; Yokoyama, Yutaka*; Takahashi, Rieko*; Asano, Hidekazu*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Naito, Morimasa

Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, 46(2), p.212 - 216, 2011/04

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:32.74(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The corrosion behaviour of a carbon steel weld joint under anaerobic conditions was investigated to estimate the long-term integrity of the carbon steel overpack. The weld specimens in this study were produced using three welding methods: GTAW, GMAW and EBW. General corrosion was observed for each immersion specimen and the weld joint corrosion rate was the same as or less than that of the base metal. The hydrogen concentration absorbed during immersion testing was less than 2.48$$times$$10$$^{-5}$$ mol kg[Fe]$$^{-1}$$(0.05 ppm) after three years, a value regarded as having little influence on hydrogen embrittlement. The susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement was highest in the base metal, suggesting that there was little adverse effect on the weld joint from welding. The welded carbon steel overpack is assumed to maintain its resistance to corrosion as a disposal container for the expected lifetime under anaerobic underground conditions.

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2009 (Joint research)

Nakatsuka, Noboru; Hatanaka, Koichiro; Sato, Haruo; Sugita, Yutaka; Nakayama, Masashi; Miyahara, Shigenori; Asano, Hidekazu*; Saito, Masahiko*; Suyama, Yasuhiro*; Hayashi, Hidero*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2010-060, 50 Pages, 2011/02

JAEA-Research-2010-060.pdf:6.7MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (RWMC) concluded the letter of cooperation agreement on the research and development of radioactive waste disposal in April, 2005, and have been carrying out the collaboration work described above based on the agreement. JAEA have been carrying out the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project which is intended for sedimentary rock in the Horonobe town, Hokkaido, since 2001. In the project, geoscientific research and research and development on geological disposal technology are being promoted. Meanwhile, the government (the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has been promoting construction of equipments for the full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system and operation technology for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal since 2008, to enhance publics understanding to the geological disposal of HLW, using underground facility, etc. RWMC received an order of the project in fiscal year 2009 (2009/2010) continuing in fiscal year 2008 (2008/2009). Since topics in this project are included in the Horonobe URL Project, JAEA carried out this project as collaboration work continuing in fiscal year 2008. This report summarizes the results of engineering technology carried out in this collaboration work in fiscal year 2009. In fiscal year 2009, a part of the equipments for equipment of buffer material and visualization test apparatus for water penetration in buffer material were produced and house for the equipments and apparatus was constructed.

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2008 (Joint research)

Nakatsuka, Noboru; Hatanaka, Koichiro; Sato, Haruo; Sugita, Yutaka; Nakayama, Masashi; Miyahara, Shigenori; Asano, Hidekazu*; Saito, Masahiko*; Suyama, Yasuhiro*; Hayashi, Hidero*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2009-044, 53 Pages, 2010/01

JAEA-Research-2009-044.pdf:9.03MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (RWMC) effect an agreement about research and development of high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal and carried out research and technological development about geological disposal technology. JAEA has been carried out the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project which is intended for sedimentary rock and the Project includes geoscientific research and geological disposal technology. RWMC carried out an investigation about full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system (EBS) and operation technology for HLW disposal, under the contract with the Natural Resources and Energy Agency, Ministry of Economy, the Trade and Industry. The investigation aims to obtain the citizens' understanding of the geological disposal. This work includes the full-scale demonstration of operation technology in the Horonobe URL. This joint research is about engineering technology concerned with the work. In 2008 fiscal year (2008/2009), the master plan of the work was made, and a part of the device for transportation of engineered barrier was made, and it has begun the exhibition of full-scale bentonite block and overpack.

JAEA Reports

Study on the corrosion assessment of overpack welds, 4 (Joint research)

Yokoyama, Yutaka*; Mitsui, Hiroyuki*; Takahashi, Rieko; Taniguchi, Naoki; Asano, Hidekazu*; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu

JAEA-Research 2008-072, 232 Pages, 2008/10

JAEA-Research-2008-072.pdf:45.2MB

It is possible that the corrosion resistance at the overpack welds is different from that at base metal due to the differences of material properties. In this study, corrosion behavior of welded joint for carbon steel was compared with base metal using the specimens taken from welded joint model fabricated by TIG (Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW), MAG (Gas Metal Arc Welding, GMAW) and EBW (Electron Beam Welding) respectively. The results of these corrosion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance to general corrosion, pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion at welded metal of TIG and MAG was inferior to base metal. No deterioration of corrosion resistance was observed in any corrosion modes for EBW, which does not need filler material. Neither the base metals nor the welds is not susceptible to SCC under the carbonate concentration near that of the disposal environment.

