Suzudo, Tomoaki; Tsuru, Tomohito; Hasegawa, Akira*
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 505, p.15 - 21, 2018/07
Tungsten (W) is considered as a promising candidate for plasma-facing materials for future nuclear fusion devices, and selecting optimal alloying constituents is a critical issue to improve radiation resistance of the W alloys as well as to improve their mechanical properties. We conducted in the current study a series of first-principles calculations for investigating solvent-solute mixed dumbbells in W crystals. The results suggested that titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and chromium (Cr) are favorable as solutes for W alloys from irradiation-effect perspectives because these elements are expected to promote vacancy-interstitial recombination without causing radiation-induced precipitation that reduces ductility of irradiated materials.
Suzudo, Tomoaki; Hasegawa, Akira*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 6, p.36738_1 - 36738_6, 2016/11
Modeling of the evolution of radiation-induced defects is important for finding radiation-resistant materials, which would be greatly appreciated in nuclear applications. We apply the first principles method combined with kinetic Monte Carlo to indicate a mechanism to mitigate the effect of radiation by adding particular solute elements that change the migration dimension of interstitials in W crystals. The resultant mechanism is applicable to any body-centered-cubic (BCC) metals whose SIAs have one-dimensional (1D) motion and is expected to provide a general guideline for computational design of radiation-resistant alloys in the field of nuclear applications.
Suzudo, Tomoaki; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Hasegawa, Akira*
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 467(Part 1), p.418 - 423, 2015/12
Tungsten is expected to be a promising plasma-facing material for future fusion devices, but radiation-induced precipitation (RIP), which leads the material to hardening, is a concern at their practical use. One of the keys to accurate prediction of the emergence of RIP is migration of solute atoms, rhenium and osmium, that are produced by nuclear transmutation through irradiation. We conduct a series of numerical simulations using an atomic kinetic Monte Carlo method and investigate the migration of these solute atoms in the form of tungsten-rhenium and tungsten-osmium mixed dumbbells, considered to be the most efficient "carriers" of the solute atoms. We find that the low rotation energy barrier of these mixed dumbbells leading to three-dimensional migration greatly influences their diffusivities. The result also suggests that, although these dumbbells have three-dimensional motion, one cannot simply reduce their migration behavior to that of vacancy-like spherical objects.
Wakai, Eiichi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Kim, B.*; Kimura, Akihiko*; Nogami, Shuhei*; Hasegawa, Akira*; Nishimura, Arata*; Soldaini, M.*; Yamamoto, Michiyoshi*; Knaster, J.*
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.2089 - 2093, 2015/10
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Kai, Michiaki*
Health Physics, 109(2), p.104 - 112, 2015/08
A dosimetry system, named WAZA-ARI, is developed to assess accurately radiation doses to persons from Computed Tomography (CT) examination patients in Japan. Organ doses were prepared to application to dose calculations in WAZA-ARI by numerical analyses using average adult Japanese human models with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Experimental studies clarified the radiation configuration on the table for some multi-detector row CT (MDCT) devices. Then, a source model in PHITS could specifically take into account for emissions of X-ray in each MDCT device based on the experiment results. Numerical analyses with PHITS revealed a concordance of organ doses with human body size. The organ doses by the JM phantoms were compared with data obtained using previously developed systems. In addition, the dose calculation in WAZA-ARI were verified with previously reported results by realistic NUBAS phantoms and radiation dose measurement using a physical Japanese model. The results implied that analyses using the Japanese phantoms and PHITS including source models can appropriately give organ dose data with consideration of the MDCT device and physiques of typical Japanese adults.
