Oda, Chie; Kawama, Daisuke*; Shimizu, Hiroyuki*; Benbow, S. J.*; Hirano, Fumio; Takayama, Yusuke; Takase, Hiroyasu*; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira
Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 19(10), p.1075 - 1087, 2021/10
Concrete in a transuranic (TRU) waste repository is considered a suitable material to ensure safety, provide structural integrity and retard radionuclide migration after the waste containers fail. In the current study, coupling between chemical, mass-transport and mechanical, so-called non-linear processes that control concrete degradation and crack development were investigated by coupled numerical models. Application of such coupled numerical models allows identification of the dominant non-linear processes that will control long-term concrete degradation and crack development in a TRU waste repository.
Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Takagi, Yasuhiko*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.
Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03
Here we report observations of Ryugu's subsurface material by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. Reflectance spectra of excavated material exhibit a hydroxyl (OH) absorption feature that is slightly stronger and peak-shifted compared with that observed for the surface, indicating that space weathering and/or radiative heating have caused subtle spectral changes in the uppermost surface. However, the strength and shape of the OH feature still suggests that the subsurface material experienced heating above 300 C, similar to the surface. In contrast, thermophysical modeling indicates that radiative heating does not increase the temperature above 200 C at the estimated excavation depth of 1 m, even if the semimajor axis is reduced to 0.344 au. This supports the hypothesis that primary thermal alteration occurred due to radiogenic and/or impact heating on Ryugu's parent body.
Benbow, S. J.*; Kawama, Daisuke*; Takase, Hiroyasu*; Shimizu, Hiroyuki*; Oda, Chie; Hirano, Fumio; Takayama, Yusuke; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira
Crystals (Internet), 10(9), p.767_1 - 767_33, 2020/09
Details are presented of the development of a coupled modeling simulator for assessing the evolution in the near-field of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal where concrete is used as a backfill. The simulator uses OpenMI, a standard for exchanging data between simulation software programs at run-time, to form a coupled chemical-mechanical-hydrogeological model of the system. The approach combines a tunnel scale stress analysis finite element model, a discrete element model for accurately modeling the patterns of emerging cracks in the concrete, and a finite element and finite volume model of the chemical processes and alteration in the porous matrix and cracks in the concrete, to produce a fully coupled model of the system. Combining existing detailed simulation software in this way with OpenMI has the benefit of not relying on simplifications that might be necessary to combine all of the modeled processes in a single piece of software.
Abe, Toru*; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 27(1), p.3 - 11, 2020/06
Degradation of TRU waste in a geological disposal facility may cause the formation of a nitrate plume. A Nitrate Evolution model due to mineral reactions, microbial activity, and metal corrosiON (NEON) has therefore been developed to evaluate the safety case for geological disposal of TRU waste. Small scale laboratory experiments can be reproduced satisfactorily, however, it is necessary to demonstrate the applicability of the NEON model on scales relevant to the geological disposal of TRU waste. In the current study, an industrial analogue of a nitrate plume from the pollution of groundwater from nitrate fertilizers used on Ikuchi Island, Japan was selected to test the applicability of the NEON model. Concentration profiles of nitrate ions in the groundwater were successfully reproduced over the hundreds of meters scale demonstrating the applicability of the NEON model in evaluating the chemical behavior of a nitrate plume derived from the geological disposal of TRU waste.
Anraku, Sohtaro; Walker, C.*; Oda, Chie; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira
Proceedings of 15th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (ICCC 2019) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2019/09
Walker, C.*; Anraku, Sohtaro; Oda, Chie; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira
Proceedings of 15th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (ICCC 2019) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2019/09
Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Arai, Takehiko*; Nakauchi, Yusuke*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.
Science, 364(6437), p.272 - 275, 2019/04
The near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of Hayabusa2 sample return mission, is believed to be a primitive carbonaceous object. The Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on Hayabusa2 acquired reflectance spectra of Ryugu's surface to provide direct measurements of the surface composition and geological context for the returned samples. A weak, narrow absorption feature centered at 2.72 micron was detected across the entire observed surface, indicating that hydroxyl (OH)-bearing minerals are ubiquitous there. The intensity of the OH feature and low albedo are similar to thermally- and/or shock-metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. There are few variations in the OH-band position, consistent with Ryugu being a compositionally homogeneous rubble-pile object generated from impact fragments of an undifferentiated aqueously altered parent body.
Shibata, Takanori*; Takagi, Akira*; Ikegami, Kiyoshi*; Sugimura, Takashi*; Nammo, Kesao*; Naito, Fujio*; Kobayashi, Hitoshi*; Kurihara, Toshikazu*; Honda, Yosuke*; Sato, Masaharu*; et al.
