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JAEA Reports

XAFS measurement of simulated waste glass samples (Borosilicate glass including vanadium)

Nagai, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Sasage, Kenichi; Ayame, Yasuo; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Matsuura, Haruaki*; Uchiyama, Takafumi*; Okada, Yukiko*; Nezu, Atsushi*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2016-015, 52 Pages, 2016/11

JAEA-Research-2016-015.pdf:37.48MB

The local structure of waste elements in simulated waste glasses including V was estimated by using synchrotron XAFS measurement in this study. The results are as follows. (1) V has a high possibility which exists in the glass phase in the case of frit, and V can regard both samples as stable 4 coordination structure. (2) Zn, Ce, Nd, Zr, and Mo exist in the glass phase, and the difference is admitted by the percentage of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) by the composition. (3) Ru is separated from the glass phase as RuO$$_{2}$$ crystalline, both of metal and oxide exist in Rh, and Pd is separated out as metal. (4) It was confirmed that the regularity of the local structure of Zr and Mo in the molten glasses retreats as a result of the XAFS measurement at high temperature. (5) The XAFS measurement of molten glasses were performed at 1200$$^{circ}$$C, so it would be possible to acquire excellent data by improving the shapes of the sample cell.

Journal Articles

Research and development on waste management for the Fukushima Daiichi NPS by JAEA

Koma, Yoshikazu; Ashida, Takashi; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Toshiki; Yamagishi, Isao; Kameo, Yutaka; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Koyama, Tomozo; et al.

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference; Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads (GLOBAL 2013) (CD-ROM), p.736 - 743, 2013/09

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS), TEPCO, was severely damaged with the hydrogen explosions caused by losing their cooling functions due to the earthquake and the tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011. Radioactive wastes generated from the current FINPS and future their decommission and demolition are greater huge amount than those from general reactors and nuclear fuel facilities. Toward accomplishing safe and reasonable management of the wastes, great effort of R&Ds has been strongly required and performed in bringing together the knowledge and experience of all of Japan. This report outlines the current status of the R&Ds performed in JAEA.

Journal Articles

A Dual-beam irradiation facility for a novel hybrid cancer therapy

Sabchevski, P.*; Idehara, Toshitaka*; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Miyoshi, Norio*; Tatsukawa, Toshiaki*

Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 34(1), p.71 - 87, 2013/01

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:59.45(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

In this paper we present the main ideas and discuss both the feasibility and the conceptual design of a novel hybrid technique and equipment for an experimental cancer therapy based on the simultaneous and/or sequential application of two beams, namely a beam of neutrons and a CW (continuous wave) or intermittent sub-terahertz wave beam produced by a gyrotron for treatment of cancerous tumors. The main simulation tools for the development of the computer aided design (CAD) of the prospective experimental facility for clinical trials and study of such new medical technology are briefly reviewed. Some tasks for a further continuation of this feasibility analysis are formulated as well.

Journal Articles

Status and plan of ageing management technical evaluation on nuclear power stations

Suzuki, Masahide; Nishiyama, Toshiaki*

Hozengaku, 9(4), p.2 - 8, 2011/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Determination of trace amounts of plutonium in low-active liquid wastes from spent nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants by flow injection-based solid-phase extraction/electrochemical detection system

Taguchi, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Surugaya, Naoki; Kurosawa, Akira; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko*

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 288(2), p.435 - 441, 2011/01

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:48.42(Chemistry, Analytical)

JAEA Reports

Precise and accurate determination of plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry and its uncertainty evaluation

Yamamoto, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Atsushi; Nagayama, Tetsuya; Surugaya, Naoki; Kurosawa, Akira; Hiyama, Toshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2010-040, 28 Pages, 2010/12

JAEA-Technology-2010-040.pdf:0.97MB

Precise analysis of plutonium is necessary for material control and safeguards in nuclear facility. Thus, controlled-potential coulometry, which yields absolute results and high precision, was applied for the determination of plutonium. The coulometry system and sample pretreatment procedures were optimized following ISO12183:2005. Plutonium sample prepared from NBL CRM-126 Pu metal was measured and agreed well with certified value. For spike preparation of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), plutonium solution was prepared from MOX powder. Plutonium content was 15.5995 mgPu/g. The uncertainty was calculated by ISO/BIPM Guide to the Expression of Uncertainties in Measurements. The relative expanded uncertainty was 0.023% with confidence interval of 95%. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by IDMS. Thus the proposed coulometry method was successfully applied for the determination of plutonium at the highest level of precision and accuracy.