Journal Articles

Therapeutic effects of a $$^{186}$$Re-complex-conjugated bisphosphonate for the palliation of metastatic bone pain in an animal model

Ogawa, Kazuma*; Mukai, Takahiro*; Asano, Daigo*; Kawashima, Hidekazu*; Kinuya, Seigo*; Shiba, Kazuhiro*; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Mori, Hirofumi*; Saji, Hideo*

Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 48(1), p.122 - 127, 2007/01

We developed a highly stable rhenium-186 ($$^{186}$$Re)-MAG3 complex-conjugated bisphosphonate, ($$^{186}$$Re-MAG3-HBP), for the treatment of painful bone metastases. This agent showed a superior biodistribution as a bone-seeking agent in normal mice when compared with $$^{186}$$Re-HEDP. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of $$^{186}$$Re-MAG3-HBP using an animal model of bone metastasis. In the rats treated with $$^{186}$$Re-HEDP, tumor growth was comparable to that in untreated rats. In contrast, when $$^{186}$$Re-MAG3-HBP was administered, tumor growth was significantly inhibited. Allodynia induced by bone metastasis was attenuated by treatment with $$^{186}$$Re-MAG3-HBP or $$^{186}$$Re-HEDP, but $$^{186}$$Re-MAG3-HBP tended to be more effective. These results indicate that $$^{186}$$Re-MAG3-HBP could be useful as a therapeutic agent for the palliation of metastatic bone pain.

JAEA Reports

Study on the corrosion assessment of overpack welds, 3 (Joint research)

Mitsui, Hiroyuki*; Takahashi, Rieko*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Otsuki, Akiyoshi*; Asano, Hidekazu*; Yui, Mikazu

JAEA-Research 2006-080, 322 Pages, 2006/12

JAEA-Research-2006-080.pdf:90.52MB

There is some possibility that the corrosion resistance of overpack welds is different from that of base metal due to the differences of material properties. In this study, corrosion behavior of welded joint for carbon steel was compared with base metal using the specimens taken from welded joint model fabricated by TIG, MAG and EBW respectively. The corrosion tests were performed for following four items. (1) Passivation behavior and corrosion type, (2) Propagation of general corrosion, pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion under aerobic condition, (3) Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, (4) Propagation of general corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement under anaerobic condition. The results of these corrosion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of welded metal by TIG and MAG was inferior to base metal for general corrosion, pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. It was implied that the filler materials used for welding affected the corrosion resistance. No deterioration of corrosion resistance was observed in any corrosion modes for EBW, which does not need filler material. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of welded metal and heat affected zone was lower than that of base metal.

JAEA Reports

Study on the corrosion assessment of overpack welds, 2 (Joint research)

Mitsui, Hiroyuki*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Otsuki, Akiyoshi*; Kawakami, Susumu; Asano, Hidekazu*; Yui, Mikazu

JAEA-Research 2006-031, 88 Pages, 2006/06

JAEA-Research-2006-031.pdf:4.72MB

The corrosion experiments for welded carbon steel were planed to contribute to an assessment of long-term integrity of carbon steel overpack welds considering corrosion damage specific to overpack welds. Based on this plan, electrochemical tests for welded carbon steel using the samples welded by EBW and TIG were carried out, and the corrosion behavior of welded zone was compared with that of base metal. The results of anodic polarization tests in 0.01M and 0.1M carbonate aqueous solutions for base metal, heat affected zone and welded metal indicated that; -As for EBW, the anodic polarization curves were not affected by welding although the metallurgical structures vary with base metal, heat affected zone and welded metal. -As for TIG, the current density of welded metal was larger than that of base metal and of heat affected zone, and local dissolution with immediate increase in current density was observed in 0.01M-pH10 carbonate aqueous solution.

JAEA Reports

Study on the corrosion assessment of overpack welds (Joint research)

Asano, Hidekazu*; Taniguchi, Naoki; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu

JNC TY8400 2004-008, 30 Pages, 2004/04

JNC-TY8400-2004-008.pdf:2.6MB

It is necessary to understand the corrosion behavior of welds in overpack for ensuring the quality of welding, and improving the long term reliability of overpack. In this study, the method for evaluation of corrosion of welded joint was planned by Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center (RWMC) and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). RWMC has been developed the overpack welding techniques and the inspection techniques of welded joint. In this study, RWMC provided the information on current status of welding techniques for applying the overpacks. Electron Beam Welding (EBW) and Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) were prospected to be available for overpack and the results of the examinations to find adequate conditions for overpack welding were presented. JNC has been studying the corrosion behavior and lifetime of overpack, and provided the information on corrosion of welded carbon steel under repository conditions. According to immersion tests by JNC, it was shown that corrosion rates of carbon steel welded by EBW were almost equal to those of base metal under anaerobic condition, which is representative condition in repository environment. Based on the information provided by RWMC and JNC, the research subjects on the corrosion of welds were extracted and the concept of corrosion tests for overpack welds was given.