Yamaji, Tatsuya*; Koizumi, Yasuo; Yamazaki, Kohei*; Otake, Hiroyasu*; Hasegawa, Koji*; Onuki, Akira*; Kanamori, Daisuke*
Konsoryu Shimpojiumu 2015 Koen Rombunshu (USB Flash Drive), 2 Pages, 2015/08
Experiments of condensing counter-current two-phase flow in a vertical pipe were performed. This study was intended to examine water accumulation in the up-flow side of steam generator U-tubes of a PWR during the reflux cooling stage of a small break LOCA. It has been apprehended that the water accumulation may result in temporary core liquid level depression. The inner diameter and the length of a test flow channel used in the experiments were 18 mm and 4 m, respectively. The experiments were performed by using steam and water at 0.1 MPa. Two kinds of experiments were conducted; visualization experiments by using a transparent test section and quantitative water accumulation evaluation experiments by using a brass test section. Even if water on the inner surface of the test pipe could not flow downward at the lower portion of the test pipe, a part of water became to flow downward at the upper portion of the test pipe since steam velocity decreased because of condensation. Thus, two-phase mixture level was formed in the upper portion of the test pipe, which resulted in the water accumulation in the pipe. The model to predict the water accumulation was proposed. It predicted the water accumulation reasonably well.
Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*
RIST News, (58), p.25 - 32, 2015/01
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are now developing WAZA-ARI for improvement of management of exposure doses due to CT examination under the joint research with the Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences. The trial version of WAZA-ARI has been released on 21 December 2012. In trial version, users can perform dose assessment by using organ dose database based on the average adult Japanese male (JM-103) and female (JF-103) voxel phantoms and a 4 years old female voxel phantom (UFF4). The homepage of WAZA-ARI has been accessed over 1000 times per month and 28421 times by the end of September 2014. We are developing WAZA-ARI version 2 as the extension version of dose calculation functions of WAZA-ARI. WAZA-ARI version 2 will be released by the end of March 2015. In WAZA-ARI version 2. Users can upload dose calculation results to WAZA-ARI version 2 server, and utilize improvement of the dose management of patients and the optimization of CT scan conditions.
Kondo, Yasuhiro; Morishita, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Saishun; Hori, Toshihiko; Sawabe, Yuki; Chishiro, Etsuji; Fukuda, Shimpei; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Hirano, Koichiro; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; et al.
Physical Review Special Topics; Accelerators and Beams, 17(12), p.120101_1 - 120101_8, 2014/12
We performed a beam test of a new radio frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ III) for the beam current upgrade of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. First, the conditioning of RFQ III was conducted, and after 20 h of conditioning, RFQ III became very stable with a nominal peak power and duty factor of 400 kW and 1.5%, respectively. An off-line beam test was subsequently conducted before installation in the accelerator tunnel. The transmission, transverse emittance, and energy spread of the 50-mA negative hydrogen beam from RFQ III were measured and compared with simulation results. The experiment and simulation results showed good agreement; therefore, we conclude that the performance of RFQ III conforms to its design.
Suzudo, Tomoaki; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Hasegawa, Akira*
Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 22(7), p.075006_1 - 075006_13, 2014/10
We report a series of studies based upon density functional theory for the behavior of rhenium and osmium atoms in tungsten crystal. Contrary to the one-dimensional migration of self-interstitial atoms, interstitials of these solute elements in tungsten have three-dimensional motion. The diffusion of these solute elements strongly influences the effects of radiation upon the materials, and we found that the three-dimensional migration is a property that is key to the explanation of the radiation effects experimentally observed in tungsten-rhenium and tungsten-osmium alloys.
Oguri, Hidetomo; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Takashi; Chishiro, Etsuji; Hirano, Koichiro; Morishita, Takatoshi; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Ao, Hiroyuki; Okoshi, Kiyonori; Kondo, Yasuhiro; et al.
Proceedings of 11th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.389 - 393, 2014/10
no abstracts in English
Hasegawa, Noboru; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ishino, Masahiko; Imazono, Takashi; Kaihori, Takeshi; Morita, Toshimasa; Sasaki, Akira; Terakawa, Kota*; et al.
X-Ray Lasers 2012; Springer Proceedings in Physics, Vol.147, p.117 - 120, 2014/00
We have developed the femto-second laser pump and soft X-ray laser probe system in order to observe the dynamical processes of the femto-second laser ablation. By using this system, we succeed to obtain the temporal evolution of the soft X-ray reflectivity from the laser induced Pt surface. The results lead that the rate of decrease in the reflectivity of the probe beam has a non-linear relation with the pump laser fluence.
Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Arai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hoshi, Ryo; Kamiya, Koji; Kawashima, Hisato; Kubo, Hirotaka; Masaki, Kei; Saeki, Hisashi; Sakurai, Shinji; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(6-8), p.705 - 710, 2013/10
Hasegawa, Noboru; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Terakawa, Kota*; Tomita, Takuro*; Yamamoto, Minoru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Oba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Imazono, Takashi; et al.
X-Ray Lasers 2010; Springer Proceedings in Physics, Vol.136, p.353 - 358, 2011/12
The understanding of the dynamics of the initial process is important for the micro processing and welding by the ultra-short laser pulse. The X-ray laser is suitable for probing this initial process because it has short wavelength (Ni-like Ag, 13.9 nm) and short duration (7 ps). For this investigation, the origin of time of the pumping pulse is quite important. In this study, we used the scintillation plate and the plasma gate technique to realize the spatial and temporal synchronization of the pump and probe pulses. For the spatial alignment, a CsI scintillation plate that was set at the sample position was illuminated by both the X-ray laser pulse, and the fluorescence light were detected by the CCD camera. For the temporal synchronization, we set a thin foil at the sample position. We measured the transmission of the X-ray laser while changing a temporal delay of the pumping laser with respect to the time of X-ray laser pulse to obtain the origin of the irradiation time.
Hasegawa, Noboru; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ishino, Masahiko; Imazono, Takashi; Kaihori, Takeshi; Sasaki, Akira; Terakawa, Kota*; Minami, Yasuo*; et al.
Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.8140, p.81400G_1 - 81400G_8, 2011/10
We have developed a soft X-ray laser (SXRL) interferometer capable of the single-shot imaging of nano-scaled structure dynamics. The interferometer consisted of the reflection optics including double Lloyd's mirrors and focusing optics, and the interference fringes are produced on the detector surface. By using this interferometer, the initial stage (50 ps) of the ablation process of the Pt surface pumped by a 70 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulse was observed. The expansion speed of the surface estimated from the result (34 nm/50 ps) indicated that the nano-bubble structures were formed in the initial stage of the ablation. In order to observe the detailed dynamics, the temporal synchronization between the pump and probe pulses was improved to be 3 ps by adopting a portion of the SXRL and pump beams as the time fiducials, to which the pump and probe timing was adjusted by using the X-ray streak camera.
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 2, p.153 - 159, 2011/10
Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most useful tools for medical diagnosis, and is becoming a major source of medical exposure in developed countries. Appropriate radiation protection in CT examinations is emphasized by international organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), because the patients receive higher radiation doses than in conventional radiography. Medical staffs can acquire dose information on the conditions of some CT examinations with available dosimetry systems, which had been already developed. These systems utilize datasets of organ and tissue doses, which were derived with Monte Carlo calculations. Methods in computational analyses, however, have been improved, since these calculations had been performed. Then, our new dosimetry system for CT examination, WAZA-ARI, is being developed to estimate radiation dose based upon the state-of-art numerical analyses. Our analysis adopts Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) coupled with a voxel-type phantom, JM phantom, for the organ dose calculation. PHITS has advantageous to define the model of photon emission from X-ray tube in a CT device for radiation transport calculations. The physique and mass of organs for JM phantom are similar to those for average Japanese male adults. Since the goal of WAZA-ARI is to provide dosimetric information of arbitrary patient, it is important to evaluate uncertainty due to different configurations in human bodies between JM phantom and individual patients. For this purpose, the organ doses are calculated and compared for different human models; another Japanese male adult voxel phantom and the ICRP reference voxel phantom, which is constructed on the basis of Caucasian data.
Ban, Nobuhiko*; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Kai, Michiaki*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 147(1-2), p.333 - 337, 2011/09
A web-system of WAZA-ARI is being developed to assess radiation dose to a patient in a Computed Tomography (CT) examination. The databases of organ doses for WAZA-ARI were derived by the Japanese adult Male phantom (JM phantom) combined with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS. In the Monte Carlo simulation, the phantoms were irradiated with a 5 mm-thick fan-shaped photon beam, which was moved every 5 mm along the body axis from the upper leg to the top of head. The attenuation by the beam-shaping filter (bow-tie filter) was also taken into account here. The MIRD-type phantom was also applied to the calculations. The MIRD phantom sometimes showed step changes for organ doses, while smoother curves were obtained for JM phantom. The dose data by JM phantom were incorporated into the WAZA-ARI system, which has been implemented on a Linux server. With regard to the system implementation, the system has achieved a high degree of flexibility without commercial software.