Journal Articles

Determination of trace amounts of uranium by stripping voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode

Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Kurosawa, Akira; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko*

Bunseki Kagaku, 59(11), p.1035 - 1041, 2010/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Analytical)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Extraction chromatographic separation of trivalent minor actinides using ${it i}$Hex-BTP/SiO$$_{2}$$-P resin

Surugaya, Naoki; Sano, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Kurosawa, Akira; Hiyama, Toshiaki

Nuclear Energy and the Environment; ACS Symposium Series 1046, p.131 - 139, 2010/10

Journal Articles

Rapid determination of trace uranium in liquid wastes from spent nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants using on-line solid-phase extraction / electrochemical detection

Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Kurosawa, Akira; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko*

Bunseki Kagaku, 58(10), p.901 - 907, 2009/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Analytical)

An on-line analysis system using a solid-phase extraction column coupled to electrochemical detection has been developed for rapid determination of small amounts of uranium in liquid wastes of spent nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. A sample solution with a concentration of 3 M HNO$$_{3}$$ was loaded onto the column: packed with U/TEVA$$^{textregistered}$$ resin. The interference elements were rinsed by passing 3 M HNO$$_{3}$$ through the column. The adsorbed uranium was eluted with 0.1 M HNO$$_{3}$$. The eluate was directly introduced into a flow-electrolysis cell. The result of five repeated analyses for a standard solution containing 2.5 $$mu$$g (0.1 mL at 25 $$mu$$g mL$$^{-1}$$) of uranium was found to be 2.5 $$pm$$ 0.025 $$mu$$g (mean $$pm$$ 1 $$sigma$$). The detection limit calculated from 3 times the standard deviation of background current was 56 ng. The analysis time required for one sample was within 5 min. The recoveries of uranium in actual nuclear waste reprocessing solutions were 92% $$sim$$ 112%.

Journal Articles

Simple determination of $$^{90}$$Sr in highly radioactive liquid waste by alkaline precipitation separation/liquid scintillation counting technique

Onuma, Takashi; Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki

Bunseki Kagaku, 58(7), p.633 - 638, 2009/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Analytical)

An analytical method with a liquid scintillation counting technique for the determination of $$^{90}$$Sr in the presence of other elements was developed by deriving a calculation formula to remove their influence. Generally the analysis of $$^{90}$$Sr is performed using the radioactive equilibrium of a generation process of $$^{90}$$Y with $$^{90}$$Sr separated from a sample. In this study, a new disintegration calculating formula that enable us remove influences by the coexistence nuclides to analyze $$^{90}$$Sr in highly radioactive liquid wastes of spent-fuel reprocessing plants was derived and the formula was validated by experimental approaches. It was found that $$^{90}$$Sr was analyzed without any influences when a sample contains nuclides that have a long half life and radioactive equilibrium is small enough compared with a generation of $$^{90}$$Y. The relative standard deviation of the analysis by the proposed method was equal to or less than 3%.

Journal Articles

Determinations of plutonium and curium in the insoluble materials of spent fuel dissolver solutions at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

Okano, Masanori; Kuno, Takehiko; Nemoto, Hirokazu*; Yamada, Keiji; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

Proceedings of INMM 50th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2009/07

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Automated gravimetric sample pretreatment using an industrial robot for high-precision determination of plutonium by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Watahiki, Masaru

Analytical Sciences, 24(6), p.739 - 744, 2008/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:4.5(Chemistry, Analytical)

A robotized sample preparation method for the determination of Pu, which is recovered by extraction reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, by isotope dilution mass spectrometry is described. The automated system has a six-axis industrial robot, whose motility is very fast, accurate and flexible, installed in a glove box. The automation of the weighing and diluting steps enables operator-unattended sample pretreatment for highly precise analyses of Pu in aqueous solutions. By the developed system, Pu concentration in HNO$$_{3}$$ medium was successfully determined with a set of subsequent mass spectrometric measurements. The relative uncertainty in determining the concentration of Pu by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using this system for sample pretreatment was estimated to be less than 0.1 rel.% ($$k$$=2), which is equal to that expected of a talented analyst. The operation time required was the same as that by a skilled operator.