JAEA Reports

Study on microbial transport and adsorption behavior on engineering barrier for geological disposal of radioactive wastes

Fukunaga, Sakae*; Yokoyama, Hidekazu*; Arai, Kazuhiro*; Asano, Hidekazu*; Senjyu, Takafumi*; Kudo, Akira*

JNC TJ8400 2000-030, 54 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ8400-2000-030.pdf:1.69MB

It is easy to assume from the past data that microbial transport do not find at 100%-sodium bentonite. Microbial transport do not find at 100%-calcium bentonite too. There are no effects to distribution ration (Kd) of Neptunium (Np) and Plutonium (Pu) with bentonite by sterilizing on low Eh condition (Eh= -500mv). Kd values of Np and Pu show behavior, which are increasing on the hard acidic and alkali conditions. Especially, Kd values of Pu shows one of Kd value is about 100 ml/g on pH=3$$sim$$6, but the other of Kd value is about 400,000 ml/g on pH=13. Precipitating plutonium hydrates occurred the large Kd value on alkali condition.

JAEA Reports

Study on microbial transport and adsorption behavior on engineering barrier for geological disposal of radioactive wastes

Fukunaga, Sakae*; Yokoyama, Hidekazu*; Arai, Kazuhiro*; Asano, Hidekazu*; Senjyu, Takafumi*; Kudo, Akira*

JNC TJ8400 2000-029, 36 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ8400-2000-029.pdf:1.28MB

It is easy to assume from the past data that microbial transport do not find at 100%-sodium bentonite. Microbial transport do not find at 100%-calcium bentonite too. There are no effects to distribution ration (Kd) of Neptunium (Np) and Plutonium (Pu) with bentonite by sterilizing on low Eh condition (Eh = -500mv). Kd values of Np and Pu show behavior, which are increasing on the hard acidic and alkali conditions. Especially, Kd values of Pu shows one of Kd value is about 100 ml/g on pH = 3$$sim$$6, but the other of Kd value is about 400,000 ml/g on pH = 13. Precipitating plutonium hydrates occurred the large Kd value on alkali condition.

JAEA Reports

Study on cathodic reaction control efficiency by low alloy steels

Akashi, Masatsune*; Fukaya, Yuichi*; Asano, Hidekazu*

JNC TJ8400 2000-015, 46 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ8400-2000-015.pdf:2.01MB

Difference of hydrogen generation phenomena on the surface of the Steels were not observed between carbon steel, atmospheric corrosion resisting steel and 5%-Ni steel. Rust layer was formed on these three-type of steels by steam oxidation method. And the chemical composition of the rust for the steels were basically two (2) layers structure for the previous two steels as hematite (Fe$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$) based for the outer layer and magnetite (Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$) based for the inner layer. And for the last steel, it had three (3) layer in the rust as hematite (Fe$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$) based for the outer layer, magnetite (Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$) based for the intermediate layer and Ni based layer for the inner layer. These steels showed mostly same Tafel gradient in their cathodic polarization curves compare with that for no rust specimens. However, the exchange current density which reaction is assumed as a hydrogen generation reaction was largely increased. The cathodic reaction for each steels whose surface is covered by magnetite layer might be accelerated, then the corrosion rate was considered as accelerated, too.

JAEA Reports

Study on cathodic reaction control efficiency by low alloy steels

Akashi, Masatsune*; Fukaya, Yuichi*; Asano, Hidekazu*

JNC TJ8400 2000-014, 22 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ8400-2000-014.pdf:0.75MB

Difference of hydrogen generation phenomena on the surface of the Steels were not observed between carbon steel, atmospheric corrosion resisting steel and 5%-Ni steel. Rust layer was formed on these three-type of steels by steam oxidation method. And the chemical composition of the rust for the steels were basically two(2) layers structure for the previous two steels as hematite(Fe$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$) based for the outer layer and magnetite(Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$) based for the inner layer. And for the last steel, it had three(3) layer in the rust as hematite(Fe$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$) based for the outer layer, magnetite(Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$) based for the intermediate layer and Ni based layer for the inner layer. These steels showed mostly same Tafel gradient in their cathodic polarization curves compare with that for no rust specimens. However, the exchange current density which reaction is assumed as a hydrogen generation reaction was largely increased. The cathodic reaction for each steels whose surface is covered by magnetite layer might be accelerated, then the corrosion rate was considered as accelerated, too.

Journal Articles

Differences in the Behavior of 233Pa, 237Np,and 239Pu in Bentonite contaminated by Sulfate-Rednci

; Fujikawa, Yoko*; *; Asano, Hidekazu*; ; J.Zhong*

Proceedings of 11th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, 0 Pages, 1998/00

None

39 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)