Proceedings of 15th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.385 - 387, 2018/10
Sakuma, Hiroshi*; Tachi, Yukio; Yotsuji, Kenji; Suehara, Shigeru*; Arima, Tatsumi*; Fujii, Naoki*; Kawamura, Katsuyuki*; Honda, Akira
Clays and Clay Minerals, 65(4), p.252 - 272, 2017/08
Structure and stability of montmorillonite edge faces (110), (010), (100), and (130) of the layer charges y = 0.5 and 0.33 are investigated by the first-principles electronic calculations based on the density functional theory. Stacking and single layer models are tested for understanding the effect of stacking on the stability of montmorillonite edge faces. Most stacking layers stabilize the edge faces by making hydrogen bonds between the layers; therefore, the surface energy of stacking layers is reduced rather than the single layer model. This indicates that the surface energy of edge faces should be estimated depending on the swelling conditions. Lowest surface energies of (010) and (130) edge faces were realized by the presence of Mg ions on the edge faces. These edge faces have a strong adsorption site for cations due to local negative charge of the edges.
Naito, Fujio*; Anami, Shozo*; Ikegami, Kiyoshi*; Uota, Masahiko*; Ouchi, Toshikatsu*; Onishi, Takahiro*; Oba, Toshiyuki*; Obina, Takashi*; Kawamura, Masato*; Kumada, Hiroaki*; et al.
Proceedings of 13th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.1244 - 1246, 2016/11
The proton linac installed in the Ibaraki Neutron Medical Research Center is used for production of the intense neutron flux for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The linac consists of the 3-MeV RFQ and the 8-MeV DTL. Design average beam current is 10mA. Target is made of Beryllium. First neutron production from the Beryllium target was observed at the end of 2015 with the low intensity beam as a demonstration. After the observation of neutron production, a lot of improvement s was carried out in order to increase the proton beam intensity for the real beam commissioning. The beam commissioning has been started on May 2016. The status of the commissioning is summarized in this report.
Hirano, Fumio; Otani, Yoshiteru*; Kyokawa, Hiroyuki*; Mihara, Morihiro; Shimizu, Hiroyuki*; Honda, Akira
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 15(2), p.97 - 114, 2016/06
A mechanical analysis code MACBECE2014 has been developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency to make realistic simulations of the physical integrity of the near-field for performance assessment of geological disposal of TRU waste in Japan. The MACBECE2014 code can be used to evaluate long-term changes in the mechanical behavior and any subsequent changes in the permeability of engineering barrier components, including crack formation in cementitious materials caused by expansion due to metal corrosion. Simulated results of the TRU waste disposal system with a bentonite buffer using the MACBECE2014 code demonstrated that the low permeability of the engineering barrier system could be maintained for long time periods after disposal because the physical integrity of the bentonite buffer remained intact. Simulated results of the disposal system with a concrete backfill, showed that crack formation leads to a significant increase in permeability of the system.
Walker, C.; Suto, Shunkichi; Oda, Chie; Mihara, Morihiro; Honda, Akira
Cement and Concrete Research, 79, p.1 - 30, 2016/01
Modeling the solubility behavior of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel is important to make quantitative predictions of the degradation of hydrated ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based materials. Experimental C-S-H gel solubility data have been compiled from the literature, critically evaluated and supplemented with new data from the current study for molar Ca/Si ratios = 0.2-0.83. All these data have been used to derive a discrete solid phase (DSP) type C-S-H gel solubility model based on two binary non-ideal solid solutions in aqueous solution(SSAS). Features of the DSP type C-S-H gel solubility model include satisfactory predictions of pH values and Ca and Si concentrations for all molar Ca/Si ratios = 2.7 0 in the C-S-H system, portlandite (CH) for Ca/Si ratios 1.65, congruent dissolution at Ca/Si ratios = 0.85, and amorphous silica (SiO) for Ca/Si ratios 0.55 as identified in the current study by IR spectroscopy.
Oda, Chie; Walker, C.; Chino, Daisuke*; Ichige, Satoru; Honda, Akira; Sato, Tsutomu*; Yoneda, Tetsuro*
Applied Clay Science, 93-94, p.62 - 71, 2014/05
Na-montmorillonite dissolution in a 0.3M NaOH solution has been investigated at pH12 and 70C. The flow-through dissolution experiments were conducted in a dispersed system with varying concentrations of Si and Al to derive a Na-montmorillonite dissolution rate, as a non-linear function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction, dGr. This rate equation was used to simulate the batch-type Na-montmorillonite reaction experiments conducted in a coagulated system. The model simulation of the batch-type experiment adopting the empirical rate equations of Na-montmorillonite dissolution and secondary mineral analcime precipitation were able to reproduce the measured changes in the amount of dissolved Na-montmorillonite and concentrations of Si and Al in solution. The results showed that the empirical rate equation of Na-montmorillonite dissolution determined in the dispersed system was applicable to the coagulated system over a higher dGr range and that the concentrations of Si and Al in the batch experiment were controlled by the precipitation of analcime.