Journal Articles

Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using an internal standardization technique with Neodymium(III)

Surugaya, Naoki; Taguchi, Shigeo; Sato, Soichi; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

Analytical Sciences, 24(3), p.377 - 380, 2008/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:15.16(Chemistry, Analytical)

A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Pu in highly radioactive liquid waste. This method uses Nd(III) as an internal standard, which enables us to determine the concentration of Pu and to authenticate the whole analytical scheme as well. A Nd(III) standard was mixed with a sample solution and Pu was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) in a nitric acid medium, having maximum absorbance at 830 nm. The spectrophotometric measurement of Pu(VI) was subsequently performed to determine the concentration compared with maximum absorbance of Nd(III) at 795nm. The proposed method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry and was successfully applied to the analysis for the nuclear waste management at spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

Journal Articles

Preparation, certification and validation of a stable solid spike of uranium and plutonium coated with a cellulose derivative for the measurement of uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Verbruggen, A.*; Wellum, R.*

Analytical Sciences, 24(2), p.247 - 252, 2008/02

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:21.81(Chemistry, Analytical)

A stable solid spike for the measurement of uranium and plutonium content in nitric acid solutions of spent nuclear fuel by isotope dilution mass spectrometry has been prepared at the European Commission Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Belgium. The spike contains about 50 mg of uranium with a 19.838% $$^{235}$$U enrichment and 2 mg of plutonium with a 97.766% $$^{239}$$Pu abundance in each individual ampoule. The dried materials were covered with a thin film of cellulose acetate butyrate as a protective organic stabilizer to resist shocks encountered during transportation and to eliminate flaking-off during long-term storage. It was found that the cellulose acetate butyrate has good characteristics, maintaining a thin film for a long time, but readily dissolving on heating with nitric acid solution. The solid spike containing cellulose acetate butyrate was certified as reference material IRMM-1027f with certified quantities: $$^{235}$$U and $$^{239}$$Pu amounts and uranium and plutonium amount ratios, and was validated by analyzing spent fuel dissolver solutions of the Tokai reprocessing plant in Japan.

JAEA Reports

Announced document collection of the 1st Information Exchange Meeting on Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network (Joint research)

Nakayama, Shinichi; Nagasaki, Shinya*; Inagaki, Yaohiro*; Oe, Toshiaki*; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Sato, Seichi*; Sato, Tsutomu*; Tanaka, Satoru*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Nagao, Seiya*; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2007-003, 120 Pages, 2007/03

JAEA-Conf-2007-003.pdf:53.18MB

The 1st information exchange meeting on Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network was held in Nuclear Science Research Institute of Japan Atomic Energy Agency on August 4, 2006. Radioactive Waste Disposal Research Network was established by under Interorganization Atomic Energy Research Program of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, and the objective is to bring both research infrastructures and human expertise in Japan to an adequate performance level, thereby contributing to the development of the fundamental research area in the field of radioactive waste disposal. This lecture material is a collection of research presentations and discussions during the information exchange meeting.

JAEA Reports

Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis

Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Kurosawa, Akira; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2006-040, 76 Pages, 2006/07

JAEA-Technology-2006-040.pdf:5.23MB

A spectrophotometric determination using neodymium as an internal standard has been developed for safeguards verification analysis of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste which is produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical operation and the instrument conditions. The sample was mixed with a known amount of neodymium as an internal standard. Subsequently, plutonium was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(IV) by the addition of Ce(IV). Plutonium concentration was calculated from a relation between Nd(III)/Pu(VI) molar extinction coefficient ratio and their absorbance ratio. The expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis of plutonium (n=5) was found to be $$pm$$15mgL$$^{-1}$$ (confidence interval 95%) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample (173mgL$$^{-1}$$). The determination limit was calculated to be 6mgL$$^{-1}$$ (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were agree well with values obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The proposed method was successfully applied for the independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.nt on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.