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 146(1-3), p.241 - 243, 2011/07
A web-system of WAZA-ARI is being developed to assess radiation dose to a patient in a Computed Tomography (CT) examination. WAZA-ARI utilizes a set of organ and tissue doses in a database for the dose assessment, according to the given resources with a consideration of the examination condition. The organ and tissue doses in the database have been derived with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS. Modeling of the patient was a significant issue in the radiation transport calculation. JM phantom, whose height (171 cm) and weight (65 kg) are near to those averaged over Japanese male adults, was incorporated to PHITS as a human model. Since JM phantom consisted of about 1 mm size voxel, the shapes could be realistically reproduced even for small organs such as thyroid, adrenals. Masses of most organs could be also adjusted to the averaged values of Japanese male adults. In addition, our calculations introduced a new phantom without arms based upon JM phantom, because the patient usually puts arms toward the head direction in a torso examination. Some of organ doses calculated by JM phantom were compared with results, which were derived with a MIRD-type phantom. Differences could be seen in some organ doses between the phantoms, if photon attenuations in a shaping (Bow-tie) filter were taken into account to a source model in PHITS.
Ban, Nobuhiko*; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Ono, Koji*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Kai, Michiaki*
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 146(1-3), p.244 - 247, 2011/07
We are developing a web-based system, WAZA-ARI, for the dose calculation of patients undergoing X-ray CT examinations. Tissue doses were calculated in a Japanese adult male phantom (JM phantom) using a Monte Carlo code, PHITS, and the normalized dose coefficient data are stored as XML files. The system is implemented in Java on a Linux server running Apache Tomcat, which is accessed via a web browser over a network. Users are requested to choose scanning options and to input parameters in the data entry screen. The corresponding dose data are called upon input, and they are summed over the scan range specified by the user to estimate unit tissue doses. Tissue doses are computed based on the radiographic exposure (mAs), the beam pitch and air kerma at the beam center on the axis of rotation. Users can also use their own air kerma, CTDI vol and DLP values for the dose computation instead of the default setting. Although the dose coefficients are prepared for only limited CT scanner models currently, our system has achieved high usability and easy maintenance without commercial software. Possibility of further expansion for the practical application is also discussed.
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Sato, Kaoru; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Ono, Koji*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 1, p.517 - 520, 2011/02
Several dose assessment system were developed to avoid unnecessary exposure for a patient in a Computed Tomography (CT) examination. Most of these systems contain datasets of organ doses, which had been calculated with mathematical phantoms. The numerical analyses for radiation dosimetry and CT machines have progressed in recent years. Thus, a project is being carried out to develop a new dosimetry system, named WAZA-ARI. The basic data of organ doses are calculated with a male voxel phantom (JM phantom), which defines configurations of the human body more precisely than the mathematical model. The radiation transports in CT examination can be simulated with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS. A source model can be set up for emissions of photons from the X-ray tube with a subroutine, including the helical scanning. Thus, the WAZA-ARI system can assess radiation dose based upon the organ doses, which are calculated with the appropriate source and human models.
Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Kuramoto, Akira*; Kameda, Jun*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*; Hasegawa, Masayuki*; Okubo, Tadakatsu*; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Onizawa, Kunio
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 402(2-3), p.93 - 101, 2010/07
This study reports the effects of the composition and dose on microstructure evolution and hardening in high- and low-impurity A533B-1 steels neutron-irradiated in a wide range from 0.32 to 9.9 10 n cm (E 1 MeV) under a constant high flux at JMTR. The early hardening was found to be caused by mainly matrix defects. The gradual hardening after middle stage of irradiation was found to be caused by the formation of Cu rich clusters (CRCs) and Mn-Ni-Si rich clusters (MNSCs), respectively, in the high- and low-impurity steels. By applying a RB model, it was found that the dislocation-pinning strength of the CRCs and MNSCs is almost the same. Moreover, the high-impurity steel subjected to the highest dose revealed the formation of MNSCs.