Hoshino, Seiichi; Negishi, Kumi*; Honda, Akira
Konkurito Kogaku Rombunshu, 25, p.97 - 107, 2014/05
A pH lowering mechanism of highly flyash contained silicafume cement (HFSC) in Region I and the chemical equilibrium model of HFSC incorporating the mechanism were studied. As a result, it is suggested that the dissolution and precipitation behavior of SO partially contributes to the pH lowering of HFSC in Region I. A chemical equilibrium model of HFSC incorporating alkali (Na, K) adsorption, which was supposed as another contributing factor of pH lowering effect, was also developed, and immersion experiment of HFSC was analyzed using the model. The calculated results by the developed model were in agreement with the experiment results. From the above results, it was concluded that the pH lowering of HFSC in Region I was attributed to both of the dissolution and precipitation behavior of SO and the alkali adsorption.
Nakamura, Tatsuya; Ozu, Akira; To, Kentaro; Sakasai, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Honda, Katsunori; Birumachi, Atsushi; Ebine, Masumi; Yamagishi, Hideshi*; Takase, Misao; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 763, p.340 - 346, 2014/05
A neutron-sensitive ZnS/BO ceramic scintillator detector was developed as an alternative to a He-gas-based detector for use in a plutonium canister assay system. The detector has a modular structure, with a flat ZnS/BOceramic scintillator strip that is installed diagonally inside a light-reflecting aluminium case with a square cross section. The prototype detectors, which have a neutron-sensitive area of 30 mm 250 mm, exhibited a sensitivity of 21.7-23.4 0.1 cpsnv for thermal neutrons, a Cs -ray sensitivity of 1.1-1.9 0.2 10 and a count variation of less than 6% over the detector length. A trial experiment revealed a temperature coefficient of less than -0.24 0.05% / C over the temperature range of 20-50C.
Hase, Yoshihiro; Nozawa, Shigeki; Asami, Itsuo*; Tanogashira, Yuki*; Matsuo, Yoichi*; Kanazawa, Akira*; Honda, Kazushige*; Narumi, Issey*
JAEA-Review 2013-059, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2012, P. 102, 2014/03
Matsue, Naoto*; Abidin, Z.*; Fujii, Naoki*; Oda, Chie; Honda, Akira
Nendo Kagaku, 52(2), p.62 - 70, 2014/00
Bentonite is expected to be used along with cement as engineered barrier components of TRU waste geological disposal system. There is a concern that the bentonite dissolved or altered owing to the contact with strong alkaline and high Ca concentration water derived from the reaction of the cement and groundwater. The first-principles quantum chemical calculations using the cluster model of montmorillonite, the main component of bentonite, were performed, and it was indicated that octahedral Al has higher solubility than octahedral Mg under strong alkaline condition and unsaturated Si-O-Al bond connecting tetrahedral and octahedral sheets at the edge of 110 and 010 planes cleaves easily. The adsorption of OH on tetrahedral Si atom caused dissolution of adjacent Si and Al atoms in addition to the Si atom. While, the dissociation of Si-OH and Al-OH groups and the difference in exchangeable cation species were shown to be less likely to affect the dissolution behavior of montmorillonite.
Masuda, Kaoru*; Murakami, Hiroshi*; Kurimoto, Noritaka*; Kato, Osamu*; Kato, Ko*; Honda, Akira
SpringerPlus (Internet), 2, p.339_1 - 339_13, 2013/07
Some of the low level radioactive wastes from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels contain nitrates. Nitrates can be present in the form of soluble salts and be reduced by microorganisms. In this study, experiments of the nitrate reduction reaction were conducted using model organic materials purported to exist in underground conditions relevant to geological disposal. A reaction model was developed and verified by running simulations against data obtained from experiments using actual groundwaters and microorganisms. The simulation showed a good correlation with the experimental data and contributes to the understanding of microbially mediated denitrification in geological disposal systems.
Oda, Chie; Honda, Akira; Takase, Hiroyasu*; Ozone, Kenji*; Sasaki, Ryoichi*; Yamaguchi, Kohei*; Sato, Tsutomu*
Nendo Kagaku, 51(2), p.34 - 49, 2013/02
Proposed TRU repository designs for geological disposal envisage the use of a bentonite buffer to limit the migration of radionuclides by impeding groundwater flow. Under highly alkaline conditions due to cementitious materials could cause a complex series of coupled changes in the porewater chemistry, mineralogy and, ultimately, the mass transport properties of the bentonite buffer. To elucidate the consequences of these coupled changes, reactive-transport model analyses have been conducted for eight bentonite alteration test cases using different combinations of secondary minerals that could form in the bentonite buffer. It was found that after 100,000 years the amount of dissolved bentonite was at a maximum when metastable secondary minerals precipitated. It was also found that the diffusion and hydraulic coefficients after 100,000 years in all test cases were on the same order of magnitude as the initial values.
Hase, Yoshihiro; Nozawa, Shigeki; Okada, Tomoyuki*; Asami, Itsuo*; Nagatani, Takeshi*; Matsuo, Yoichi*; Kanazawa, Akira*; Honda, Kazushige*; Narumi, Issei
JAEA-Review 2012-046, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2011, P. 95, 2013/01