JAEA Reports

Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis; Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS), JC-19

Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Kurosawa, Akira; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2006-041, 58 Pages, 2006/06

JAEA-Technology-2006-041.pdf:4.38MB

We have developed a method of spectrophotometric determination of plutonium ($$>$$10$$^{-4}$$ M) in highly radioactive liquid waste for safeguards verification analysis. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical scheme and the inspection procedure. The relative expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis (n = 5) was 8.9 % (coverage factor k = 2) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample(173 mgL$$^{-1}$$). The determination limit was calculated to be 6 mgL$$^{-1}$$ (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were in good agreement with those obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It is to be noted that the neodymium standard is intended to be provided by the inspector so that an inspector can check the instrument conditions as well as the analytical scheme. The proposed method was successfully applied for the independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.

Journal Articles

Energy spectra of electrons induced by MeV atom clusters

Kudo, Hiroshi*; Iwasaki, Wataru*; Uchiyama, Rumi*; Tomita, Shigeo*; Shima, Kunihiro*; Sasa, Kimikazu*; Ishii, Satoshi*; Narumi, Kazumasa; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Saito, Yuichi; et al.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 2, 45(22), p.L565 - L568, 2006/06

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:46.8(Physics, Applied)

The first observation of the energy distribution of electrons emitted from solids bombarded by MeV atom clusters is reported. In the backward direction, using graphite and Si bombarded by C$$_{n}$$$$^{+}$$ and Al$$_{n}$$$$^{+}$$ (n $$leq$$ 8), an appreciable suppression of electron emission has been observed at electron energies lower than $$sim$$10 eV. Electron yield per atom decreases with increasing n, and becomes less than 50% at n $$geq$$ 3, relative to the case of n = 1. The experimental results cannot be explained in terms of projectile stopping cross sections nor by the clearing-the-way effect. It is probable that the suppressed electron emission is a result of the suppression of the transport or surface transmission of the produced low-energy electrons, rather than of the suppression of ionization.

JAEA Reports

Determination of acidity in nitric acid solutions containing Plutonium and/or Uranium at high concentration by electric conductivity measurement

Kitagawa, Osamu; Suzuki, Yoshimasa; Kurosawa, Akira; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2006-031, 29 Pages, 2006/03

JAEA-Technology-2006-031.pdf:2.92MB

Using the correlation between electric conductivity and acidity in solution, we have investigated an analytical method that is able to determine acidity in the nitric acid solution by measuring electric conductivity of sample diluted with distilled water, and correcting the electric conductivity for plutonium(Pu) and uranium(U) using multivariate analysis method. We obtained good results as follows, (1) Acidity in the nitric acid solutions containing Pu and U obtained by this method was good agreement, within 10%, compared with the acidity measured by potentiometric titration method. (2) For plutonium nitrate solution and plutonium-uranium mixed nitrate solution, the repeatability and reproducibility for the measurement of electric conductivity at 25.0$$^{circ}$$C were less than 0.52%, and 1.53% respectively. (3) Impurities such as americium and iron in the solutions did not influence to the measurement of electric conductivity, if total amounts of these impurities were less than 1% compared with those of Pu and U. From the results described above, electric conductivity measuring method has been applying to analysis of acidity in the nitric acid solutions containing Pu and U at high concentration handled in Plutonium Conversion Development Facility. Furthermore, this method can be expected for the application to analysis of acidity in nitric acid solutions containing Pu and U for reprocessing process.

Journal Articles

Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste of a reprocessing plant

Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Hiyama, Toshiaki

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2005/10

AA spectrophotometric determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste has been developed for safeguards verification analysis. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical scheme and the inspection procedure. The relative expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis of plutonium (n = 5) was found to be 8.9 % (coverage factor k = 2) for a typical highly radioactive liquid waste sample (172 mg/L). The determination limit was calculated to be 6.1 mg/L (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were in good agreement with those obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It is to be noted that the neodymium standard is intended to be provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency so that an inspector can check the instrument conditions as well as the analytical scheme. The proposed method was successfully applied to independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.

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